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Elaine Spink.  To increase awareness of the wider context, legislation & frameworks for safeguarding/child protection and promoting the welfare of children.

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Presentation on theme: "Elaine Spink.  To increase awareness of the wider context, legislation & frameworks for safeguarding/child protection and promoting the welfare of children."— Presentation transcript:

1 Elaine Spink

2  To increase awareness of the wider context, legislation & frameworks for safeguarding/child protection and promoting the welfare of children and young people  To know what constitutes abuse and to appreciate the scale of abuse  To understand aspects of offender behaviour and how child sex abusers typically operate within organisations  To know what to do if you have concerns about a child

3  What is the context?  What is abuse?  What is the scale of abuse?  Who are the abusers?  A model of abuser behaviour  Developing safer cultures Your wellbeing

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5  Bichard Inquiry (2004)  The Children Act 2004  Every Child Matters Agenda (ECM Agenda) 2003  Be healthy; Stay safe; Enjoy and achieve; Make a positive contribution; Achieve economic well-being  Recruiting Safely - guidance CWDC 2009  Working Together to Safeguard Children  DfE March 2013  Keeping Children Safe in Education: Statutory guidance for schools and colleges DfE April 2014 Deter Reject Prevent

6  Managers & Leaders  Early Years  Education  Health  Justice & Crime Prevention  Social, Family & Community Support  Sport & Culture

7 Jail those who turn a blind eye to child abuse, says Cameron Professionals – teachers, social workers, councillors - face five years in prison for turning blind eye under new plan set out by prime minister The Guardian http://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/mar/03/david- cameron-child-abuse-ignore-jail

8  Disqualification under the Childcare Act 2006 Statutory guidance for local authorities, maintained schools, independent schools, academies and free schools February 2015 https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/disqualifica tion-under-the-childcare-act-2006  https://www.atl.org.uk/publications-and- resources/factsheets/disqualification-by- association.asp https://www.atl.org.uk/publications-and- resources/factsheets/disqualification-by- association.asp

9 Abuse

10 Accidental/inadvertentDeliberate/Intentional Physical Emotional Neglect Sexual

11 Most abuse is perpetrated by a stranger. False: statistics show that most abusers come from within the family or people the child knows. Abuse is more prevalent in lower income or poorly educated families. False: abuse of all kinds happens to children across all social, ethnic and religious divides Most victims will tell someone without prompting. False: most victims suffer abuse in silence. Abusers fit common stereotypes and are easy to identify. False: abusers do not fit stereotypes and anyone could be an abuser. Sexual abuse is the most common form of abuse. False: sexual abuse is only one of a number of forms of abuse.

12 What would you estimate to be the % of : a) Children who experience physical abuse 24% b) Children aged under 16 who experience sexual abuse 15% c) Children who experienced serious absence of care at home during childhood 6% d) Sexually abused children who did not tell anyone about the abuse at the time 72%

13 What is the scale of abuse? An estimated 3,000 allegations of abuse made against staff in maintained schools each year. - 66% (1,980) physical abuse, - 15% (450) sexual abuse, - 15% (450) inappropriate behaviour. In 2005, 2,416 people were reported to DfES for inclusion on List 99 or PoCA List; 525 people were added to the lists 7

14 Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children is defined as: protecting children from maltreatment; preventing impairment of children’s health or development; ensuring that children grow up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe and effective care; and taking action to enable all children to have the best outcomes DfE 2014 Keeping Children Safe in Education

15 The prevalence of child sexual abuse 16% or more of adults state that they experienced sexual abuse as children (Cawson et al 2000) 9 Estimated rates of children reporting sexual crime: 2% incest 6% outside the family, but known to the child

16 The prevalence of child sexual abuse Women Men 20% – 30% 10% – 20% 8a

17 IncestExtra-familial abuseRape Estimated rates of reporting sexual crime 2%6% 17% 9a

18 95 of every 100 allegations never lead to a conviction Less than 5% of all allegations lead to a conviction 10

19 Adult males 50% +? Adult females 5 – 20% + ? Adolescents and children 30% +? Source: Home Truths about Child Sexual Abuse; Itzin 2000 Myths and Facts about Sex Offenders; Center for Sex Offender Management 2000 Preventing Child Sexual Abuse; Smallbone 2008 “The majority of perpetrators sexually assault children known to them, with about 80% of offences taking place in the home of either the offender or the victim”. Source: Sexual Offending against Children: Understanding the Risk; Grubin 1998

