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Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) May 11, 2012 The Role of Global Nuclear Detection Architecture in the Defense of the Homeland Baltimore-Washington.

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Presentation on theme: "Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) May 11, 2012 The Role of Global Nuclear Detection Architecture in the Defense of the Homeland Baltimore-Washington."— Presentation transcript:

1 Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) May 11, 2012 The Role of Global Nuclear Detection Architecture in the Defense of the Homeland Baltimore-Washington Health Physics Society Annual Meeting Kevin G. Hart Lieutenant Colonel, US Army Deputy Assistant Director, Analysis Division

2 22 The Department of Homeland Security 2  In response to the attacks of September 11, the Department of Homeland security was created by the Homeland Security Act of  DHS was established to coordinate the implementation of a national strategy to protect the U.S homeland from terrorist attacks, and to consolidate all the executive branch elements related to homeland security under one agency.  DHS is responsible for: –Guarding Against Terrorism –Security of US Borders –Enforcing US Immigration Laws –Improving America’s Readiness for, Response to and Recovery from Disasters

3 33 DNDO as Part of DHS 3 SECRETARY DEPUTY SECRETARY SECRETARY DEPUTY SECRETARY DIRECTOR, DOMESTIC NUCLEAR DETECTION OFFICE CHIEF OF STAFF MILITARY ADVISOR EXECUTIVE SECRETARY DIRECTOR, FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT TRAINING CENTER ASSISTANT SCRETARY, INTERGOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS ASSISTANT SECRETARY, HEALTH AFFAIRS UNDER SECRETARY, INTELLIGENCE & ANALYSIS DIRECTOR, OPERATIONS COORDINATION & PLANNING DIRECTOR, OPERATIONS COORDINATION & PLANNING CITIZENSHIP AND IMMIGRATION SERVICES OMBUDSMAN OFFICER, CIVIL RIGHTS & CIVIL LIBERTIES OFFICER, CIVIL RIGHTS & CIVIL LIBERTIES CHIEF PRIVACY OFFICER GENERAL COUNSEL ASSISTANT SECRETARY, LEGISLATIVE AFFAIRS ASSISTANT SECRETARY, PUBLIC AFFAIRS ASSISTANT SECRETARY, PUBLIC AFFAIRS INSPECTOR GENERAL UNDER SECRETARY, MANAGEMENT UNDER SECRETARY, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY UNDER SECRETARY, NATIONAL PROTECTION & PROGRAMS UNDER SECRETARY, POLICY CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER DIRECTOR, U.S. IMMIGRATION AND CUSTOMS ENFORCEMENT DIRECTOR, U.S. IMMIGRATION AND CUSTOMS ENFORCEMENT DIRECTOR, U.S. SECRET SERVICE DIRECTOR, U.S. SECRET SERVICE DIRECTOR, FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY COMMANDANT, U.S. COAST GUARD ADMINISTRATOR, TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION COMMISSIONER, U.S. CUSTOMS & BORDER PROTECTION COMMISSIONER, U.S. CUSTOMS & BORDER PROTECTION DIRECTOR, U.S. CITIZENSHIP & IMMIGRATION SERVICES DIRECTOR, COUNTER- NARCOTICS ENFORCEMENT

4 44 The Nuclear and Radiological Threat  Types of threats: –Nuclear Weapon –Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) –Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) – (also referred to as “Dirty Bomb”) –Radiation Exposure Device (RED) 4 “…it is increasingly clear that the danger of nuclear terrorism is one of the greatest threats to global security, to our collective security.” – President Obama (Nuclear Security Summit, April 13, 2010) Crude sketch of nuclear device found in Afghanistan HEU intercepted by Republic of Georgia in smuggling sting Jose Padilla – convicted of plotting dirty bomb attack RDD response exercise in New York

5 5 DNDO’s Mission and Objectives  Develop the global nuclear detection architecture (GNDA)  Develop, acquire, and support the domestic nuclear detection and reporting system  Detect – Employ instruments and improve training in order to increase detection probability and establish operational protocols to ensure detection leads to effective response  Coordinate – Ensure that stakeholders with GNDA functions minimize gaps and overlaps in roles and responsibilities and facilitate situational awareness through information sharing and analysis  Conduct a transformational research and development program  Provide centralized planning, integration, and advancement of USG nuclear forensics programs 5 DNDO was established on April 15, 2005 with the signing of NSPD 43 / HSPD 14 for the purpose of improving the Nation’s capability to detect and report unauthorized attempts to import, possess, store, develop, or transport nuclear or radiological material for use against the Nation, and to further enhance this capability over time.

