2Stage One ExamplesSmall middle class that resented the privileges of the nobles4/5 or 90% of the population was peasant20% of population were factory workers known as sovietsFollowed feudalism and relied on serfdomSkyrocketing cost of bread and bread rationingFood and fuel shortagesInefficient transportation systemNot industrializedLoss in the Japanese-Russo WarEnormous losses in World War OneSlogans of “Peace and Bread”, “Peace, Land, and Bread”, “Down with Autocracy”, “Worker Control of Production”, “All Power to the Soviets”Czarina Alexandra did not care about workers and peasants….focus on lifestyle, family, son’s hemophilia, and influence of RasputinWeak leadership of Czar Nicholas IISecret policeCzar Nicholas tried to crush the Duma (Parliament)
4Factors that led to the Communist revolution in 1917. The weaknessof Tsar Nicholas IIRussian failures in the First World WarThe failure of the DumaFactors that led to theCommunist revolutionin 1917.The discontent of the peasantsOpposition of the CommunistsThe discontent of the workersRasputin and scandalThe FebruaryRevolution 1917
5Stage Two ExamplesLenin: led the Bolsheviks, communist, followers were the soviets who were like the sans-culottes, slogans of “Bread, Peace, and Freedom” and “All Power to the Soviets”Trotsky: part of the Bolsheviks, forms the Red Guard and is similar to Marquis de Lafeyette and the National Guard—develops the Red Guard into the Red Army of 5 million menMarxismCensorship of all anti-government activities
6Stage Three Examples1905-Bloody Sunday: a peaceful protest of 200,000, but guards open fire and kill 1000February/March Revolution: March 8, 1917, 10,000 working class women led a series of strikes in Petrograd/St. Peterburg chanting “Peace and Bread” and “Down with Autocracy”---similar to Women’s Bread March on VersaillesMarch 10, 1917: All factories shut down and go on strike in Petrograd and soldiers join in---similar to the Storming of the BastilleAssassination attempts and final assassination of Rasputin
10Stage Four ExamplesDuma met on March 12, 1917 to establish a Provisional Government made up mostly of the middle class like the National Assembly and later the Legislative AssemblyHad Czar Nicholas II step down and got rid of the monarchy like at the end of the Legislative AssemblyProvisional Government led by Alexsandr Kerensky---it is a moderate republicDevelopment of Soviets---workers’ councils to give the working class a voice because they feel the Provisional Government does not represent them
11Stage Five ExamplesAdopt a new calendar like rest of Western world in 1918Establish civil rights like the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen and the Constitution of 1791Promised free electionsBut involvement in World War One is made number one priority and alienates a large portion of the population who want out of the war like what the Civil Constitution of the Clergy and limited voting rights did in France
12Stage Six ExamplesCivil War in Russia-brought on primarily over continued involvement in World War OneWhites: anti-communists and supporters of the Provisional Government like the GirondinsReds: communists-Bolsheviks like the JacobinsLiberals: made up of the middle class and wanted a constitutional monarchySocialists: more democratic, did not follow Lenin, mostly peasants who wanted more land rightsCommunists: radicals and followers of LeninCommunists broken into Bolsheviks led by Lenin and Mensheviks led by TrotskyKornilov Affair
13Kornilov AffairGeneral Kornilov attempted to overthrow Provisional Government with military takeoverTo prevent this takeover, Kerensky freed many Bolshevik leaders from prison and supplied arms to many revolutionaries
14Whites and their supporters fleeing abroad after defeat in the Civil War
15. Russia Estonia Latvia Lithuania Germany Ukraine Brest-Litovsk The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk 1918RussiaEstonia.LatviaLithuaniaGermanyUkraineBrest-LitovskRussian territory ceded to Germany
16Reaction to Treaty Civil War Bolsheviks’ acceptance of peace treaty angered many RussiansBolsheviks’ opponents organized the White ArmyWhite Army included army leaders, political opponents, wealthy Russians opposed to Communist systemCivil WarWhite Army received military help from France, U.S.Civil War raged for 3 years between Lenin’s Red Army and White ArmyMillions of Russians died in fighting, faminesBolsheviks finally triumphed, late 1920
17Stage Seven ExamplesOctober/November Revolution of 1917: Provisional Government and rule of Kerensky is overthrownBolsheviks win the civil warLenin is in charge---like RobespierreExecution of entire royal family without a trialTried to get rid of organized religionRed Terror led by the secret police known as Cheka---eliminate all opponents to Lenin like Reign of Terror and Committee of Public SafetyIllegal to own private propertyLand given to peasantsNew Economic PolicyWorkers given control of factoriesGave women equal rights and payLegalized abortionsMade it easier to divorceTook control of SovietsCreates a Proletarian Dictatorship
19New Economic Policy Collapsing economy Key points The Soviet Union Brought on by civil war, pushed Russia to edge of total ruinPeasants, workers especially hard hitLenin introduced New Economic Policy, 1921Key pointsNew Economic Policy permitted some capitalist activityPeasants could sell food at profitTried to encourage badly needed food productionThe Soviet UnionRussia reunited with several neighboring lands, became Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, dominated by Communist leadershipLenin’s death in 1924 led to struggle for control of Soviet Union
20Cheka agents spied on the Russian people in factories and villages. The Cheka (or secret police)In December 1917 Lenin set up a secret police force known as the Cheka.Cheka agents spied on the Russian people in factories and villages.Anyone suspected of being anti-Communist could be arrested, tortured and executed without a trial.When opponents tried to assassinate Lenin in 1918, he launched the Red Terror campaign against his enemies.It is said that 50,000 people were arrested and executed in this period.
