Presentation on theme: "a criminology theory that sets forth the premise that crime occurs because of opportunity. According to routine activity theory, crime requires only a."— Presentation transcript:
a criminology theory that sets forth the premise that crime occurs because of opportunity. According to routine activity theory, crime requires only a motivated offender, an appealing target and the lack of capable protection for the target. The theory declines sociological causes of crime (Felson and Cohen, 1979)
First Published in 1979 Published by Marcus Felson and Lawrence E. Cohen Extension of Rational Choice Theory (Felson and Cohen, 1979) Created In Response to Positive Economic Climate with High Crime (Miller, 2006:82)
Marcus Felson Lawrence Cohen Primary interest: Crime ecology Professor of Criminal Justice at Rutgers University Active researcher: 1972 – present Born in 1947 (Rutgers, 2011) Primary interest: Delinquency Active researcher : 1975 – 2006 Professor of Sociology at University of California – Davis (UC-Davis, 2011)
Motivated Offender Absence of Capable Guardian Suitable Target (Felson and Cohen, 1979)
Capable and willing to commit crime Motivation of need or excitement Perhaps has nothing to lose Rewards greater than consequences (Burke, 2009)
People or objects that deter crime Police Dog Neighborhood Watch Alarm system Locking devices (Burke, 2009) “Routine Activity” deters crime (Felson, 1994)
Person or object of interest (Burke, 2009) Value – value of the target to offender Inertia – tangible ability to move Visibility – offender has knowledge of target Accessibility – access to target and route of escape for offender (Miller, 2006:82)
Convergence of: › a motivated offender, › inadequate guardian, › and a suitable target at the same place and time (Akers, 2004: 33)
Key to “environmental criminology” Utilizes Routine Activities Theory Each component of the R.A.T. triad is acted on by an agent Each “agent” has specific tools (physical and knowledge) One “agent” can fulfill multiple roles (Center for Problem-Oriented Policing, 2011)
Music Piracy & Copyright Violations › Offender is motivated by desire for music › Digital media is poorly protected › Media is in itself a suitable target Desirability Low chance of being caught
Offender is capable of committing the crime There is no guardian for the vehicle except the security camera Vehicle is visible and accessible. Items in vehicle have necessary inertia and value
Offender likely feels rewards greater than potential consequences Bank policies limit capabilities of otherwise “capable” guardian Cash is universally valuable and very mobile Bank is a visible and accessible target
Offender is motivated by personal satisfaction Security measures for signs are not strong enough Target provides amusement (value) and is accessible through an electronic communication system. Inertia is not a factor
Offender is motivated by prospect of a “high” Individual’s inhibitions seem insufficient to stop deviance No other guardians present Target is an intangible construct, a “high”, therefore it is as accessible as the drug
Definition for “motivated offender” too broad Criminal intent not specified Any component missing prevents crime (Akers, 2004: 33) Blames victim (Miller, 2006: 87)
How does the theory describe violent crime? What can be learned from the theory? How do we create a “capable” guardian? Is it useful beyond property crime?
Akers, Ronald L. 2004. Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, and Application. 4th edition. Los Angeles, California: Roxbury Publishing Company. Boca Raton Police Department. 2008. “Bank Robbery”. Retrieved 9 April 2011 [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XVha qoelqFg]
“brandomocha”. 2009. “Car burglary caught on surveillance camera in Los Angeles”. Retrieved 9 April 2011 [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-E- phMtqOq4] Burke, T. 2009. Routine Activity Theory. In Janet K. Wilson (Ed.), The Praeger Handbook of Victimology, (pp. 232-233). Santa Barbara, California: Praeger.
Center for Problem-Oriented Policing. 2011. “A Theory of Crime Problems”. Retrieved 13 April 2011 [http://www.popcenter.org/learning/pam/ help/theory.cfm] Cornelisse, Max. 2008. Hacking the Highway Traffic Signs. Retrieved 8 April 2011 [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=32JgS JYpL8o]
Felson, Marcus. 1979. Social Change and Crime Rate Trends: A Routine Activities Approach. American Sociological Review, 44:588-608. Retrieved 8 April 2011 [http://www.jstor.org/stable/2094589] Felson, Marcus. 1994. Crime and Everyday Life. Insight and Implications for Society. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
Kaxi Productions. 2009. “How to Roll a Joint”. Retrieved 11 April 2011 [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EplUQ tPmj8g] Miller, J. Mitchell, Christopher J. Schreck, and Richard Tewksbury. 2006. Criminological Theory: A Brief Introduction. Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon
Rutgers University - Newark. 2011. “Marcus Felson, CV”. Retrieved 12 April 2011 [http://www.newark.rutgers.edu/rscj/faculty /felson.html] University of California – Davis. 2011. “Larry Cohen, Department of Sociology”. Retrieved 12 April 2011 [http://sociology.ucdavis.edu/people/fzlarr y]