6 66 DNDO: An Interagency Office  DNDO is an interagency office composed of detailees and liaisons from the departments of Energy, Defense, Justice, State, the FBI and NRC  Other DHS components such as the U.S. Coast Guard, Customs and Border Protection, and Transportation Security Administration provide detailees to DNDO.  DNDO relies upon the national laboratories, academia, and private industry to conduct research that directly supports its mission.  DNDO maintains strong relationships with Federal, State, Tribal and local entities to facilitate capabilities development. 6

7 777 DNDO Directorate Structure Office of the Director Architecture & Plans Directorate Transformational & Applied Research National Technical Nuclear Forensics Center Operations Support Systems Engineering & Evaluation Red Team & Net Assessments Chief of Staff Product Acquisition & Deployment

8 8 Global Nuclear Detection Architecture  In order to strengthen the Nation’s layered defense, DNDO analyzes the Global Nuclear Detection Architecture, and then formulates recommendations and plans to strengthen the architecture with stakeholder collaboration and cooperation.  The GNDA is a worldwide network of sensors, telecommunications, and personnel, with the supporting information exchanges, programs, and protocols that serve to detect, analyze, and report on nuclear and radiological materials that are out of regulatory control. –The term “out of regulatory control” refers to materials that are being imported, possessed, stored, transported, developed, or used without authorization by the appropriate regulatory authority, either inadvertently or deliberately. 8 Substantial risk reduction is the aim

9 9 Key Architecture and Plans Directorate Functions  Stakeholder Coordination of the GNDA  Comprehensive Capability Based Assessment of GNDA  Radiological and Nuclear Terrorism Risk Analysis  GNDA Strategic Plan and Annual Review  Increase Detection Capabilities in Key Mission Areas - Maritime - Aviation - Land Border - Interior  Develop Integrated Capability Developmental Plans and Solutions - Solution Development Process (SDP) APD focuses on Stage 0 through Stage 2a and ensures stakeholder requirements are met 9

10 10 GNDA Operational View-1

11 11 Development of an Adaptable Architecture Problems associated with a static architecture  Cost –It is cost prohibitive to deploy enough detection capability across all nodes of the GNDA to a sufficient level to ensure a high probability of success  Technology –Limited in detection range due to physics, therefore with a static architecture threats must pass very close to assets –100% static architecture would have a negative impact on commerce  Fixed Assets –Much of the emphasis has been on the creation of a static architecture, and fixed assets cannot be redeployed in support of intelligence driven events 11 The Solution is the development of a flexible and adaptable architecture  Balanced Approach –Leveraging the existing static architecture to develop new capabilities with the capacity to surge based on intelligence  Technology –Uses advanced technologies on mobile platforms in order to increase the probability of encounter –Capabilities that conduct primary and secondary screening concurrently are critical  Focus on high risk nodes –Much of the emphasis on the creation of a static architecture has been on commercial/high traffic nodes. Re- locatable assets can be deployed in non-commercial high risk nodes based on intelligence, or used randomly to deter potential adversaries.

12 12 DNDO Commercial First Initiative  The rapid development of technology and innovation, along with constrained budgets and market forces has shifted DNDO focus from government development of material solutions to a “Commercial First” approach. –Intent of the approach will focus on determining best value solutions by utilizing modeling tools and verification and validation (V&V) of data and performance. –Approach does not eliminate need for government oversight and partnership. –Facilitates continuous feedback during the entire acquisition process between industry and user’s/stakeholders to refine requirements. –There is a potential that DHS may procure systems from vendors who successfully demonstrate that their systems/products meet the requirements. –DHS may establish Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA).

