Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Current R&D Initiatives in Cybersecurity UMD / Google College Park, MD December 1, 2011 Dept. of Homeland Security Science & Technology Directorate Douglas.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Current R&D Initiatives in Cybersecurity UMD / Google College Park, MD December 1, 2011 Dept. of Homeland Security Science & Technology Directorate Douglas."— Presentation transcript:

1 Current R&D Initiatives in Cybersecurity UMD / Google College Park, MD December 1, 2011 Dept. of Homeland Security Science & Technology Directorate Douglas Maughan, Ph.D. Division Director Cyber Security Division Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency (HSARPA) 202-254-6145 / 202-360-3170

2 Cyberspace Definitions 12 October 20112 “Cyberspace is [our nation’s critical infrastructures’] nervous system—the control system of our country. Cyberspace is composed of hundreds of thousands of interconnected computers, servers, routers, switches, and fiber optic cables that allow our critical infrastructures to work.” National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace, 2003 “Cyberspace means the interdependent network of IT infrastructures, and includes the internet, telecomms networks, computer systems, and embedded processors and controllers in critical industries” NSPD 54, 8 Jan 2008 “A cyber environment includes users, networks, devices, all software, processes, information in storage or transit, applications, services, and systems that can be connected directly or indirectly to networks. International Telecommunications Union X.1205, Overview of Cybersecurity, Oct 2008 “The terms cyber security and information assurance refer to measures for protecting computer systems, networks, and information from disruption or unauthorized access, use, disclosure, modification, or destruction.” Federal Plan for Cyber Security and Information Assurance Research and Development, Apr 2006 “The interdependent network of information and communications technology infrastructures, including the Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems and networks, and embedded processors and controllers in facilities and industries.” White House Cyberspace Policy Review, May 2009

3 3 Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative (CNCI) Reduce the Number of Trusted Internet Connections Deploy Passive Sensors Across Federal Systems Pursue Deployment of Automated Defense Systems Coordinate and Redirect R&D Efforts Establish a front line of defense Connect Current Centers to Enhance Situational Awareness Develop Gov’t-wide Counterintelligence Plan for Cyber Increase Security of the Classified Networks Expand Education Resolve to secure cyberspace / set conditions for long-term success Define and Develop Enduring Leap Ahead Technologies, Strategies & Programs Define and Develop Enduring Deterrence Strategies & Programs Manage Global Supply Chain Risk Cyber Security in Critical Infrastructure Domains Shape future environment / secure U.S. advantage / address new threats 1 December 20113

4 NITRD Structure for Cybersecurity R&D Coordination 4 National Coordination Office for NITRD National Science and Technology Council NITRD Subcommittee OMBOSTP Cyber Security and Information Assurance Interagency Working Group (CSIA IWG) Special Cyber Operations Research and Engineering (SCORE) Interagency Working Group Cybersecurity R&D Senior Steering Group Senior representatives from agencies conducting NIT R&D Senior representatives from agencies with national cybersecurity missions National security systems R&D Program managers with cybersecurity R&D portfolios 1 December 2011

5 Agency / OrgResearch AgendaResearchersCustomers / Consumers National Science Foundation (NSF) SW engineering/protection, HW/FW security, mobile wireless and sensor networks, trustworthy computing ; Several academic centers Academics and Non- Profits Basic Research - No specific customers Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Mostly classified; unclassified topics are focused on basic research; National Cyber Range Few academics; large system integrators; research and government labs Mostly DOD; most solutions are GOTS, not COTS National Security Agency (NSA) Information Assurance Automation (ISAP), SELinux; Networking theory; CAEIAE centers Mostly in-houseIntelligence community; some NSA internal; some open source Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency (IARPA) Automatic Privacy Protection (APP,) Securely Taking on New Executable Software of Uncertain Provenance (STONESOUP) Mostly research labs, system integrators, and national labs; Some academics Intelligence community National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) Trusted Identities in Cyberspace, National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education (NICE) In-house; Most R&D funding comes from other agencies Federal agencies with some impact on state and locals Department of Homeland Security (DHS) S&T All unclassified; Secure Internet Protocols; Process Control Systems (PCS), Emerging Threats, Insider Threat, Cyber Forensics; Software Assurance, Open Security Technologies, Next Generation Technologies Blend of academics, research and government labs, non- profits, private sector and small business DHS Components (including NPPD, USSS, FLETC, FEMA, ICE, CBP); CI/KR Sectors; USG and Internet and Private Sector 5 Federal Gov’t Cyber Research Community

