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Writing the Inductive Essay Going from examples to conclusions.

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1 Writing the Inductive Essay Going from examples to conclusions

2 Inductive Writing  Looks at specific instances and culminates in the conclusion  Used for controversial topics to maintain reader attention A complete thesis in the beginning can deter readers who disagree You can build your argument slowly  Helps you clarify (not prove) your stance to insure logical progression and conclusion  Uses persuasion

3 Introduction  Orient reader to purpose and Q @ I  Address the scope  Possible generalizations Question Speculation (maybe, perhaps; some think X and others think Y) Both  By end, reader has a general idea of the topic and the direction (the stance)  Reader does not know your bottom line or conclusion

4 Introduction and Question Strategy Since Dolly, the cloned sheep, was born in 1997, cloning has become a controversial issue. People are concerned not only about cloned animals, but about human cloning, because it involves many ethical problems. The latest scientific discoveries indicate that cloning can bring humans many benefits. But it can also create problems. So, we should carefully consider the question whether cloning, especially human cloning, should be encouraged or not.

5 Writing the Body  Interpret the evidence (Clearness, sufficiency, and importance/relevance)  Connect the facts to the conclusion so that the audience understands your thinking (clearness, sufficiency, and depth)  Use original thinking (avoid discussing what everyone else would discuss)

6 First Issue: Human Sacrifice in Cloning It has been claimed that cloning can save patients’ lives. There are many patients waiting for years for organ transplants to save their lives. However, many of them die before they can have the operations. If cloning were successful, these patients could get organs to save their lives. When humans are cloned for curing others who take their organs, are those cloned humans really “human”? A human being is not just a living organism. Even animals have feelings. How can we treat the human clones as sacrificial lambs to save others’ lives? Don’t they have the right to live? The idea of cloning humans to save people who need transplants is just preposterous.

7 Conclusion  Review the interpretations/conclusions already made  Show how your conclusion follows logically from the evidence used  End with the “so what?”  Understand that inductive reasoning does not necessarily prove anything

8 Conclusion: Cloning Should Not be Encouraged (Writer’s Position) Considering the benefits and risks of cloning, we can see that cloning may cause many unexpected and serious problems. In addition, human cloning is not ethical at all since humans should not be treated as animals to be used in experiments, and also humans should not be cloned to provide organs. It is irresponsible to encourage cloning without any concern for the problems it may cause. International guidelines should be established before cloning experiments get out of control.

9 Conducting Research  Use only credible sources (accuracy)  Use only verifiable facts to maintain reliability (accuracy)  Select the best evidence to achieve your purpose (importance/relevance)  Uncover appropriate POVs (breadth)

10 Pre-standards Check  Use the “so what?” method to check for missing links or connections  Ask yourself if someone else could explain your thinking

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