21Stage Eight Examples Lenin dies in 1924 by natural causes The Politburo is created---a seven member ruling government from membership of the Communist Party like the DirectoryPower struggle about who would lead next between Trotsky and Stalin
22Who would succeed Lenin? Trotsky – Red ArmyCommander andCommisar of ForeignAffairsStalin – Commisar forNationalitiesOR
23Leon Trotsky intellectual, head of the Red Army favoured the doctrine of World Revolutionfelt that the USSR could not survive as the sole comm. statethe USSR must therefore seek to export rev.as a doctrinaire comm., he opposed the NEP
24Josef Stalin favoured “Socialism in One Country” the USSR should strengthen itself and lead the comm. world by ex.as a pragmatist, he supported the NEPexperienced as a bureaucrat, he became the Party’s General Secretary in 1922: here he appointed many apparatchiks (these allies were crucial to Stalin’s rise)their power struggle lasted until 1928, when Stalin’s complex system of alliances and ability w/ realpolitik allowed him to succeedeven Lenin’s doubts couldn’t deter Stalin, and many involved in the party hierarchy paid more attention to one another than to Stalin
25Stage Nine Examples Stalin’s Dictatorship like Napoleon as Emperor Built new cities and lakes all named after StalinFive Year Economic PlansIncreased oil productionIncreased coal and steel productionEstablished a massive public school and university system to create a literate population who is loyal to StalinCreates an 85% literacy rateNew middle class of young men from the working class newly educated and loyal to StalinCollectivization of agriculturePurge of KulaksCreation of Labor Camps and Gulags8 million people sent to the camps and gulags5 million were killedVirtual slave labor of millions of peasant to build canals, dams, and factoriesComplete censorship of all forms of communicationMajor propaganda campaign just like Napoleon
26Stalin’s Totalitarian State State Control of the Economy5 year plan, collective farmsPolice TerrorGreat Purge, crush oppositionReligious PersecutionControl of the individualPropaganda (socialist realism)Molding peoples mindsEducationControlled by the government
27Collective Farming: All farmers are forced to give up their own farms and work and farm in groups. It was a huge failure.
28Russian industry changed enormously. We are years behind the advanced countries. We must make up this gap in ten years. Either we do it or they crush us.Stalin 1931The Five Year PlansStalin believed that industry could only develop through state control. Under GOSPLAN, three Five Year Plans set targets between to increase production.Russian industry changed enormously.New towns such as Magnitogorsk grew up and large projects such as the Dnieper hydroelectric dam were developed.The USSR became a major industrial country.The human cost was high.Forced labour killed millions, working conditions were poor and hours of work were long.
29A drawing by Evfrosiniia Kersnovskaia, a former Gulag prisoner A drawing by Evfrosiniia Kersnovskaia, a former Gulag prisoner. Courtesy of Evfrosiniia Kersnovskaia Foundation, Moscow.
31Long live the great Stalin 1938 The Great Patriotic WarWhen Germany attacked the USSR in 1941, Stalin used the same ruthlessness to defend his country.The defence of the USSR was the bloodiest war in history and cost the lives of millions of people and the destruction of thousands of villages, towns and cities.The final victory in 1945 was, like everything else, put down to the personal leadership of Stalin by the Soviet propaganda machine.After the war, Stalin built up the USSR as a superpower, in opposition to the USA. This conflict was known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953.Long live thegreat Stalin 1938