6 Federal Cybersecurity Research and Development Program: Strategic Plan 1 December 20116

7 Federal Cybersecurity R&D Strategic Plan Research Themes  Tailored Trustworthy Spaces  Moving Target Defense  Cyber Economics and Incentives  Designed-In Security (New for FY12) Science of Cyber Security Transition to Practice  Technology Discovery  Test & Evaluation / Experimental Deployment  Transition / Adoption / Commercialization Support for National Priorities  Health IT, Smart Grid, NSTIC (Trusted Identity), NICE (Education), Financial Services 71 December 2011

8 Quadrennial Homeland Security Review 8 The Core Missions 1.Preventing terrorism and enhancing security; 2.Securing and managing our borders; 3.Enforcing and administering our immigration laws; 4.Safeguarding and securing cyberspace; and 5.Ensuring resilience to disasters. Mission 6: Maturing and Strengthening the Homeland Security Enterprise Foster Innovative Solutions Through Science and Technology Ensure scientifically informed analyses and decisions are coupled to effective technological solutions Conduct scientific assessments of threats and vulnerabilities Foster collaborative efforts involving government, academia, and the private sector to create innovative approaches to key homeland security challenges 1 December 2011

9 DHS S&T Mission Strengthen America’s security and resiliency by providing knowledge products and innovative technology solutions for the Homeland Security Enterprise 1 December 20119

10 Cyber Security Division (CSD) R&D Execution Model 10

11 Sample Product List Ironkey – Secure USB  Standard Issue to S&T employees from S&T CIO Coverity – Open Source Hardening (SCAN)  Analyzes 150+ open source software packages daily (later) USURF – Cyber Exercise Planning tool  Recently used in MA & WA state cyber exercises Secure64 – DNSSEC Automation  Several commercial customers; Government pilots underway HBGary – Memory and Malware Analysis  12-15 pilot deployments as part of Cyber Forensics program 1 December 201111

12 Sample Product List - 2 Grammatech – Binary Analysis tools  Used by several Intel agencies; commercially available Telcordia – Automated Vulnerability Analysis  In use by DOD, SEC GMU – Network Topology Analysis (Cauldron)  In use at FAA, several commercial customers Stanford – Anti-Phishing Technologies  Open source; most browsers have included Stanford R&D Secure Decisions – Data Visualization  Pilot with DHS/NCSD/US-CERT in progress 1 December 201112

13 1 December 201113 Cyber Security Program Areas Research Infrastructure to Support Cybersecurity (RISC) Trustworthy Cyber Infrastructure (TCI) Cyber Technology Evaluation and Transition (CTET) Foundational Elements of Cyber Systems (FECS) Cybersecurity User Protection and Education (CUPE)

14 Research Infrastructure (RISC) Experimental Research Testbed (DETER)  Researcher and vendor-neutral experimental infrastructure  DETER - Research Data Repository (PREDICT)  Repository of network data for use by the U.S.- based cyber security research community  PREDICT – https://www.predict.org Software Quality Assurance (SWAMP)  A software assurance testing and evaluation facility and the associated research infrastructure services 1 December 201114

15 Trustworthy Cyber Infrastructure Secure Protocols  DNSSEC – Domain Name System Security  SPRI – Secure Protocols for Routing Infrastructure Process Control Systems  LOGIIC – Linking Oil & Gas Industry to Improve Cybersecurity  TCIPG – Trustworthy Computing Infrastructure for the Power Grid Internet Measurement and Attack Modeling  Geographic mapping of Internet resources  Logically and/or physically connected maps of Internet resources  Monitoring and archiving of BGP route information 1 December 201115

