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LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND BODY DEFENSE By: Audrey McNicholl and Megan Saunders.

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Presentation on theme: "LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND BODY DEFENSE By: Audrey McNicholl and Megan Saunders."— Presentation transcript:

1 LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND BODY DEFENSE By: Audrey McNicholl and Megan Saunders

2 Functions of the Lymphatic System ◦ The lymphatic system returns excess interstitial fluid to the blood, absorbs fats and fat- soluble vitamins, and provides defense against disease

3 Components ◦ Lymph is the fluid in the lymphatic vessels. It is picked up from the interstitial fluid and returned to the blood plasma ◦ Lymphatic vessels carry fluid away from the tissues ◦ The right lymphatic duct drains lymph from the upper right quadrant of the body. The thoracic duct drains all the rest ◦ Lymph enters a lymph node through afferent vessels, filters through the sinuses, and leaves through an efferent vessel

4 Components ◦

5 Components cont. ◦ Lymph nodes filter and cleanse the lymph before it enters the blood ◦ Tonsils are clusters of lymphatic tissue associated with openings into the pharynx and provide protection against pathogens that may enter through the nose and mouth ◦ When the tonsils become enlarged they may interfere with breathing and are called adenoids ◦ The spleen is a lymph organ that filters blood and also acts as a reservoir for blood

6 Resistance to Disease ◦ The ability to counteract pathogens is resistance ◦ Susceptibility is a lack of resistance ◦ Barriers that deter microbial invasion may be mechanical (skin), fluid (tears), or chemical (lysozymes) ◦ Interferon has particular significance because it offers protection against viruses ◦ Interferon is produced by virus-infected cells to provide protection for the neighboring cells

7 Resistance to disease cont. ◦ Inflammation is a nonspecific body defense mechanism that occurs in response to tissue damage from microorganisms or trauma ◦ Localized inflammation is contained in a specific region ◦ Inflammation sets the stage for tissue repair and usually happens when tissues are damaged

8 Steps in inflammation

9 Specific Defense Mechanisms  Specific defense mechanism provide the third line of defense against microbial invasion. This third line defense is specific resistance, or immunity  Specificity and memory are two characteristics of specific defense mechanisms. The two primary cells that are involved and lymphocytes and macrophages  A molecule that is interpreted as nonself and that triggers an immune response is called a foreign antigen  Antigens are molecules that trigger an immune response

10 Development of lymphocytes ◦ Like all other blood cells, lymphocytes develop from stem cells in the bone marrow ◦ During fetal development, the bone marrow releases immature and undifferentiated lymphocytes into the blood, some go on to become T cells and some B cells ◦ T cells are responsible for cell mediated immunity in which the T cells directly attack the invading antigens ◦ B cells are responsible for anti-body mediated immunity

11 Devp. Of lymphocytes

12 Acquired Immunity ◦ 4 different kinds of ways to acquire specific resistance, or immunity ◦ The terms active and passive refer to whose immune system reacts to the antigen ◦ Active immunity occurs when the individual’s own body produces memory T cells and B cells in response to a harmful antigen ◦ Active immunity takes several days to develop but lasts a long time ◦ Passive immunity results when the immune agents develop in another person and are transferred to an individual who was not previously immune ◦ Passive immunity is immediately effective but does not last long

13 Acquire immunity cont. ◦ The terms natural and artificial refer to how the immunity is obtained ◦ Natural immunity is acquired through normal activities ◦ Artificial immunity requires some deliberate action

14 Chapter Recall ◦ Lymph Capillaries ◦ Collects lymph from three-fourths of the body ◦ Enlarged Pharyngeal tonsils ◦ Lack of resistance ◦ Provides localized protection against viruses ◦ Cause an increase in body temperature ◦ Principal cell involved in cell-mediated immunity ◦ Protein that triggers an immune response ◦ Produce antibodies ◦ Rapid, intense reaction against an antigen A.Adenoids B.Antigen C.Interferon D.Lacteal E.Plasma cells F.Pyrogens G.Secondary response H.Susceptibility I.T cells J.Thoracic duct

15 Answers ◦ Lymph Capillaries D-Lacteal ◦ Collects lymph from three-fourths of the body J-Thoracic Acid ◦ Enlarged Pharyngeal tonsils A-Adenoids ◦ Lack of resistance H-Susceptibility ◦ Provides localized protection against viruses C-Interferon ◦ Cause an increase in body temperature F-Pyrogens ◦ Principal cell involved in cell-mediated immunity I-T cells ◦ Protein that triggers an immune response B-Antigen ◦ Produce antibodies E-Plasma Cells ◦ Rapid, intense reaction against an antigen G-Secondary Response


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