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1. What were the causes of the Civil War? 2. Was the Civil War preventable? Give an argument why or why not.

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Presentation on theme: "1. What were the causes of the Civil War? 2. Was the Civil War preventable? Give an argument why or why not."— Presentation transcript:

1 1. What were the causes of the Civil War? 2. Was the Civil War preventable? Give an argument why or why not.


3 «He was what Beethoven was in music, Dante in poetry, Raphael in painting, the Christ in the philosophy of life…» Leo Tolstoy

4 Born February 12 th, 1809 In a log cabin near Hodgenville, Kentucky Son of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln Moved to Indiana at age 7 Mother dies in 1818 from milk sickness Father remarries to Sarah Bush Johnston

5 Lincoln loved to read Preferred reading to working in the fields Led to difficult relationship with his father Borrowed books from neighbors

6 The Lincolns moved again in 1830 Illinois Lived in New Salem, Illinois until 1837 Worked odd jobs – store clerk, surveying, and postmaster Impressed residents with his character Earned nickname “Honest Abe”

7 Henry Clay was Kentucky's most prominent nineteenth-century politician. He was Abraham Lincoln's political idol.

8 Met Mary Todd in Springfield, IL in 1839 Married her in 1842 Next eleven years 4 children Robert, Edward, William (Willie), and Thomas (Tad)


10 Abraham Lincoln's wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, was from Lexington, Kentucky. She was one of the best-educated women of her era, and her support, encouragement, and vast political knowledge helped Lincoln become our nation's sixteenth president.

11 Lincoln reportedly wept when his brother-in-law, Ben Hardin Helm, was killed while fighting for the Confederacy. Lincoln's family, like the nation, was divided during the Civil War.



14 1832 – Lincoln unsuccessful in run for Illinois legislature 1834, 1836, 1838, 1840 – won these races for Illinois legislature Member of the Whig party (remained a Whig until 1856) Studied law in spare time, became lawyer in 1836

15 “The probability that we may fall in the struggle ought not to deter us from the support of a cause we believe to be just; it shall not deter me.” Speech on the Sub-Treasury, IL House of Representatives 12-26- 1839

16 1846 – Lincoln elected to the House of Representatives Opposed the Mexican War Opposed slavery After his term was over, he returned to Illinois to practice law

17 Made unsuccessful attempt for seat in the Senate in 1854 1856 – received support for Republican Vice- Presidential nomination Opposed the Dred Scott decision


19 1858 – Lincoln challenges Stephen Douglas (Compromise of 1850) for Illinois US Senate seat Debated Slavery

20 Stephen Douglas “The Little Giant” 5’ 1” tall Freeport Doctrine – slavery decided by popular sovereignty Slavery was not morally wrong Abraham Lincoln Little known lawyer Abolitionist 6’ 4” tall Slavery was morally wrong

21 1. Expansion of slavery 2. Popular sovereignty 3. Dred Scott decision 4. Freeport Doctrine 5. African-American Citizenship

22 “A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half-slave and half- free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved – I do not expect the house to fall – but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all the one thing or all the other.” House Divided Speech in Springfield, IL 3-4-1858



25 Lincoln is thrust into the national spotlight as a abolitionist leader Leading Republican

26 4 Major Candidates (including Lincoln) John Breckinridge (KY) – Southern Democrat Stephen Douglas (IL) – Northern Democrat Sen. John Bell (TN) – Constitutional Unionists (Whigs)

27 Abraham Lincoln, IL—turned out had strongest hand: was former anti-slavery Whig in a party full of these had reputation as a moderate had opposed Know Nothings had reputation for integrity and honesty embodied ideology of upward mobility came from crucial state

28 Nominate Abraham Lincoln (R – Illinois)

29 Unique in American history because came down to two separate races: Lincoln vs. Douglas in the North and Breckinridge vs. Bell in the South in 10 southern states, Lincoln did not even have a ticket and in 5 remaining slave states received 4% of popular vote Lincoln won by carrying northern states plus OR and CA— purely sectional victory with less than 40% of popular vote






35 Photograph showing March 4, 1861 inauguration of Abraham Lincoln in front of U.S. Capitol, which was undergoing construction



38 Leave the Union Southern State Legislatures vote to pass “Articles of Secession” 7 states secede before Lincoln’s Inauguration 12/20/1860 – SC 1/9/1861 – MS 1/10/1861 – FL 1/11/1861 – AL 1/19/1861 – GA 1/26/1861 – LA 2/1/1861 – TX 3/4/1861 – Lincoln is Inaugurated

39  On December 20, 1860, South Carolina became the first state to secede.  They were followed by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas.  The eleven states that had seceded formed the Confederate States of America.  They named Jefferson Davis as president.  They wrote a new Constitution which made slavery legal.


41 Government similar to the Union Constitution nearly identical, except: State Sovereignty Slavery as a right of whites President limited to one six year term President had “Line-Item” veto

42 Army of N. Virginia Battle Flag. Became the symbol of Confederacy and included all states in it as stars. Question: What does this flag represent to you?

43 Jefferson Davis Alexander Stephens

44 Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederacy, was also born in Kentucky. Before the Civil War, he was a planter, soldier, politician, and U.S. Secretary of War. He died in 1889.

45 North Factories Population Railroads (70%) Telegraph Money Navy South Great Leaders (Robert E. Lee, “Stonewall” Jackson) Home Field Advantage Southerner’s believed in the cause Defensive War Indian Tribes Did not have to win, only tie Cotton and Tobacco

46 1. Increased Sectionalism 2. Tariffs 3. State’s Rights 4. Preservation of the Union 5. Westward Movement 6. Slavery 7. Election of 1860


48 Was the Civil War about slavery? Why or why not? How did the election of 1860 lead to the separation of the South from the North?

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