Presentation on theme: "GAA Spring Workshop February 27, 2015 Kim M. Allerton, President"— Presentation transcript:
1Balancing Wildlife Hazard Concerns and Stormwater Management at Airports GAA Spring WorkshopFebruary 27, 2015Kim M. Allerton, PresidentEnvironmental Resource Solutions, Inc.
2Most Famous Bird Strike: “Miracle on the Hudson” January 15, 2009
3History: Wildlife Hazards at Airports Documented since 1905Tracked by USDA/FAA since 1990Since 1960:160 civil aircraft destroyed49 destroyed from 2001 through aloneGlobally, wildlife strikes have killed more than 250 people and destroyed over 229 aircraft sinceDramatic INCREASE in strikes over the last 50 years... WHY?
4History: Wildlife Hazards at Airports Three major reasons for an increase in wildlife strikes:Aircraft are built to fly quieter and more efficiently than in the pastAirplane travel is commonplace worldwide = a lot more planesEnvironmental protection legislation (from 1960s to present) is working! Unprecedented period of successful population recovery for deer, geese, pelicans, eagles, alligators, etc.
5FAA National Wildlife Strike Database (wildlife.faa.gov) Began in 1990, made public in 2009Approximately 40% of all wildlife strikes are reported1990 = 1,851 reported strikes2012 = 10,726 reported strikesBirds involved in 97% of all strikesDamaging strikes have decreased!764 in 2000 and only 606 in 2012
6FAA National Wildlife Strike Database (wildlife.faa.gov) Species-groups that cause the most damage to aircraft:WaterfowlGullsRaptorsDeer
7Stormwater Regulations and Requirements Direct conflict between mitigating stormwater run-off and discouraging wildlife from using airfieldsRetention BasinDetention BasinConveyance swales/ditches/canalsLittoral Zones
8ACRP 09-08 Balancing Airport Stormwater and Wildlife Hazard Management: Analysis Tools and Guidance
9Problem StatementAirports are required to manage the quantity and quality of stormwater within their property to comply with a variety of federal, state, and local regulations. These requirements drive the need for stormwater best management practices (BMPs), many of which can be classified as hazardous wildilfe attractants due to their attraction of wildlife that poses a strike risk to aircraft, including water-dependent birds. Simultaneously, the FAA requires that airports provide for the safety of aircraft operations. Airports are in the need of guidance, tools, and further research to facilitate understanding of potential wildlife risk factors and decision making to mitigate these risk factors.
10Objectives of ACRP 09-08Develop tools and guidance for Airports that identify and evaluate stormwater management options and provide a set of best management practices to minimize hazards posed to aviation by birds. Tools and guidance should include:Synthesis of existing airport stormwater management options.Review of Federal guidance and regulations pertaining to stormwater management, wetlands, hazards posed to aviation by wildlife, and natural resource conservation relevant to airport stormwater management options, including a discussion of any ambiguities/conflicts among them.Sample checklist of potential state and/or local environmental considerations that apply to stormwater management and may conflict with wildlife hazard management.A bird strike risk analysis tool to provide a risk score for each stormwater management option considered.A stormwater management decision tool to allow users to identify a preferred stormwater management plan using the results from the bird strike risk analysis tool.A minimum of 2 case studies.Stakeholder outreach materials.
11Approach to Tool Development Safety Management Systems (SMS) Risk Process Steps:Step 1 - Describe the system (Stormwater BMP);Step 2 - Identify the hazards (Birds);Step 3 - Determine the risk;Step 4 - Assess and analyze the risk;Step 5 - Treat the RiskStep 6 - Manage the Risk
12Risk is the product of two factors: LIKELIHOOD&SEVERITY
13Risk Matrix Based on FAA 8040.4A “Safety Risk Management Policy” 5 X 5 MatrixHigh Risk Levels modified to be more consistent with other models and SMS Pilot ProcessBased on Likelihood (Frequency/Probability) and SeverityLikelihood = based on proximity of birds and their history of proximity to aircraftSeverity = based on size and number of birds (Mass) and the attractiveness of the stormwater feature to the MassMultiple factors of EachEach Factor independently adds to the Total RiskThree levels of RiskLow, Moderate, HighWithin each level, relative risk is quantified
14Definition of Risk Levels Example Consequences to AircraftSuggested ActionsL (Low):Risk < 5Mitigation may not be necessaryNone or minor flight delay, no injuries, damage can be repaired immediatelyControls such as elimination, substitution, isolation, and barriers are still preferable, but these hazards may rely more on warnings, administrative and other devices that may require operator intervention.M (Moderate):5 < Risk < 15Mitigate on a priority basisMajor flight delay, change planes, injuriesControls such as elimination, substitution, and engineering controls are preferable. If reliance on warnings and administrative controls only, these should be redundant to additional controls, or additional barriers, guards and other protective devices. Continuously monitor controls for effectiveness.H (High):Risk > 15Mitigation is requiredLoss of Aircraft. Loss of life.Use controls or multiples of controls, such as elimination, substitution, or engineering controls, controls with built in redundancies, physical devices that do not require adjustment or operator intervention, or provide positive, ongoing indicators of operation. Continuously monitor controls for effectiveness.
