Presentation on theme: "Current status of greenbug biotypes in sorghum J. Scott Armstrong USDA-ARS, Wheat, Peanut and other Field Crop Research Unit, Stillwater, OK."— Presentation transcript:
Current status of greenbug biotypes in sorghum J. Scott Armstrong USDA-ARS, Wheat, Peanut and other Field Crop Research Unit, Stillwater, OK
Really no single definition for biotypes but three common traits; First, biotypes are intraspecifc categories. Second, biotypes are usually morphologically indistinguishable. Third, biotypes differ in expressed biological attributes. What is significantly important to us is that biotypes are an economic threat to sorghum, and this is differentiated by what “type” they are; deter- mined by observing the host reaction (e.g., live/dead, resistant/susceptible) to a preselected matrix of plant genotypes. Consequently, the genetic basis for identification of greenbug biotypes is plant based and not insect derived.
Journal of Insect Science: 2010, Vol. 10 | Article 176 D. Downie “Baubles, bangles, and biotypes: A critical review of the use and abuse of the biotype concept” Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, 6140 South Africa “It is argued here that the term ‘biotype’ and its applications are overly simplistic, confused, have not proved useful in current pest management, and lack predictive power for future management”
The keeper of the greenbug biotypes Biotypes A, C, E, F, G, H, I, K, Collections from: NY, FL, SC,TX, CO, WY, etc…..etc…. Approximately 50% of the recognized insect biotypes on agricultural crops are aphids (Saxena & Barrion 1987)
Collect form grasses or agricultural landscape Watch for parasitic wasps and other problems Isolate (clones) Keep a steady supply of plants (usually barley) Ship to Universities, Agencies and Institutes across the U.S. for research purposes. Screen for phenotypic reaction to the plant (differentiate biotype) “Typing greenbugs”
ColonyCusterDS 28AAmigoCI 17882CI 17959LargoGRS 1201ElbonInsave RyeWintermaltPost 90PI TX PI Selection (Gb1)(Gb2)(Gb5)(Gb4)(Gb3)(Gb6)Rye(Gb2, Gb6)Barley(Rsg1a)(Rsg2b) BSSRSSSRSRSRR ?? SR CSSRRRRRSRSRRSRRR ESSSRRRRSRSRRSSRR FSRSSSSSSSSRR SS GSSSSSSRSRRRRSSSR HSSSSSRSSSSSS R ISSSRRRRSRSRRSSSR KSSSRRRRSRSRRSSSS NYSRRSSSSSRSRRSSSR FL1SRRSSSSSRSRRSSSS Plant matrix wheat / rye / barley / sorghum - greenbug determination
ColonyTX PI Selection B?? SR CSRRR ESSRR F SS GSSSR H R ISSSR KSSSS NYSSSR FL1SSSS SC Plant matrix for sorghum/greenbug determination Biotype “E”: TX 7000 and TX 2737 are susceptible, TX 2783 and PI are resistant Biotype “I”: TX 7000, TX 2737 and TX 2783 are susceptible. PI is resistant; Biotype “K”: PI , TX 7000, TX 2737 and TX 2783 are all susceptible. PI R R R S R R R S R S
Table 1. Total mean (± SE) number of nymphs (Md) produced by a female greenbug reared on different sorghum varieties that are designated as susceptible or resistant *. *Model DF = 11, 71, F = 6.27, P> F= F= F= F=< Greenbug Biotype Sorghum Variety Resistance Status to E, I, K EIK TX 7000S, S, S48.3 ± 5.9 A48.5 ± 5.2 A52.3 ± 4.9 AB TX 2737S, S, S39.7± 4.9 AB34.5 ± 6.4 AB42.5 ± 3.8 BC TX 2783R, S, S21.0 ± 3.7 C46.2 ± 6.4 A58.3 ± 5.0 A PI R, R, S28.2 ± 2.1. BC 25.5 ± 2.2 B30.5 ± 2.6 C
E C I K TX 7000 TX 2783 PI PI Chlorosis Plant Height Leaf number
Are there other ways to determine difference in biotypes beside plant reaction? Molecular means – but not by mitochondrial DNA. RNA seq analysis to differentiate biotypes. (Just genes and relatively cheap). Cuticular hydrocarbons – with Dr. Jack Dillwith, OSU Entomology Dept. Salivary proteins – can be done but not easily used for everyday test. Intrinsic rate of increase for GB on different lines – Female – has offspring – take that offspring and count how long she is in reproduction and how many offspring she has. rm = (log Md)/d. What’s in the future in terms of biotypes ???????