16 Evaluation and Transition (CTET) Assessment and Evaluations  Red Teaming of DHS S&T-funded technologies Experiments and Pilots  Experimental Deployment of DHS S&T-funded technologies into operational environments Transition to Practice (CNCI)  New FY12 Initiative 1 December 201116

17 Foundational Elements (FECS) Enterprise Level Security Metrics and Usability Homeland Open Security Technology (HOST) Software Quality Assurance Cyber Economic Incentives (CNCI)  New FY12 Initiative Leap Ahead Technologies (CNCI) Moving Target Defense (CNCI)  New FY12 Initiative Tailored Trustworthy Spaces (CNCI)  New FY12 Initiative 1 December 201117

18 Cybersecurity Users (CUPE) Cyber Security Competitions  National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education (NICE)  NCCDC (Collegiate); U.S. Cyber Challenge (High School) Cyber Security Forensics  Support to DHS and other Law Enforcement customers Identity Management  National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC) Data Privacy Technologies  New Start in FY13 7-10 November 201118

19 DHS S&T Cybersecurity Program 1 December 201119 PEOPLE SYSTEMS INFRASTRUCTURE RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURE Secure Protocols Identity Management Enterprise Level Security Metrics & Usability Data Privacy Cyber Forensics Competitions Process Control Systems Internet Measurement & Attack Modeling Experimental Research Testbed (DETER) Research Data Repository (PREDICT) Software Quality Assurance (SWAMP) Software Quality Assurance Homeland Open Security Technology Experiments & Pilots Assessments & Evaluations Cyber Economic Incentives Moving Target Defense Tailored Trustworthy Spaces Leap Ahead Technologies Transition To Practice

20 7-10 November 201120 Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) FY04  Cross-Domain Attack Correlation Technologies (2)  Real-Time Malicious Code Identification (2)  Advanced SCADA and Related Distributed Control Systems (5) FY05  Hardware-assisted System Security Monitoring (4) FY06  Network-based Boundary Controllers (3)  Botnet Detection and Mitigation (4) FY07  Secure and Reliable Wireless Communication for Control Systems (2) FY09  Software Testing and Vulnerability Analysis (3) FY10  Large-Scale Network Survivability, Rapid Recovery, and Reconstitution (1) FY11  Mobile Device Forensics FY12  Moving Target Defense

21 7-10 November 201121 Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Important program for creating new innovation and accelerating transition into the marketplace Since 2004, DHS S&T Cyber Security has had:  60 Phase I efforts  27 Phase II efforts  4 Phase II efforts currently in progress  9 commercial/open source products available  Three acquisitions Komoku, Inc. (MD) acquired by Microsoft in March 2008 Endeavor Systems (VA) acquired by McAfee in January 2009 Solidcore (CA) acquired by McAfee in June 2009

22 HSARPA Cyber Security R&D Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) 11-02 Delivers both near-term and medium-term solutions  To develop new and enhanced technologies for the detection of, prevention of, and response to cyber attacks on the nation’s critical information infrastructure, based on customer requirements  To perform research and development (R&D) aimed at improving the security of existing deployed technologies and to ensure the security of new emerging cybersecurity systems;  To facilitate the transfer of these technologies into operational environments. Proposals Received According to 3 Levels of Technology Maturity 1 December 201122 Type I (New Technologies) Applied Research Phase Development Phase Demo in Op Environ. Funding ≤ $3M & 36 mos. Type II (Prototype Technologies) More Mature Prototypes Development Phase Demo in Op Environ. Funding ≤ $2M & 24 mos. Type III (Mature Technologies) Mature Technology Demo Only in Op Environ. Funding ≤ $750K & 12 mos. Note: Technology Demonstrations = Test, Evaluation, and Pilot deployment in DHS “customer” environments

