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Explain why chemical toxins are used by animals; Name two ways that animals acquire toxins; Explain why adult and larvae fireflies use bioluminescence;

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Presentation on theme: "Explain why chemical toxins are used by animals; Name two ways that animals acquire toxins; Explain why adult and larvae fireflies use bioluminescence;"— Presentation transcript:

1 Explain why chemical toxins are used by animals; Name two ways that animals acquire toxins; Explain why adult and larvae fireflies use bioluminescence; Define chemiluminescence and bioluminescence; Identify the three components necessary for an animal to produce bioluminescence; Explain how light is produced from an atom; Identify the difference between ground state and excited state; Explain how emission spectra is produced.

2 ■ Bad Taste ■ Sickness and/or death The predator will learn to avoid the bad tasting prey, the prey that makes it ill, or in a worse case scenario, the predator will die from ingestion of the toxin.

3 Animals can make or synthesize toxins or irritating chemicals through a series of reactions that occur within its body; They can acquire and accumulate toxins by eating food that already contains the poison.

4 The sea slug produces a mixture of hydrogen peroxide, ammonia and acids. When it is threatened by predators, it defends itself by secreting these chemicals into the water. eleases/2005/12/ htm Aplysia (Aplysia californica) sea slug

5 Most poisonous snakes make their own toxin to deter predators, but this Asian snake, Rhabdophis tigrinus, eats poisonous toads and borrows it toxin. The snake stores the toxin in its neck glands. When it is threatened, it releases the poison. A Rhabdophis tigrinus snake

6 Some species of fireflies chemically manufacture their own toxins.

7 Some species of fireflies borrow toxins by eating the firefly that produces the chemicals. /

8 The flickering light of the firefly advertises its position to potential predators, and, without a chemical defense, it would become an easy, tasty meal.

9 g97/luredandliquidated.hrs.html Defensive chemicals called lucibufagins are released in firefly blood. Lucibufagins deter predatory spiders, insects and even predatory bats. The chemical also protects firefly eggs.

10 Fireflies glow in a process called bioluminescence, a living organism produces and emits lights through chemical reactions. Adult fireflies flash to attract their mates through the process of bioluminescence.

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12 Chemiluminescence: light produced from a chemical reaction Bioluminescence: light produced from a chemical reaction in a living organism

13 A chemiluminescent reaction occurs when an electron in a molecule absorbs enough energy from an external source to promote the electron into a higher energy orbital. This is called its excited state. The excited state is not stable. When the electron returns to its original lower energy orbital, called the ground state, energy is released from the molecule as a photon of light.

14 Bioluminescent organisms convert chemical energy to light energy. Bioluminescence requires 3 components: 1. Luciferin: a light emitting organic molecule 2. A source of oxygen 3. Luciferase: a protein catalyst Bioluminescence works on the same principle as chemiluminesence: electrons gain energy and jump to a higher orbital, as they fall back down they emit the energy in form of light.

15 “Luciferin reacts with adenosine triphosphase (ATP) - a chemical all cells use for energy-including ours. The reaction occurs in the presence Mg 2+ ions and an enzyme known as luciferase. Luciferase acts as a catalyst. The reacting species bind to the enzyme, where the reaction takes place. This produces a species known as adenylluciferin (also called luciferyl adenylate) and pyrophosphate. Adenylluciferin combines with oxygen to release form oxyluciferin and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). “

16 Firefly luciferin Oxyluciferin in its excited state

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19 Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry  2002, page 328

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22 When we write electron configurations, we are showing the electrons in their lowest energy state-the ground state.

23 Outside sources of energy can move the electron up energy levels.

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26 Ultraviolet Visible Infrared { { {

27 The further the electron falls, the greater the energy, and the higher the frequency. Each orbital inside the energy level has a different energy, and all the electrons can move around.

28 Why are chemical toxins used by animals? Name two ways that animals acquire chemical toxins. Why do adult fireflies light up? Why do firefly larvae light up? What is chemiluminescence? What is bioluminescence? What three components are necessary for an organism to be bioluminescent? How is light produced in an animal? Explain the terms ground state and excited state. How does an electron move from its ground state to its excited state? How is an emission spectra produced?

29 Demo chemiluminescence for your students. Directions at: chemiluminescence.pdf


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