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Botox, themself and slugs Corpus Methods in Many Places Adam Kilgarriff Lexical Computing Ltd.

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Presentation on theme: "Botox, themself and slugs Corpus Methods in Many Places Adam Kilgarriff Lexical Computing Ltd."— Presentation transcript:

1 Botox, themself and slugs Corpus Methods in Many Places Adam Kilgarriff Lexical Computing Ltd

2 Corpus: a collection of texts How people talk about X Indirect evidence of ▫How people think about X

3 Case study 1: botox Trade mark infringement ▫Allergan Inc own the mark botox ▫Competitor Klein Becker used it in advertising ▫Allergan sued ▫Klein Becker counter-case  Botox is a generic word so cannot be a mark

4 Well-known past cases In English-speaking world ▫hoover ▫kleenex ▫aspirin ▫biro Fracophonie: ▫bic

5 Linguistic question When is a word generic and when is it name-like Linguistic ‘expert witness’

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7 Lots of evidence This corpus: 876 hits ▫UKWAC: web-crawled, 1.5 b words, 2006  Formal  Informal  News  Blogs  Jokes  Advertising

8 Linguistic features Prototypical for brands ▫Pre-modifier  Adidas trainers ▫Limited integration into linguistic system

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11 Capitalisation

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13 Native speakers think of is as a name ▫they capitalise else not unless ▫beginning of sentence ▫heading Professional writers ▫Capitalise if it is a trademark  or risk being sued

14 Capitalisation But what is the norm? ▫all nouns in UKWaC (freq>50) ▫how often capitalised?

15 Adam Kilgarriff15 English nouns: % capitalized

16 Capitalisation U-shaped distribution ▫Most types  Names  At or near to 100% capitalised ▫Most tokens  Common nouns  Under 50% ▫50-95% not many items

17 WordFrequency% caps Trademark words Colgate Vauxhall Asda Budweiser Boeing Levis Sanyo Ikea Nivea Odeon Contended Sabatier Botox Generic words Ribbon Debacle Itch Macaque Peephole Reunion Schoolboy Fossil Housewife Ferry

18 Case study 1: botox Trade mark infringement ▫Allergan Inc own the mark botox ▫Competitor Klein Becker used it in advertising ▫Allergan sued ▫Klein Becker counter-case  Botox is a generic word so cannot be a mark

19 Case study 2: Bible Translation Themself ▫BNC ▫Ukwac: 389, 0.1/m ▫08: /m ▫12: 11, /m

20 Case study 3: Species Which species deserve preserving ▫Rhino vs. roach

21 cat + dog 0.76 ▫feed,own,love,want,give,allow,adopt,keep,leave,bring,see ▫train,have,get,find,help horse + dog,cat ▫feed,own,love,help,give,breed,keep,leave,bring,see,train, allow,put,get,name donkey + pony ▫saddle,pet,ride,groom,hitch,domesticate,tether lion + wolf ▫shoot,feed,hunt,resemble,breed,spot,tame,kill,encounter ▫chase roach + snail ▫repel,squash crocodile + alligator ▫wrestle,stuff,spot,embroider,tame goose + pigeon ▫feed,breed,pluck,deter,stuff,slaughter,roast,chase

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