23 1 December 201123 Technical Topic Areas (TTAs) TTA-1Software Assurance DHS, FSSCC TTA-2Enterprise-level Security MetricsDHS, FSSCC TTA-3Usable SecurityDHS, FSSCC TTA-4Insider ThreatDHS, FSSCC TTA-5Resilient Systems and NetworksDHS, FSSCC TTA-6 Modeling of Internet AttacksDHS TTA-7 Network Mapping and MeasurementDHS TTA-8 Incident Response Communities DHS TTA-9 Cyber Economics CNCI TTA-10Digital ProvenanceCNCI TTA-11Hardware-enabled TrustCNCI TTA-12Moving Target Defense CNCI TTA-13Nature-inspired Cyber HealthCNCI TTA-14Software Assurance MarketPlace S&T (SWAMP)

24 1 December 201124 Timeline of Past Research Reports 19971998200020012003200420052006199920022007 President’s Commission on CIP (PCCIP) NRC CSTB Trust in CyberspaceI3P R&D Agenda National Strategy to Secure CyberspaceComputing Research Association – 4 ChallengesNIAC Hardening the InternetPITAC - Cyber Security: A Crisis of PrioritizationIRC Hard Problems ListNSTC Federal Plan for CSIA R&DNRC CSTB Toward a Safer and More Secure Cyberspace All documents available at

25 1 December 201125 A Roadmap for Cybersecurity Research  Scalable Trustrworthy Systems  Enterprise Level Metrics  System Evaluation Lifecycle  Combatting Insider Threats  Combatting Malware and Botnets  Global-Scale Identity Management  Survivability of Time-Critical Systems  Situational Understanding and Attack Attribution  Information Provenance  Privacy-Aware Security  Usable Security

26 So what if I take over a botnet to do my research? An examination of the current state of Ethics in Information and Communications Technology Research 1 December 201126

27 What are ethics? “The field of ethics (or moral philosophy) involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior.” Normative ethics, is concerned with developing a set of morals or guiding principles intended to influence the conduct of individuals and groups within a population (i.e., a profession, a religion, or society at large). 1 December 201127

28 Ethics != Law “Law can be defined as a consistent set of universal rules that are widely published, generally accepted, and usually enforced” Interrelated but by no means identical (e.g., legal but not ethical, ethical but not legal)  Adherence to ethical principles may be required to meet regulatory requirements surrounding academic research  A law may illuminate the line between beneficial acts and harmful ones.  If the computer security research community develops ethical principals and standards that are acceptable to the profession and integrates those as standard practice, it makes it easier for legislatures and courts to effectively perform their functions. 1 December 201128

29 (Normative) Computer Ethics “A typical problem in computer ethics arises because there is a policy vacuum about how computer technology should be used. Computers provide us with new capabilities and these in turn give us new choices for action. Often, either no policies for conduct in these situations exist or existing policies seem inadequate. A central task of computer ethics is to determine what we should do in such cases, i.e., to formulate policies to guide our actions.” - James Moor, 1985 1 December 201129

30 The Belmont Report IRBs help ensure that research conforms with the ethical principles of the Belmont Report "Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research”, US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, April 18,1979 1 December 201130

31 What is the role of an IRB? Institutional Review Board (IRBs) are responsible for:  Protecting “human subjects” involved in research Proper informed consent – or waiver of consent Special protections for vulnerable populations Strong privacy and confidentiality protections Can allow deception in some research IRBs generally review medical or social/behavioral/educational research, not network/security research. Question: Should the IRB review network/security research? 1 December 201131

32 What is a “human subject” ? The Federal human subjects regulations (45 CFR 46.102(f)) define a human subject as: “a living individual about whom an investigator…conducting research obtains either: (1) data through intervention or interaction with the individual -OR- (2) identifiable private information.” 1 December 201132

33 What is Network and Security Research? Network and Security Research, or Information Communication Technology (ICT) Research involves: the collection, use and disclosure of information collected via networks or using hardware and software associated with information technology Examples include: Phishing experiments Botnets Honeypots Analysis of internet network traffic 1 December 201133

34 Ethical Challenges in ICT Research ICT research differs from traditional human subjects research which poses new ethical challenges: Interactions with humans are often indirect with intervening technology It is often not feasible to obtain informed consent Deception may be necessary There are varying degrees of linkage between data and individuals’ identities for behaviors Researchers can easily engage millions of “subjects” and billions of associated data “objects” simultaneously. 1 December 201134