13 13 Maritime Mission Area  Program Elements -Develop and deploy radiation detection equipment to the Nation’s seaports to scan arriving cargo -Develop and deploy radiation detection equipment to the U.S. Coast Guard to support boarding team inspections -Work with State and local partners to enhance radiation detection capabilities of current maritime law enforcement operations  Partners: -USCG, CBP, TSA, state and local, DOE, DoD  Example Activities: -West Coast Maritime Pilot -USCG Joint Acquisition Strategy -Small Vessel Stand-off Detection

14 14 Aviation Mission Area  Program Elements -Deploy radiation detection equipment to scan all arriving private international general aviation flights -Pilot radiation detection solutions to scan passengers and baggage -Characterize airport-of-entry operations and enhance air cargo scanning  Partners -TSA, CBP, state and local  Example Activities -International General Aviation -Computed Tomography/Advanced Technology Scanning Evaluation -Air Port-of-Entry Deployments

15 15 Land Border Mission Area  Program Elements -Deploy radiation detection equipment to the Nation’s ports of entry to scan arriving cargo containers and vehicles -Develop and deploy radiation detection solutions between ports of entry along our borders  Partners -CBP, state and local  Example Activities -Study to Identify Potential Improvements in Maintaining Portal Monitors -International Rail -Study to Improve Probability of Encounter

16 16 Domestic Interior Mission Area  Program Elements -Work with federal, state, and local law enforcement and emergency responders to expand domestic preventive radiation/nuclear detection capabilities -Provide operational support such as training, exercises, and technical reach-back  Partners -States and locals, TSA, FEMA, DOE, DoD, FBI, NRC  Example Activities -NIMS Resource Typing -Long Range Radiation Detection -Training and Exercise Support to Stakeholders

17 17 Generation Product Area CurrentNext Generation Advanced Technology Demonstration Exploratory Research Non-Intrusive Inspection (Radiography and Active Interrogation) VACIS, single-energy x- ray, backscatter x-ray Improved radiography Automated detection of high-Z Active systems for detection of shielded threats (SNAR) Passive, automated detection of shielded SNM Large standoff interrogation for SNM detection Portal Monitors PVT Advanced Portal Technology (NaI and HPGe) Imaging techniques – better signal (SORDS ATD) Increased PD and range, decreased FAR Improved materials- higher resolution, larger, lower cost Detection “at speed,” virtual tagging of vehicles Hand-Held Detectors GR-135, Identifinder, Detective, others HPRDS Hand-helds and backpacks, lighter HPGe Directional high- resolution spectroscopic handheld (IPRL) Intelligent networked sensor systems (IRSS) Improved materials – room temperature sensors approaching HPGe, improved electronics, solid state neutron sensors Pocket Systems Radiation pagers Future commercial-off-the- shelf systems Next and Future Generation Technology

18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 18 DNDO Transformational R&D Program  Exploratory Research Program –Investigate promising concepts to show feasibility through laboratory Proof-of-Concept demonstrations  Advanced Technology Demonstration –Characterize Performance Test Units in a simulated operational environment to assess technology transition potential  Academic Research Initiative –Create next generation of scientists and engineers  Small Business Innovative Research –Strengthen the role of innovative small business concerns with federally-funded research and development 18 Cs 2 LiYCl 6 (CLYC) Scintillator SORDS Detector and Truck SNAR Test Unit TlBr Semiconductor Aggressive and expedited R&D programs that seek to develop break-through technologies that will have a dramatic positive impact on capabilities to detect nuclear threats.

19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 19 DNDO R&D Program Progression Progression Technology Readiness Level (TRL) TRL 1-3 TRL 3-4 TRL 5-6 TRL 7 TRL 8 TRL 9 Feasibility Evaluation Proof of Concept (POC) Performance Test Unit (PTU) Prototype Engineering Development Model (EDM) Limited Rate Initial Production (LRIP) Full Rate Production (FRP) Nuclear Detection Architecture Challenges N/A Advanced Technology Demonstration Exploratory Research Project 19

20 20 Product Acquisition & Deployment Joint Analysis Center Collaborative Information System Ortec Microdevice: Human-Portable Radiation Detection Systems* On Dock Rail International Rail (IRail) Human Portable Tripwire (HPT) Neutron Detection Replacement Program Programs not pictured: * PADD also procures a variety of Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) systems deployed by users Radiation Portal Monitor Program Radseeker: Human- Portable Radiation Detection Systems* Engineering development, production, developmental logistics, procurement, and deployment of current and next generation nuclear detection systems.

