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a criminology theory that sets forth the premise that crime occurs because of opportunity. According to routine activity theory, crime requires only a.

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2 a criminology theory that sets forth the premise that crime occurs because of opportunity. According to routine activity theory, crime requires only a motivated offender, an appealing target and the lack of capable protection for the target. The theory declines sociological causes of crime (Felson and Cohen, 1979)

3  First Published in 1979  Published by Marcus Felson and Lawrence E. Cohen  Extension of Rational Choice Theory  (Felson and Cohen, 1979)  Created In Response to Positive Economic Climate with High Crime  (Miller, 2006:82)

4 Marcus Felson Lawrence Cohen  Primary interest: Crime ecology  Professor of Criminal Justice at Rutgers University  Active researcher: 1972 – present  Born in 1947  (Rutgers, 2011)  Primary interest: Delinquency  Active researcher : 1975 – 2006  Professor of Sociology at University of California – Davis  (UC-Davis, 2011)

5  Motivated Offender  Absence of Capable Guardian  Suitable Target  (Felson and Cohen, 1979)

6  Capable and willing to commit crime  Motivation of need or excitement  Perhaps has nothing to lose  Rewards greater than consequences  (Burke, 2009)

7  People or objects that deter crime  Police  Dog  Neighborhood Watch  Alarm system  Locking devices  (Burke, 2009)  “Routine Activity” deters crime  (Felson, 1994)

8  Person or object of interest  (Burke, 2009)  Value – value of the target to offender  Inertia – tangible ability to move  Visibility – offender has knowledge of target  Accessibility – access to target and route of escape for offender  (Miller, 2006:82)

9  Convergence of: › a motivated offender, › inadequate guardian, › and a suitable target  at the same place and time  (Akers, 2004: 33)

10  (Center for Problem-Oriented Policing, 2008)

11  Key to “environmental criminology”  Utilizes Routine Activities Theory  Each component of the R.A.T. triad is acted on by an agent  Each “agent” has specific tools (physical and knowledge)  One “agent” can fulfill multiple roles  (Center for Problem-Oriented Policing, 2011)

12  Music Piracy & Copyright Violations › Offender is motivated by desire for music › Digital media is poorly protected › Media is in itself a suitable target  Desirability  Low chance of being caught

13 (“brandomocha”, 2009)

14  Offender is capable of committing the crime  There is no guardian for the vehicle except the security camera  Vehicle is visible and accessible. Items in vehicle have necessary inertia and value

15  (Boca Raton Police Department, 2008)

16  Offender likely feels rewards greater than potential consequences  Bank policies limit capabilities of otherwise “capable” guardian  Cash is universally valuable and very mobile  Bank is a visible and accessible target

17  (Cornelisse, 2008)

18  Offender is motivated by personal satisfaction  Security measures for signs are not strong enough  Target provides amusement (value) and is accessible through an electronic communication system. Inertia is not a factor

19  (Kaxi Productions, 2009)

20  Offender is motivated by prospect of a “high”  Individual’s inhibitions seem insufficient to stop deviance  No other guardians present  Target is an intangible construct, a “high”, therefore it is as accessible as the drug

21  Definition for “motivated offender” too broad  Criminal intent not specified  Any component missing prevents crime  (Akers, 2004: 33)  Blames victim  (Miller, 2006: 87)

22  How does the theory describe violent crime?  What can be learned from the theory?  How do we create a “capable” guardian?  Is it useful beyond property crime?

23  Akers, Ronald L Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, and Application. 4th edition. Los Angeles, California: Roxbury Publishing Company.  Boca Raton Police Department “Bank Robbery”. Retrieved 9 April 2011 [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XVha qoelqFg]

24  “brandomocha” “Car burglary caught on surveillance camera in Los Angeles”. Retrieved 9 April 2011 [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-E- phMtqOq4]  Burke, T Routine Activity Theory. In Janet K. Wilson (Ed.), The Praeger Handbook of Victimology, (pp ). Santa Barbara, California: Praeger.

25  Center for Problem-Oriented Policing “A Theory of Crime Problems”. Retrieved 13 April 2011 [http://www.popcenter.org/learning/pam/ help/theory.cfm]  Cornelisse, Max Hacking the Highway Traffic Signs. Retrieved 8 April 2011 [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=32JgS JYpL8o]

26  Felson, Marcus Social Change and Crime Rate Trends: A Routine Activities Approach. American Sociological Review, 44: Retrieved 8 April 2011 [http://www.jstor.org/stable/ ]  Felson, Marcus Crime and Everyday Life. Insight and Implications for Society. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.

27  Kaxi Productions “How to Roll a Joint”. Retrieved 11 April 2011 [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EplUQ tPmj8g]  Miller, J. Mitchell, Christopher J. Schreck, and Richard Tewksbury Criminological Theory: A Brief Introduction. Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon

28  Rutgers University - Newark “Marcus Felson, CV”. Retrieved 12 April 2011 [http://www.newark.rutgers.edu/rscj/faculty /felson.html]  University of California – Davis “Larry Cohen, Department of Sociology”. Retrieved 12 April 2011 [http://sociology.ucdavis.edu/people/fzlarr y]


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