Presentation on theme: "By: Drew Constable Brittani Roksiewicz Victoria Trimble."— Presentation transcript:
By: Drew Constable Brittani Roksiewicz Victoria Trimble
The Arab Spring is a political movement that swept through the Middle East and Northern Africa beginning in 2011, it started in the country of Tunisia, and led to leaders being forced from power in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya and Yemen but have also caused uprisings and protest throughout the Middle East and Northern Africa. What is the Arab Spring?
Government overthrown Sustained civil disorder and governmental changes Protests and governmental changes Major protests Minor protests
The Tunisian Revolution, or the Jasmine Revolution is said to be the root of the Arab Spring Due to growing protest and uprisings in the small country of Tunisia, its President, Zine al-Abidine Ben Al was forced to step down in January of 2011 The “spark” of the revolution in Tunisia was when Mohammed Bouazizi, a 26-year-old fruit-and- vegetable vendor set himself on fire in front of a local municipal office in protest after being mistreated by police. Tunisia
4 th President of Egypt Appointed Vice President in 1975 President from October 1981 to February 2011 Attempted to appease protestors Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak
Government abuse and corruption “Vampire Economy” Only a few could flourish while the rest struggled Police brutality State of emergency laws Lack of free elections and free speech Censorship Inspiration from Tunisia Reasons for Protests
The Egyptian revolution began on January 25, 2011 “rooted in the waves of workers’ strikes and protests; the explosion of the Internet as a rallying megaphone for dissent … and a growing willingness by reporters, writers, and human-rights groups to tell the truth in the face of great risks.” Wael Abbas So How Did It Start?
January 25 th National Police Day Internet shut down on Jan 27, but not reported till the 28 “The Day of Rage”
Hundreds of thousands demonstrate in Egyptian cities after Friday prayer Mubarak announces dismissal of cabinet Yet refuses to step down himself, in hope that reforms will appease the people “Friday of Anger”
Remain in PowerAbdicate Power Stop Revolt Pre-revolutionary conditions People win, Mubarak steps down (Vice President takes power) Continue Revolt Stale mate People win, government changes Game Theory Mubarak The Egyptian People
February 11 th, 2011; 6pm Vice President Omar Suleiman announces Mubarak’s resignation Supreme Council of the Armed Forces is given control of the government “Friday of Departure”
This past week Egypt has officially breached it’s Natural Gas contract with Israel; The 1979 Camp David Peace Accord Political and religious motives are behind the interrupted contract. Egypt’s transitioning government is ready to re- establish its relations with Iran and neighboring countries. New foreign minister, Nabil Elaraby, concludes “Egypt does not consider Tehran an enemy, and says Cairo is opening a new page with all countries, including Iran.” Previously, Mubarak saw Iran as a threat to the Middle East Actions of Egypt’s New Government
Reactions to The 1979 Camp David Peace Accord Protestors question why Egypt is selling gas to Israel, their previous enemies, at a cheap price and risking Egypt’s overall wealth. Hosni Mubarak agreed to the treaty with Israel as strategic leverage with the United States and to illustrate “good faith.” Egyptian citizens are behind the 14 recent pipeline bombs
Possible Motives for Egypt Re- Establishing Ties with Iran Help stabilize and provide security to the Middle East region Improve their position with Israel and the United States (potential peace keepers?) Bargaining with the United States to convince them to continue their financial support
Dissatisfaction of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces In March 2011, shortly after Mubarak stepped down female protestors reported virginity testing by the SCAF International monitors were prohibited during the parliamentary elections last year. The decision made on behalf of the SCAF had voters concerned about credible elections. Hostility between the Muslim Brotherhood and the SCAF (March 25, 2012).The brotherhood alleges that the Armed Forces are influencing the upcoming presidential elections The sour relation between the Muslim Brotherhood and the SCAF could potentially deter the SCAF from transferring half of the power
Beginning in November 2011, Egypt held its first elections of the post-Mubarak era, voting for the members of the People’s Assembly The elections to determine Egypt's first-ever freely elected president will be held May 23 and 24 It is currently unknown when the newly elected president will assume power, but the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces has said they want a new constitution drafted before they transfer power. Elections
Thank you. Are there any questions?
"Arab Spring." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., Web. 24 Apr "Jasmine Revolution." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., Web. 24 Apr “Timeline: Egypt’s Revolution - Middle East - Al Jazeera English.” Web. 24 Apr “Before the Revolution.” Web. 24 Apr " Ḥ osnī Mubārak." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., Web. 24 Apr "Egypt." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., Web. 24 Apr “Egypt Ends Israel’s Gas Supply: It’s Political AND Religious - New York Foreign Affairs | Examiner.com.” Web. 26 Apr “Egypt’s New Government Ready to Renew Country’s Ties with Iran - The National.” Web. 26 Apr “New Egyptian Government Mulls Halting Gas Sales to Israel /Embassy | FNMA.OB Message Board Posts.” Web. 26 Apr Bibliography
“Arab Spring - Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia.” Web. 24 Apr “The 45 Most Powerful Images Of 2011.” Web. 24 Apr “Hosni Mubarak - Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia.” Web. 24 Apr “POLICE BRUTALITY IN EGYPT - REVOLUTION YouTube.” Web. 26 Apr Picture and Video Bibliography