Biotic Factors are all the living parts of an ecosystem. For example: Fish, whales, & seaweed.
The biotic parts of the ecosystem are affected by a combination of abiotic factors. Abiotic factors are the non- living parts of an ecosystem.
Although mammals do not have gills and cannot breathe underwater, they can hold their breath for long periods of time. Some seals can hold their breath for 45 minutes and some whales can hold their breath for over an hour! Most marine mammals have either tails or webbed feet and their "arms" have evolved into flippers. Their warm blooded bodies have a streamlined shape, and also are layered to keep it insulated from the harsh cold temperature. Their bodies are either adapted with a layer of bubbler or have a thick layer of fur.
Gills take oxygen out of the water so that the fish can "breathe" underwater. (Many other marine organisms, like shrimp and sea slugs also have gills.) Most fish have a streamlined shape as well as a tail and fins to help them move easily and quickly through the water. A swim bladder (or the liver) helps the fish control its buoyancy and stay at a certain depth.
A Food Chain - A linear sequence of organisms, that shows a continuation of food energy from one organism to another as each consumes a lower member, and in turn is preyed upon by a higher member. A Food Web – All the food chains in an ecosystem.
Each step in the transfer of energy through an ecosystem is known as a tropic level. 90% of energy at each tropic level is used up and the remaining 10% is available to the next organism. Shark Tuna Daitoms (algae) Tertiary Consumers Secondary Consumers Primary Consumers Producers Shrimp
Symbiosis basically means ‘living together’ and in the situation of marine biology refers to a close relationship between two species benefiting from one another. These symbiotic interrelationships can be divided into three main categories; Mutualism, when both species involved benefit from the relationship, Commensalism, when one species benefits and the other isn’t affected, and Parasitism, when one species benefits, and the other is harmed in the process. Examples of symbiosis; - Clown fish and the anemone
There is a fourth, a more behind the scenes idea of symbiosis known as Mimicry. Which involves one species imitating another to gain the benefits enjoyed by that species. For example a Banded snake eel mimicking a venomous sea snake in order to deter predators.
When one species benefits from another but is not harmed or annoyed. For example; a remora and a shark.
Is when one organism lives on or inside of a host animal without immediately causing it any harm. The over all result is the organism that is the parasite benefits from the host. For Example; leeches feed off a lil boy swimming.
This is where two organisms benefits from each other, in a cooperative relationship. For example; Baleen whale and plankton.
When two organisms are fighting for the same space, food, or shelter. For Example; Two sharks fighting over the same seal. Competition can also be indirect and direct.
When a organism(predator) preys on the weak(prey) for survival. For example; Killer whale hunting a penguin.
Species Interactions Take the form of PredationCompetitionCommensalismMutualismParasitism Between OverSuch as between Which involves Between Cooperative Partnership Limited Resources PredatorPrey SharkRemora ParasiteHost
Strips of baleen from the bowhead whale make a good palm tree at the top of the world.
Google Images: http://www.kmuska.com/ocean/adaptations.htmlhttp://www.kmuska.com/ocean/adaptations.html Retrieved April 5 th Google Images: http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2652/3829755985_f18b24bda7.jpg http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2652/3829755985_f18b24bda7.jpg Retrieved April 5 th Google Images: http://myanimalblog.files.wordpress.com/2008/03/orca.jpghttp://myanimalblog.files.wordpress.com/2008/03/orca.jpg Retrieved April 6 th Google Images: http://ridge.icu.ac.jp/gen-ed/ecosystem-jpgs/food-web.jpghttp://ridge.icu.ac.jp/gen-ed/ecosystem-jpgs/food-web.jpg Retrieved April 7 th Google Images: http://www.allalaska.com/imagebank/gallery/Salt%20Water%20Fishi ng/images/Salt%20Water%20Fishing-Jimi%20Sea%27s%20Boat.jpg Retrieved April 8 th http://www.allalaska.com/imagebank/gallery/Salt%20Water%20Fishi ng/images/Salt%20Water%20Fishing-Jimi%20Sea%27s%20Boat.jpg
Muska, Karen (1/04/2003). Adaptations in the Coral Reef. firstname.lastname@example.org (Unknown Date). Biotic Factors email@example.com Abbott, Dave (May 2000). Symbiosis Colman, Phil ( 01.01.98 ). Feeding Relationships Wikipedia ( 12 April 2010 ). Mimicry