Presentation on theme: "Crimes What is a Crime???? Punishable offense against society."— Presentation transcript:
1Crimes What is a Crime???? Punishable offense against society. Designed to protect society from the criminal.
2Elements of Criminal Acts Whether you had a duty imposed by a criminal statute to do (or not to do) a certain thing.Whether you performed an act or omission in violation of that duty.Whether or not you had Criminal Intent.
3ElementsDuty: Everyone has a DUTY to abide by the law. If not, you might be charged with a crime.Violation of the Duty: a BREACH of Duty is a criminal act (i.e. causing bodily harm, robbery, etc.)Criminal Intent: this determines the level of seriousness (i.e. 1st degree murder vs. manslaughter. Typically have to be 18, and it’s the state of mind and motive behind the act.
4Corporations are legal entities and they can posses criminal intent: Business CrimesCorporations are legal entities and they can posses criminal intent:If corporations employees have criminal intent.If employees were doing assigned duties and criminal acts benefited the corporation
5BusinessesIf a corporation’s employees commit a crime corporate officers can be held criminally responsible. (Doctrine of Vicarious Criminal Liability)Vicarious means substituted.
7ProblemDavis, the chief accountant of the Del Norte Credit Union, cleverly juggled the company records over a period of years. During that time, she took at least $35,000 belonging to the credit union. When the theft was discovered by outside auditors, Davis repaid the money with interest. Has she committed a crime despite the repayment?Yes, regardless of repayment, she has committed the initial crime.
8Types of Criminal Conduct Crimes AgainstType of CrimeA personAssault and battery, kidnapping, rape, murderPropertyTheft, robbery, embezzlement ($$)Government and administration of justiceTreason, tax evasion, perjuryPublic peace and orderRioting, disorderly conduct, illegal speedingRealtyBurglary, arson, criminal trespassConsumersFraudulent sale of securities, violation of pure food and drug lawsDecencyBigamy, obscenity, prostitutionAssault--causing a victim to fear violenceBattery--criminal offense involving unlawful physical contact, distinct from assault which is the fear of such contactTheft--illegal taking of another person's property without that person's permission or consent Robbery--taking or attempting to take something of value by force or threat of force or by putting the victim in fear.Treason--covers some of the more extreme acts against one's sovereign or nationBurglary--illicit entry into a building for the purposes of committing an offense
10What Country has the lowest crime rate? Watch This!
11Who will investigate Crimes? The police will investigate criminal matters, but will not investigate civil matters.
123 Classifications of Crimes Felony –Serious crime punishable by either confinement for more than 1 year in state prison or by executionMisdemeanorLess serious crime punishable by:Confinement in county and city jail less than 1 year.FineBothInfractionslesser misdemeanors that if convicted can only result in fines. NOTE: A person charges with an infraction is not entitled to trial by jury since they cannot be imprisoned. (Parking, Littering)
13STATES WITH THE DEATH PENALTY Alabama Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Idaho Indiana Kansas KentuckyLouisiana Maryland Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire North Carolina Ohio Oklahoma OregonPennsylvania South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Virginia Washington Wyoming ALSO - U.S. Gov't - U.S. MilitarySTATES WITHOUT THE DEATH PENALTY (YEAR ABOLISHED IN PARENTHESES)Alaska (1957) Hawaii (1957) Illinois (2011) Iowa (1965) Maine (1887) Massachusetts (1984) Michigan (1846)Minnesota (1911) New Jersey (2007) New Mexico* (2009) New York (2007)# North Dakota (1973) Rhode Island (1984)** Vermont (1964)West Virginia (1965) Wisconsin (1853) ALSO - Dist. of Columbia (1981)
14ActivityWith a partner classify the following as either a FELONY or MISDEMEANOR and explain your answers.Animal CrueltyTheftPublic DrunkennessTerrorismTrespassingBurglaryArsonIndecent exposure
15Business Related Crimes Business related crimes are often called White Collar Crimes –Non-violent crimes committed by businesses or business people or against businesses.“A crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation" (Edwin Sutherland 1939).
16Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey
17Type of Business/White Collar Crimes DefinitionLarcenyWrongful taking of money or personal property (similar to robbery/burglary)Receiving Stolen PropertyKnowingly receiving stolen propertyFalse PretensesObtaining money/property by lying about a past/existing fact (type of fraud)ForgeryFalsely making or altering to defraud another (altering a check amount)BriberyUnlawfully offering or giving anything of value to influence performance of an official
18Type of Business/White Collar Crimes (cont.) DefinitionComputer CrimeStealing of computer data and other theft related to technologyExtortionObtaining $$ or property from a person by wrongful use of force, fear or power of officeConspiracyAn agreement between two or more persons to commit a crimeArsonWillful and illegal burning of a building
19The head of a labor union threatened to call a costly strike among employees of the company unless she was paid $10,000 by the employer.This was extortion.
21Did You Know??When one person helps another commit a crime they are also guilty of wrongdoing. One who plans the crime or intentionally helps is guilty of the same crime. In most jurisdictions if someone is killed during the commission of a felony, all the people who participated are guilty.
22Question??Musk, a career criminal, planned a bank robbery. He sent Spiro and Adams to do the “job”. He also had Greene steal a car and serve as chauffeur and lookout. Spiro killed a bank guard during the getaway. Who is guilty of what crimes?ALL are charged with car theft, armed robbery, murder.
23Question??Joe agrees to let Mary copy from his test paper. They are caught in the act and both fail the test. Why does Joe also fail? What happened in Texas??Joe is just as involved by assisting with the “crime” so both are charged.
24What about business??Corporations can be criminally liable for the conduct of it’s employees.Officers of Corporation may be criminally liable for the actions of their managers.
25What are Your Rights when Arrested? Due Process - fairness in investigation and in courtEvidence presented against them cannot be developed by unreasonable search and seizures. They must have probable cause.Right not to self-incriminate (you do NOT have to testify)Legal representation. (your own or appointed)
26Procedural Criminal Charges Defendant must be proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. (No sufficient basis placed in evidence that would logically indicate that the defendant did not commit the crime.)Procedural DefensesSubstantive Defenses
27Ignorance of the law is not a defense. Procedural DefensesBased on problems with the way evidence is obtained or the way the accused person is arrested, questioned, tried or punished.Ignorance of the law is not a defense.Example: statute of limitations on bringing charges.
28Substantive DefensesThey disapprove, justify, or excuse the alleged crime. They discredit the facts of the case.Self-defense, criminal insanity and immunity are substantive defensesExample: degrees of murder (intent, where it happened, circumstances involved, etc.)
29Question??Will and Zack, who were arrested for possession of cocaine, signed a confession at the police station. At their trial, they claimed that their right to due process had been violated. They said they had not been advised of their right to remain silent and to have a lawyer present when questioned. If true, are those good defenses?Yes, these are Miranda Rights and if violated the prosecution’s case is in jeopardy
30Self-Defense Substantive Defenses Is the use of the force that appears to be reasonably necessary to the victim to prevent death, serious bodily harm, kidnapping, or rape.One may not use deadly force if non-deadly force appears reasonable.Only nondeadly force may be used to protect or recover property.This defense extends to members of one’s family and household and to others who one has a legal duty to protect.
31Criminal Insanity Immunity Substantive Defenses Generally exists when the accused does not know the difference between right and wrong.If this is true there can be no criminal intent.ImmunityIs freedom from prosecution even when one has committed the crime charged. It is exchanged for testimonyGrants immunity to remove the privilege against self-incrimination.CONTEMPT OF COURT if refuse to testify after being granted immune.
32PunishmentThe purpose is to discipline the wrongdoer. Punishment should deter others from similar behavior.Often the accused voluntarily gives up the right to a public trial to avoid the risk of a greater penalty if convicted. They plead guilty to a less serious crime.OVER 90% RESULT IN A PLEA BARGAIN
33Class Work Your Legal Vocabulary (p. 76, #1-11) Think Critically About Evidence (p : #18, 19, 22)WRITING ASSIGNMENT: Write ½-1 page essay reviewing a case from the following Cyberlaw website: Do you agree? Should it be appealed if the verdict was guilty? Was their procedural or substantive evidence withheld?