21 21 Systems Engineering & Evaluation  Operational Analysis and Systems Engineering Support –Work with federal, state, and local stakeholders to evaluate the feasibility and performance of new or emerging capabilities in an operational environment –Provide systems engineering support for DNDO Solution Development Process throughout the systems engineering life cycle –Lead development, in coordination National Institute of Standards and Technology, of Technical Capability Standards for radiological/nuclear detection equipment.

22 22 Recent and On-Going Test Campaigns and Pilots On-Dock Rail Program (Straddle Portal Prototype) Dolphin Test Campaign (Boat Mounted Systems) Eland Test Campaign (Mobile Systems) Alternative Neutron Detection Systems On-Dock Rail Program (Radiation Detection Straddle Carrier) Gryphon Test Campaign (Aerial Mounted Systems) ITRAP+10 22

23 23 Systems Engineering & Evaluation  Test and Evaluation Support –Conduct test & evaluation campaigns. –Establish and maintain T&E infrastructure of facilities, equipment, processes and personnel. Radiological/Nuclear Countermeasures Test and Evaluation Complex, located at the Nevada National Security Site. Rail Test Center located at the Port of Tacoma, Washington GRaDER ® Program

24 24 Operations Support  Securing the Cities  Training, Exercise and Assistance -Federal Capabilities Integration -State and Local Capabilities Integration -Training and Exercise Assistance  Joint Analysis Center -GNDA Situational Awareness -Information Sharing and Analysis Coordinate the implementation of the domestic portion of the GNDA

25 25  Securing the Cities -New York City Region is first to participate -Future Urban Area Security Initiative Tier 1 regions to be selected  Training, Exercise & Assistance -Federal programs TSA Visible Intermodal Prevention and Response Teams Mobile Detection Deployment Program -State and Local Programs Program Assistance State and Local Stakeholders Working Group and Executive Steering Council Radiological/Nuclear Challenge -Training and Exercise Training course development and quality assurance Exercise design, development, and standards  JAC -GNDA situational awareness -Information analysis and information sharing Operations Support

26 26 Red Team and Net Assessments (RTNA)  Conduct adversarial-based assessments from an outside perspective without "inside" information of current or planned capabilities  Use overt and covert tests to intentionally introduce radioactive sources against known defenses to assess the performance of fielded technology, training, and protocols.  Assess the effectiveness of concepts of operation, protocols, training, technologies, communications, and technical support for nuclear detection programs and capabilities  Build models that integrate lessons learned from operations intelligence estimates, expert elicitation, and workshops to determine the effect of implemented capabilities on adversary decision making. Independently assess the operational performance of planned and deployed capabilities.

27 27 National Technical Nuclear Forensics Center Interagency Stewardship and Coordination Pre-Det Materials Capability Development Expertise Development: –Provide scholarships, fellowships, internships, post- graduate, and university awards for studies and research in specialties relevant to nuclear forensics. Technology Advancement: –Advance the Nation’s capability to rapidly, accurately, and credibly identify the origin and history of interdicted radioactive/nuclear materials. Operational Readiness: –Provide centralized planning and integration of USG nuclear forensics programs and activities through interagency working groups, joint exercises, assessments, and foundational document development. NTNFC has three primary mission areas Restoration and maintenance of scientific expertise

28 28 Summary  DNDO has coordinated USG identification of critical vulnerabilities in the existing architecture  Maintains an aggressive research development and system acquisition process to address these vulnerabilities  Has conducted several test series as well as red teaming operations to evaluate the effectiveness of nuclear detection technologies and deployed systems.  Provides on-going operational support to Federal, State, Tribal, and local mission partners  Provides centralized planning, stewardship, and integration of USG R/N forensics activities  Developing advanced pre-detonation R/N forensics capability and recreating an enduring technical nuclear forensics workforce DNDO is supporting the development and deployment a global nuclear detection and nuclear forensics capabilities to reduce the risk of nuclear terrorism


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