«He was what Beethoven was in music, Dante in poetry, Raphael in painting, the Christ in the philosophy of life…» Leo Tolstoy
Born February 12 th, 1809 In a log cabin near Hodgenville, Kentucky Son of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln Moved to Indiana at age 7 Mother dies in 1818 from milk sickness Father remarries to Sarah Bush Johnston
Lincoln loved to read Preferred reading to working in the fields Led to difficult relationship with his father Borrowed books from neighbors
The Lincolns moved again in 1830 Illinois Lived in New Salem, Illinois until 1837 Worked odd jobs – store clerk, surveying, and postmaster Impressed residents with his character Earned nickname “Honest Abe”
Henry Clay was Kentucky's most prominent nineteenth-century politician. He was Abraham Lincoln's political idol.
Met Mary Todd in Springfield, IL in 1839 Married her in 1842 Next eleven years 4 children Robert, Edward, William (Willie), and Thomas (Tad)
Abraham Lincoln's wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, was from Lexington, Kentucky. She was one of the best-educated women of her era, and her support, encouragement, and vast political knowledge helped Lincoln become our nation's sixteenth president.
Lincoln reportedly wept when his brother-in-law, Ben Hardin Helm, was killed while fighting for the Confederacy. Lincoln's family, like the nation, was divided during the Civil War.
1832 – Lincoln unsuccessful in run for Illinois legislature 1834, 1836, 1838, 1840 – won these races for Illinois legislature Member of the Whig party (remained a Whig until 1856) Studied law in spare time, became lawyer in 1836
“The probability that we may fall in the struggle ought not to deter us from the support of a cause we believe to be just; it shall not deter me.” Speech on the Sub-Treasury, IL House of Representatives 12-26- 1839
1846 – Lincoln elected to the House of Representatives Opposed the Mexican War Opposed slavery After his term was over, he returned to Illinois to practice law
Made unsuccessful attempt for seat in the Senate in 1854 1856 – received support for Republican Vice- Presidential nomination Opposed the Dred Scott decision
1858 – Lincoln challenges Stephen Douglas (Compromise of 1850) for Illinois US Senate seat Debated Slavery
Stephen Douglas “The Little Giant” 5’ 1” tall Freeport Doctrine – slavery decided by popular sovereignty Slavery was not morally wrong Abraham Lincoln Little known lawyer Abolitionist 6’ 4” tall Slavery was morally wrong
1. Expansion of slavery 2. Popular sovereignty 3. Dred Scott decision 4. Freeport Doctrine 5. African-American Citizenship
“A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half-slave and half- free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved – I do not expect the house to fall – but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all the one thing or all the other.” House Divided Speech in Springfield, IL 3-4-1858
Lincoln is thrust into the national spotlight as a abolitionist leader Leading Republican
4 Major Candidates (including Lincoln) John Breckinridge (KY) – Southern Democrat Stephen Douglas (IL) – Northern Democrat Sen. John Bell (TN) – Constitutional Unionists (Whigs)
Abraham Lincoln, IL—turned out had strongest hand: was former anti-slavery Whig in a party full of these had reputation as a moderate had opposed Know Nothings had reputation for integrity and honesty embodied ideology of upward mobility came from crucial state
Unique in American history because came down to two separate races: Lincoln vs. Douglas in the North and Breckinridge vs. Bell in the South in 10 southern states, Lincoln did not even have a ticket and in 5 remaining slave states received 4% of popular vote Lincoln won by carrying northern states plus OR and CA— purely sectional victory with less than 40% of popular vote
Leave the Union Southern State Legislatures vote to pass “Articles of Secession” 7 states secede before Lincoln’s Inauguration 12/20/1860 – SC 1/9/1861 – MS 1/10/1861 – FL 1/11/1861 – AL 1/19/1861 – GA 1/26/1861 – LA 2/1/1861 – TX 3/4/1861 – Lincoln is Inaugurated
On December 20, 1860, South Carolina became the first state to secede. They were followed by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. The eleven states that had seceded formed the Confederate States of America. They named Jefferson Davis as president. They wrote a new Constitution which made slavery legal.
Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederacy, was also born in Kentucky. Before the Civil War, he was a planter, soldier, politician, and U.S. Secretary of War. He died in 1889.
North Factories Population Railroads (70%) Telegraph Money Navy South Great Leaders (Robert E. Lee, “Stonewall” Jackson) Home Field Advantage Southerner’s believed in the cause Defensive War Indian Tribes Did not have to win, only tie Cotton and Tobacco
1. Increased Sectionalism 2. Tariffs 3. State’s Rights 4. Preservation of the Union 5. Westward Movement 6. Slavery 7. Election of 1860