35 Comparing ICTR and Medical Research How is ICTR like researching health issues?  Identity of subjects  Risk of harm to subjects  Subjects of research are also the beneficiaries How is ICTR not like researching health issues?  Research “subjects” could be criminals, their tools, or computers owned by innocent 3 rd parties  Researchers are sometimes indistinguishable from criminals controlling a botnet  Viruses/cancers don’t adapt due to our publications  Harm primarily financial, but unintended consequences could affect uninvolved 3 rd parties (and their customers) 1 December 201135

36 The Menlo Report "Ethical Principles Guiding Information and Communication Technology Research” Supported by US Department of Homeland Security (unpublished 2011). Belmont PrincipleMenlo Application Respect for Persons  Identify stakeholders  Informed consent Beneficence  Identify potential benefits and harms  Balance risks and benefits  Mitigate realized harms Justice  Fairness and equity Additional Menlo Principle: Respect for the Law and Public Interest  Compliance  Transparency and accountability 1 December 201136

37 Problem: The U.S. is not producing enough computer scientists and CS degrees CS/CE enrollments are down 50% from 5 years ago 1 CS jobs are growing faster than the national average 2 1 Taulbee Survey 2006-2007, Computer Research Association, May 2008 Computing Research News, Vol. 20/No. 3 2 Nicholas Terrell, Bureau of Labor Statistics, STEM Occupations, Occupational Outlook Quarterly, Spring 2007 Taulbee Survey, CRABLS Computer Science/STEM have been the basis for American growth for 60 years The gap in production of CS threatens continued growth and also national security Defense, DHS, CNCI and industry all need more CS and CE competencies now Our Education Problem 1 December 201137

38 National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education (NICE) National Cybersecurity Awareness (Lead: DHS).  Public service campaigns to promote cybersecurity and responsible use of the Internet Formal Cybersecurity Education (Co-Leads: DoEd and OSTP).  Education programs encompassing K-12, higher education, and vocational programs related to cybersecurity Federal Cybersecurity Workforce Structure (Lead: OPM).  Defining government cybersecurity jobs and skills and competencies required.  New strategies to ensure federal agencies attract, recruit, and retain skilled employees to accomplish cybersecurity missions. Cybersecurity Workforce Training and Professional Development (Tri-Leads: DoD, ODNI, DHS).  Cybersecurity training and professional development required for federal government civilian, military, and contractor personnel. 1 December 201138

39 1 December 201139 CCDC Mission The mission of the Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition (CCDC) system is to provide institutions with an information assurance or computer security curriculum a controlled, competitive environment to assess a student's depth of understanding and operational competency in managing the challenges inherent in protecting a corporate network infrastructure and business information systems. CCDC Events are designed to:  Build a meaningful mechanism by which institutions of higher education may evaluate their current educational programs  Provide an educational venue in which students are able to apply the theory and practical skills they have learned in their course work  Foster a spirit of teamwork, ethical behavior, and effective communication both within and across teams  Create interest and awareness among participating institutions and students

40 1 December 201140 U.S. Cyber Challenge DC3 Digital Forensics Challenge  An Air Force Association national high school cyber defense competition CyberPatriot Defense Competition  A Department of Defense Cyber Crime Center competition focusing on cyber investigation and forensics Netwars Capture-the-Flag Competition  A SANS Institute challenge testing mastery of vulnerabilities

41 Summary Cybersecurity research is a key area of innovation needed to support our future DHS S&T continues with an aggressive cyber security research agenda  Working to solve the cyber security problems of our current (and future) infrastructure and systems  Working with academe and industry to improve research tools and datasets  Looking at future R&D agendas with the most impact for the nation, including education Need to continue strong emphasis on technology transfer and experimental deployments 1 December 201141

42 1 December 201142 For more information, visit Douglas Maughan, Ph.D. Division Director Cyber Security Division Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency (HSARPA) 202-254-6145 / 202-360-3170

Download ppt "Current R&D Initiatives in Cybersecurity UMD / Google College Park, MD December 1, 2011 Dept. of Homeland Security Science & Technology Directorate Douglas."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google