16Severity Factors from Risk Matrix Species: Select species of greatest concern and tool auto-populates standardized relative hazard score (Devault et. al., 2011)BMP – Perimeter Irregularity: The ratio of the pond perimeter to the perimeter of a perfect circle of equal areaBMP – Apparent Slope to Water’s Edge: Horizontal run (H): Vertical rise (V)BMP- Proximity of Water Bodies (from each other): Distance between additional water bodies (i.e. natural or manmade ponds/wetlands/rivers) in the vicinity of the surface water being evaluated in the tool. Use closest water body.BMP – Percentage of stormwater vegetation coverage: ow:ew is the ratio of area of open water to area of emergent and woody vegetation
17Likelihood Factors from Risk Matrix History of Observations: How often the species of concern is observed by airport staffProximity of Bird Sightings: Where the species are being observed in relation to the runwayHistory of Strikes: Total percentage of strikes from strike database for species being evaluated (only evaluate strike data within the last 5 years)Proximity of BMP to airport movement areas: where is the BMP in relation to the AOA (using FAA recommended separation distances from AC 150/ B)
19Mitigations (aka Controls) Mitigations, both existing and new, impact initial and residual risk, respectively.Hierarchy of Mitigations include:Elimination (most effective)SubstitutionEngineeringWarningsAdministrative (least effective)Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) concepts were used to determine the risk reductions that can be applied for MitigationsRisk reduction increases if the mitigation is ongoing as opposed to applied at the time of sighting only (e.g. an effigy on display is “ongoing” whereas shooting to kill is “upon sighting only”)
27Regulatory BMP Drivers BMPs driven by federal, state, local requirementsRequirements vary significantly by locationVariability in design criteria for BMPs:Allowable BMP typesRequired functionsDesign storms / sizingBMP shape and dimensionsPermanent pool / drawdown timeVegetationReviewed 5 local manuals, 5 state manuals, all in different FAA regionsVariation in regulations depends on local water resource issues, e.g., receiving water impairments, protected species, designated uses, soil characteristics, etc.Some manuals require emphasis on infiltration (eg Portland), others have no requirements (eg Columbus).Some manuals like Roanoke require permanent pools for WQ, others like Memphis allow other forms of treatment (forebay, stormwater quality inlet)Memphis TN prohibits underground detentionPeak flow requirements vary – Columbus 100 post to 10 pre, Portland waives to large streams, Other manuals match post to preSome manuals require minimum detention volume (eg RIDEM), others do not
28FAA Wildlife AC 150/FAA criteria for water management facilities:< 48 hour drawdown, no standing waterLinear edgeLong and NarrowSteep side slopesEliminate attractive vegetationSeparation criteriaFAA criteria applicable to variety of BMP typesLocal/state criteria sometimes conflicts with FAAConflicts are not predictable by BMP typeSeparation – 10,000 ft outside AOA (turbine-powered aircraft) or 5,000 ft outside (piston)
29BMP Conclusions for Tool FAA compliance requires evaluation of BMP characteristics, regardless of BMP typeLocal requirements for BMP types varyBMP designs may vary from requirements, due to site constraints or FAA ACCharacteristics that attract or deter wildlife can be incorporated into any type of BMPTool defines BMPs in terms of characteristics with potential to attract wildlife, rather than BMP typeTool may be used to discuss conflicts with regulators and effect on bird strike risk
30Problem? Conflicting Missions of Regulatory Agencies FAAUSFWSUSACE & EPAUSDANPSUSFSNMFSDODSTATE Agencies
31Wildlife Hazard Mitigation and Natural Resources: Moving Forward In 2003, FAA entered into MOA with 5 federal agencies:U.S. Air ForceU.S. ArmyEPAUSFWSUSDA WSMOA implies that these agencies must try to better unite their missions for the benefit of aviation safety
32Stormwater Regulations and Requirements MOA is federal level only and water quality is often regulated by state agenciesNorth Carolina passed Senate Bill 229 in 2011Section 6 directs the Dept. of Environment and Natural Resources to accept alternative measures of stormwater control at airports (i.e. no ponds or standing water) AND...Ponds are no longer required at development sites within 5 miles of an AOA