4About Vietnam Life expectancy at birth: 71.3 Located in South East Asia.Estimated population of 84 million of which 75% of people live in rural areas.Life expectancy at birth: 71.3Human Development Index Rank: 109Struggled against outside powers for many years-China in 19thcentury and the U.S. and France in 20th century.1975 Vietnam reunited under communist rule.Main ethnic group, Kinh, represents 86% of total pop.Among one of the fastest growing economies in the last 20 years.Reduced poverty from 58% in 1993 to 20% in 2004 however, this 20% is 20 million people.
5and VietnamIrish Aid has estimated in the period from it will have provided €87.5 million in bilateral aid.In the future Irish Aid aims to:Strengthen the delivery of basic services and social protection measures to people.To promote economic and social transition and growth in the private sector.To strengthen systems which enhance state accountability to citizens- ‘people know, people discuss, people do and people check’.
6Comparative Development Statistics Between Vietnam and Ireland Population 1975200544 million84 million3.2 million4.1 millionHuman Development Index Rank1094Life Expectancy at birth71.376.9GDP per Capita ($)63548, 604Adult Literacy91%99%Infant mortality per 1,000 live births186Under five mortality per year31.5Gov spending on Education17%13.5%Net primary enrolment rate94.4 %94%
7MDG 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Kate McCarthy Seamus Finnerty
8Goal 1Target 1 – Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a dayViet Nam has made great strides in this goalIn 1990’s, the country implemented its own goals (VDG’s) with their own deadlines for poverty reduction.However, poverty reduction is unevenly distributed throughout the country90% of the poor in Viet Nam live in rural areas, the majority being ethnic minoritiesGrowing gap between the rich and the poor. The richest 20% of the population were responsible for almost half the total expenditure in 2004"Although Vietnam's overall progress towards MDG’s remains impressive, there are now real challenges to ensuring that those Vietnamese families that have left poverty do not fall back into poverty.”- John Hendra, United Nations Resident Coordinator in Vietnam
9Goal 1 Target 2Hunger- a condition in which people do not get enough food to provide the nutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals and water) for active and healthy lives (Bread for the World Hunger Report 2004)Other factors which effect the problem of hunger; uncleandrinking water, low levels of sanitation, poor hygiene andinsufficient health services.
10MDG 2: Achieve universal primary education Ciara O’Dea Anthony O’Donoghue
11MDG 2 and Education Globally 113 million children do not attend schoolBut this goal is within reach. Achievement of universal primary education (MDG 2) =economic and social development which helps end world povertycreates opportunities and choices for peopleallows people to take their future and livelihoods into their own hands.
12Very likely to achieve full primary school enrolment by 2015 Education: Vietnam% net enrolment2006 – 96% net enrolmentVery likely to achieve full primary school enrolment by 2015
13Enrolment ProblemsLess than average enrolment amongst ethnic minoritiesEducational costs:No tuition fees for poverty strickenschool buildings, maintenance costs etcDeter poor from going to school
14Approaches that have led to the success more and better school booksteaching aids and curriculum standardsbuilding and rehabilitating classroomsimproving management of the primary educationOne single curriculumInclusive ethos- ethnic and diverse minoritiesbilingual educationSocio-economic plan
15The current situation Huge strives have been made in Vietnam On course to achieve its MDG 2 commitment by 2015
16MDG 3: Promote gender equality and empower women Rebecca Ryan
17Goal 3: To promote gender equality and empower women 3.1 Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education:Gender parity index for Primary enrolment: 0.9Secondary enrolment: 72% of boys and 67% girls (2004)Gender Parity index for Tertiary level: 0.74 (2001)Considerations:Averages: doesn’t differentiate between ethnic groupsGender inequalities in ethnic minorities
183.2 Women in waged employment in the non-agricultural sector: In Vietnam, ‘women continue to receive proportionally lower wages than male counter parts’ (Irish Aid, 2009, 11)Average female wage is currently 85% of males3.3 Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament:Steady progression: 17.7% (1990), 26.2% (1998), 25.8% (2009)Ireland 13.3%, Vietnam 25.8% (2009)
20Goal 5: To improve maternal health Maternal Mortality RatioCurrently, 150 per 100, 000Average in South East Asia 300 per 100,000 (UN, 2009, Gender Progress Chart)Proportion of births attended by a skilled health personnelConsistent improvement in this area of the last number of years87.7% (2006)
21More to do? Reproductive health ‘high level of knowledge about family planning’ (Irish Aid, 2008)Availability of modern contraceptive methods is limited.Condom use is limited.It is considered the woman’s responsibility to protect against pregnancyAdolescent rate (number of pregnancies per 1,000 women aged 15 to 19) is 35 per 1,000 (UN, 2007)More to do?
22MDG 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Sophia Klein
23Goal 7 – Ensure Environmental Sustainability Target 1: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources.Target 2: Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss.Target 3: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.Target 4: By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers.
24According to the UN progress is good but needs to be sped up – due to steadily-increasing pollution and bio-diversity loss; slowest initiative is provision of sanitation facilities.Rural mountainous areas and urban slums are affected worst by this – difficult terrain/isolated and over-crowding in cities.The proportion of the population using an improved sanitation facility is steadily increasing, from 40% in 1995 to 51% in 2000 to 65% in 2006.Number of people using an improved drinking water source have also increased significantly, from 64% in 1995 to 77% in 2000 to 92% in 2006.
25Compared to 60.5% of the population living in slums in 1990, in 2005 there were only 41.3% living in slums.Aid’s P135 programme, designed to improve facilities in rural areas and One UN’s Kon Tum project, which brings safe drinking water and sanitation facilities to disadvantaged villages, as well as education and health care.UN-HABITAT – runs several initiatives aimed at helping improve basic facilities in towns and improving town-planning and sustainability.
26The land area covered by forest has increased from 28 The land area covered by forest has increased from 28.8% in 1990 to 36% in 2000 to 39.7% in 2005 – due to reforestation initiatives - Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) & the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment in Vietnam.FAO are helping to promote sustainable deforestation – preserves bio-diversity, forest coverage & creates employment and industry.Livelihood of 70% of the rural population is based on exploitation of natural resources - projects encouraging sustainable agriculture practices like this one are crucial in helping Vietnam to reach goal 7.
27Vietnam is one of world’s most biologically diverse countries - 10% of the world’s species - in danger due to agricultural expansion.The percentage of terrestrial and marine areas protected rose from 2.5% in 1998 to 3.6% in 2008.CO2 emissions rose from metric tons in 2000 to metric tons in 2004.Consumption of ozone-depleting substances has risen from metric tons in 2000 to metric tons in 2005.Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment initiated some positive changes, e.g. the capital city’s first recycling plant, power-cuts to businesses for high pollution levels.
29ConclusionGoal 1Goal 2Great strides have been made towards achieving this goal by setting their own goals.The gap between the rich and the poor is growing.Number of those going hungry has been reduced but not halved.This goal is within reach with 96% enrolment.Strategies have been implemented to encourage children to attend school.
30ConclusionGoal 3Goal 5The number of boys and girls enrolled in all levels of education is almost equal.Women get roughly 85% of a man’s salaryThere are more women in the Vietnamese national parliament than in the Dáil.50% less women die during child birth compared to other South-East Asian countries.87.7% of births are attended by a health professional.The availability and use of contraception is limited.
31Conclusion Goal 7 Progress is good but they may not achieve this goal. Use of proper sanitation facilities has increased.Improved drinking water.Less than 50% live in slums.Pollution has increased in the last five years.
32If progress is so good, should Ireland stop giving aid to Vietnam?