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A cat kills a mouse. A man joins a rugby team. A farmer kills a turkey for dinner. A tennis player smashes her racquet after missing a serve. A soldier.

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Presentation on theme: "A cat kills a mouse. A man joins a rugby team. A farmer kills a turkey for dinner. A tennis player smashes her racquet after missing a serve. A soldier."— Presentation transcript:

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2 A cat kills a mouse. A man joins a rugby team. A farmer kills a turkey for dinner. A tennis player smashes her racquet after missing a serve. A soldier kills the enemy. A golfer breaks his club over his knee. A hunter kills an elk for his horns only. A woman sprays a would-be rapist with pepper spray. Two male college students fight over a female college student. A woman passes along a rumor about a friend’s affair.

3 any form of behavior directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment Hostile vs. instrumental aggression Direct vs. indirect (relational) aggression

4 Aggression evolved so that men can establish dominance over other men and get higher status to protect their mates from other men Testosterone effects Chimpanzees vs. bonobos

5 Culture Time Herding cultures Gender

6 Frustration-aggression hypothesis Think of a time you felt frustrated Frustration leads to aggression if Have anger Important goal Blocked more times Blocked to a greater extent

7 We learn aggression from watching others, especially if there are no negative consequences for it. Bobo doll study https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eqNaLerMNOE Mirror neurons Social norms

8 General aggression model Degree of hostility Automaticity Degree to which the goal is to harm victim vs. benefit perpetrator Degree to which consequences are considered How we interpret a situation affects how we respond to it

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10 Heat Noise Crowding Reminding someone of a violent cue Weapons Alcohol Marijuana

11 Watching violent television increases aggressive behavior, angry emotions, and hostile thoughts May especially have effects on those already predisposed to violence May be especially problematic if the violence goes unpunished or is rewarded One-time surveys Experiments Longitudinal surveys

12 Comparison of the Effect of Violent Media on Aggression With Effects From Other Domains Note. All correlations are significantly different from zero. a = the effect of smoking tobacco on lung cancer, as estimated by pooling the data from Figures 1 and 3 in Wynder and Graham's (1950) classic article. The remaining effects were estimated from meta-analyses: b = Paik and Comstock (1994), c = Weller (1993), d = Wells (1998), e = Needleman and Gatsonis (1990), f = Fiore, Smith, Jorenby, and Baker (1994), g = Welten, Kemper, Post, and van Staveren (1995), h = Cooper (1989), i = Smith, Handley, and Wood (1990), and j = Hill, White, Jolley, and Mapperson (1988). Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2001). Media violence and the American public: Scientific facts versus media misinformation. American Psychologist, 56(6-7), doi: / X © 2001 American Psychological Association

13 People are also less likely to recall ads they saw during violent television shows Playing violent video games also seems to have an effect on aggressive behavior

14 Weakens inhibitions against violence (“they did it, so can I“) Shows people how to do violent acts May make people more likely to label feelings as anger Desensitizes us—makes us less affected by violence Makes people think the world is a more dangerous place

15 Punishment Harsh punishment can actually teach aggression and doesn’t teach alternative responses Death penalty does not seem to deter crime Catharsis (acting aggressively) Count to 10 Defuse anger through apology Model nonaggressive behavior Training in problem solving Increase empathy

16 Mental illness Guns Video games Teachers not being armed Bullied/ignored by other kids Divorced mother with guns

17 Cyberbullying https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HFsfDLCkfQU Ethnic aggression string-of-anti-islam-attacks-threaten-us-muslims-during- ramadan/ string-of-anti-islam-attacks-threaten-us-muslims-during- ramadan/ Domestic violence Rape or date rape html html School shooters Bullying (face-to-face)

18 Think about the likely reasons why people do the type of aggression you were assigned Come up with an intervention to reduce that type of aggression Present it to the class

19 Rejection affects the same part of the brain as when we feel pain Rejection hurts even if we can’t see the person rejecting us and even if it’s a person we don’t like https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A3UTXsJzAj4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X7EFYwUopf8

20 Smart-Richman & Leary model First feel bad and have lowered self-esteem Then react based on how you think about the situation: Perception of fairness Pervasiveness High value of relationship Expectations of relationship repair Possibility of alternative relationships High perceived cost of rejection

21 Multimotive model of reactions to interpersonal rejection experiences. Smart Richman, L., & Leary, M. R. (2009). Reactions to discrimination, stigmatization, ostracism, and other forms of interpersonal rejection: A multimotive model. Psychological Review, 116(2), doi: /a © 2009 American Psychological Association


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