Presentation on theme: "Homework: “Discuss the effectiveness of different Psychological interventions.” 10 marks."— Presentation transcript:
Homework: “Discuss the effectiveness of different Psychological interventions.” 10 marks
Learning Objective: To be able to understand the use and effectiveness of Public Health Interventions I can… “Outline two examples of public health interventions aimed at reducing addictive behaviour. (4 marks)” “Assess the effectiveness of public health interventions and/or legislation in reducing addictive behaviour. (10 marks)” On your white boards: How many public interventions can you think of? Legislation (laws), restrictions…
Public Health Interventions Doctors Advice 18 to buy cigarettes: October 2007 In door smoking ban: July 2007 Covering cigarette counters Ban/reduction in sponsorship Less vending machines Images on cigarette packets TV adverts Parts of National Curriculum NHS Quit smoking campaign I can… “Outline two examples of public health interventions aimed at reducing addictive behaviour.”
Munafo & Bauld found that… Cigarette brands found increased sales after “jazzing up” their packets. e.g. Lambert & butlers 25 th Anniversary packet increased their market share by 0.4%/£60m Benson & Hedges Silver “slide packet” meant sales increased 25% over 6 months and 32.5% over a year (£74m!)
Munafo & Bauld (2011) UK Centre for Tobacco Studies Non-smokers & daily smokers Looked at branded packets with health warnings Used eye-tracking technology to see response Measured no. of times Pps focused on the top (brand) and bottom (warning) of the packet Non-smokers spent significantly more time on the warnings Smokers defaulted to looking at the brand What aspect of the behavioural approach could explain this?
Advice from a credible expert source Russell et al (1979) Smokers saw GP over 4 weeks. Follow up 1 & 12 months 1 – Follow up only 0.3 quit 2 – Questionnaire & follow-up 1.6 quit 4 – Docs Advice, leaflet + Follow up 5.1% quit Doctors advice On your white boards: How many evaluation points can you think of?
Evaluation paragraph… Is it effective? What support do you have for this claim? This matters because… AO1 – Outline doctors advice “For individual’s that have come to the conclusion that they need support with giving up their addiction, e.g. smoking, they may visit their GP. They will be provided with a number of different tools to use, such as advice on quitting gradually, questionnaires, leaflets and the number for the NHS Quitline, to use.” AO2 – Evaluating/Assessing Doctors Advice “We can see from Russell et al (1979) that the most effective form of GP advice is when all of these interventions are combined; advice, leaflets and follow up. They found that at a 12 month follow up 5.1% in this condition had quit, compared to 0.3% who were just given follow up. This is clear evidence for the effectiveness of GP advice, although the percentages are very small, this matters because other interventions maybe needed alongside this advice to enable individuals to give up successfully. This maybe due to the fact that to receive GPs advice individuals need to be motivated to attend appointments and continue with advised behaviour. Alongside this, it is very difficult to measure how much someone is giving up smoking as most research will use self-report. This matters because self-report is a very unreliable form of research, especially in relation to undesirable behaviours such as smoking, the effect of social desirability on participants’ responses may be very great. This matters because the validity of the findings would be compromised and therefore only providing weak support for the effectiveness of the intervention. An alternative Public Intervention would be…”
Evaluation paragraph… Is it effective? What support do you have for this claim? This matters because… AO1 – Outline Community Programmes AO2 – Evaluating/Assessing Community Programmes Issues with generalizability Issues with attrition
Government Interventions Restricting/Banning – types & ads (UK 2003) Upping cost - cost vs benefit (Health belief model) Affects young most! Public Place Ban - less cues, disassociation 1 July 2007 – bar-staff & children’s exposure significantly reduced (Bauld) Glasgow 10% reduction in premature births NE smokers 29% in 2005 to 27% in 2007 and down to 21% by 2011.
Evaluation paragraph… Is it effective? What support do you have for this claim? This matters because… AO1 – Outline Government Interventions “Government interventions in the UK have included a ban on all advertising and sponsorship since Alongside banning smoking in public places on the 1st July 2007; the purpose of which was to reduce the number of cues people experience in daily life associated with smoking habits. The UK government have also increased the cost of cigarettes significantly over the last decade; the point of which is to target young people very vulnerable to initiating an addiction. The hope is that the increase in price would deter them from being able to afford to begin and maintain a smoking addiction.” AO2 – Evaluating/Assessing Government Interventions
E-cigarettes 700,000 users in 2012, 1m in = 2.1 million! Professor Robert West (2014)? He studied 5,863 smokers trying to give up All using different methods Patches gum e- cigarettes nothing He found those using e-cigarettes were 60% more likely to have quit and maintained their cessation
E-cigarettes classed as consumer products will have to carry health warnings that nicotine is highly addictive Not sold to under 18s University of Auckland (NZ) 2013, first clinical trial comparing the devices with nicotine patches: 7.3% e-cigarettes users quit after six months compared with 5.8% using patches. After six months; 57% of e-cigarette users had halved the number of cigarettes smoked each day compared with 41% among those using patches. 657 pps Brazil, Singapore and Mexico have banned importing and selling the devices E-cigarettes Glue it in – annotate it with evaluation points!
Royal College of Physicians; "If all the smokers in Britain stopped smoking cigarettes and started smoking e-cigarettes we would save 5 million deaths in people who are alive today. It's a massive potential public health prize.“ But are e-cigarettes safe? "The simple answer is we don't know," says Dr Vivienne Nathanson from the British Medical Association (BMA). Getting all smokers to switch to electronic cigarettes would be the "greatest health advance since vaccinations," Professor David Nutt.