BY: NATALIE OWCHARIW AND SARAH GALLO Formation of NATO/Warsaw Pact By: Natalie Owchariw and Sarah Gallo
Questions What was the Cold War? -The Cold War was of political and military tension between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States with NATO and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in Warsaw Pact). Basically, it was the NATO vs. the Warsaw Pact What was going on at this time? -It was a time of high economic growth, prosperity, and confrontation High economic growth/prosperity- new acts like the National Security Act was created, which created the National Security Council, for example. Which helped create the CIA This act also did the following: shaped millions of people’s educational, marital, and career plans, as stated from the textbook Confrontation- the tension with the Soviet Union Are we finally at peace? No, especially due to the tensions with the Soviet Union
Background Information: NATO treaty signed in Washington, April 4, 1949 NATO stands for- North Atlantic Treaty Organization Western Germany was being remilitarized -We were scared of another war -Also imposed threat to the national security of peace-loving states/ our “member states” We thus added Germany to the NATO -Soviets saw this as a threat and created the Warsaw Pact Purpose of this was to stop further Communist expansion, which prompted the United States and 11 other Western nations to form the NATO This alignment provided the framework for the military standoff that continued throughout the Cold War
Background Information: Warsaw Pact Treaty signed on May 14, 1955 Named Warsaw Pact Treaty because it was signed in Warsaw The members that went included the following: Soviet Union, Albania, Poland, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria The Soviet Union allowed Communist nations in Eastern Europe to be apart of this Pact due to the “threat” of the NATO; Soviet Union founded a rival alliance Purpose of this treaty: It called on the “member states” or the countries that were included in this treaty, to come to the defense of any member attacked by an outside force This treaty also set up a unified military command under Marshal Ivan S. Konev of the Soviet Union
History: NATO - After World War II, an intense rivalry had developed between Communist countries, led by the Soviet Union, and non-Communist nations, led by the United States. -This rivalry became known as the Cold War -With this, we believed that the Soviet Union would not attack Western Europe if they thought that such an attack would trigger war with the United States -The United States’ officials insisted that NATO rely on nuclear weapons to deter a Soviet attack -Another purpose of this was to safeguard the freedom of the North Atlantic community (The countries that were involved) -After the destruction of the Second World War, the nations of Europe struggled to rebuild their economies and their security
History: NATO - The United States viewed Europe as vital to prevent the expansion of communism across the continent. As a result, Secretary of State George Marshall proposed a program of economic aid to Europe. Thus known as the Marshall Plan. The Soviets refused to participate in this or to allow its satellite states to accept this economic assistance -This was done stop the spread of communism -Another reason for why we came up with NATO
History: Warsaw Pact/ “Treaty of Friendship” -The Warsaw Pact was the Soviet Union’s response to West Germany joining NATO, since they were mad about it -The Soviet Union alliance: While the Soviet Union liberated Eastern Europe from Nazi Germany in World War II, the Red Army established military control over that region. The Soviet Union's domination was inevitable in this part of Europe. The Soviet Union intended to use Eastern Europe as a buffer zone for the forward defense of its western borders. The Soviet Union ensured its control of the region by turning the East European countries into subjugated allies; the Warsaw Pact -They reorganized the armies of Eastern Europe to fight with the Red Army. Hence, this is the model on which the Soviet Union built the Warsaw Pact. Valuable experience was taken from this -This was created as a reaction to West Germany becoming an independent nation and joining NATO
Perspectives: NATO: -Who supported it? The countries that were involved in it such as the following: The United States, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom -Who was against it? Why? The people part of the Warsaw Pact, which includes the following: Soviet Union, Albania, Poland, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria. The reason why these countries were against the Warsaw Pact is because they were fighting against the Soviets. Believe: Basically, the NATO was made to defend the membering states of the U.S. from the Soviet Union and their alliances; it is a security organization to protect from the Soviets, in particular Warsaw Pact: -Who supported it? The countries that were involved in it such as the following: Soviet Union, Albania, Poland, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria -Who was against it? Why The people part of the NATO such as the following: The United States, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. The reason why these countries were against the NATO was because they were fighting/taking actions due to resentment or anger toward the U.S./ the NATO Believe: Basically, this was made in response to the NATO. With this pact, the Soviet Union and their allies are supposed to protect each other from any attack by an outside force, possibly the NATO
Opinion Natalie’s opinion- - NATO : I believe that this was very essential. I believe this because it marked the end of the isolationist period. In addition, this also provides an alliance which means we have more allies (in case of another war). Thus, I believe that the correct decisions were made. - Warsaw Pact : I am against this because the Warsaw Pact because it is basically against the U.S.; they were like a big bully to us. Therefore, I believe they made incorrect decisions. Sarah’s opinion- - NATO: I believe that it is good because there is a possibility we could go to war again and we would all the help we could get. Hence, I believe that all the correct decisions were made. - Warsaw Pact: I believe that this is bad for the U.S. My reason for this is because if for example, the U.S. attacks the Soviet Union, that means that everyone of their allies will attack us, which could be very bad, even though we have our own allies. Therefore, I believe that the incorrect decisions were made.
Advantages and Disadvantages Technically, each group benefited from these events NATO: the United States and its membering states/the countries that are allied with us benefit from this -The U.S. and these countries benefit from this because if any of the countries in this alliance are having tensions, they have back up/ aid by all the other countries Warsaw Pact: the Soviet Union and its countries that are allied with the Soviet Union benefit from this -The Soviet Union and their countries benefit from this because if any of the countries in this alliance are having tensions, they have back up/aid by all the other countries There are some disadvantages though. For both the NATO and the Warsaw Pact, they are both against each other, which can be bad because they both have a strong backup, their allies
International Events NATO: This is a threat to world peace because having the United States involved in the NATO means that we are authorized to go to war anywhere in the world For example, what Russia is currently doing in Ukraine is against the United Nations Charter and threatens peace and security in Europe Warsaw Pact: “The Warsaw Pact has reflected the changing pattern of Soviet-East European relations and manifested problems that affect all alliances,” therefore there is a threat to world peace with this pact, as well
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