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23 6 Nov 2014 Former Terra Nova school teacher jailed for sexual abuse of 24 pupils Keith Cavendish-Coulson, 71, sentenced to more than six years for abusing boys aged as young as eight in early 1970s Operation Yewtree Rotherham child abuse scandal: 1,400 children exploited, report finds BBC August 2014

24 June 2013

25 92.5% are aware of interest by 21. 67.5% have offended by 21. 15% chose career solely to abuse. 41.5% state abuse is part of motivation. 77.5% arranged meetings outside work for abuse. 67.5% took children away overnight. 49 - the average number of admitted victims. 42% had reputation as ‘touchy’, ‘pervy’ etc. Source: Sullivan & Beech 2004 – Sample of 42 workers with children who were serious sexual offenders

26 Finkelhor - ‘Four Preconditions’ Internal Inhibitors ‘Conscience’ External Inhibitors ‘Creating Opportunity’ Overcome Victim Resistance ‘Doing It And Getting Away With It’ Motivation ‘Wanting To’ Thoughts Sex with a child

27 A model of abuser behaviour (Finkelhor) Motivation ‘Wanting to sexually offend’ Internal inhibitors ‘Conscience’ Overcome victim resistance ‘Doing it and getting away with it’ External inhibitors Other people (‘creating opportunity’) Thoughts: Sex with a child 15

28 As the audio presentation plays note what the offender says about his pattern of abusing that fits each stage. 1 2 3 4

29 Spending lots of time with them 95% Touching non-sexually 91% Share personal information 78% Tell them they’re special 70% Treat them like adults 70% Play with them 70% Saying loving/caring things 65% Give special rewards/privileges 43% Talking like you were their age 35% Source: Benoit Leclerc, Jean Proulxt, André McKibben, May 2005

30 Strategies to desensitise a victim to sexual contact Touching non-sexually 95% Saying loving/caring things 70% Getting victims sexually excited or curious 65% Talking more and more about sex 60% Source: Benoit Leclerc, Jean Proulxt, André McKibben, May 2005

31 Strategies to maintain a victim’s silence Saying you will go to jail/get into trouble 35% Giving rewards for secrecy 21% Saying they will go to jail 17% Saying others would think they’re gay 13% Threats to harm/injure 0% Source: Benoit Leclerc, Jean Proulxt, André McKibben, May 2005

32 Don’t panic Don’t interrupt the child or ask leading questions Disclosure training permits the use of open questions – who, what, where, when? Don’t make promises or agree to keep a secret Report your concern as soon as you can to the Designated Person - DP

33 Reporting a concern in school/setting Do not ask the child probing questions & do not challenge parents DP may liaise with other agencies to make a decision Individual has a concern Report to Designated Person (DP) Record information in line with school policy

34 What can we do? Applying the model to the stages of recruitment – 12 Steps to Safer Recruitment Deter- Invite applications Reject - Interview applicants Prevent- Appoint and induct staff Prevent & Detect - Develop and maintain safe culture

35 Features of a safer culture Open, no secrets Belief that ‘it could happen here’ Clear procedures for reporting concerns Support in raising concerns and commitment to take action Code of conduct Policies and procedures put into practice Induction and probationary periods Commitment to safeguarding and an ongoing culture of vigilance 5

36 Case Studies Questions: 1.Are you happy with this person’s behaviour? 2.What do you think is behind the behaviour? 3.What would you do in this situation?

37  April 2013 Working Together to Safeguard Children  April 2014 Keeping Children Safe in Education  Teaching Agency September 2011 http://www.childnet-int.org/kia/traineeteachers/ For NQTs and trainee teachers – “to support with personal use of social networking services to keep themselves, their students and their job safe.” Includes resources to teach pupils about e-safety  Disclosure & Barring Service (DBS) – replaced CRB and ISA (Independent Safeguarding Authority) in Dec 2012  NSPCC NSPCC  Childnet International Childnet International

38  Hobart & Frankel (2010) Good Practice in Safeguarding Children Chapter 5 The Rights of Children & the Legal Framework Chapter 8 Safeguarding Children (see page 121 – checklist of Good Practice) Chapter 11 – Current Issues

39 “For those agencies whose job it is to protect children and vulnerable people, the harsh reality is that if a sufficiently devious person is determined to seek out opportunities to work their evil, no one can guarantee that they will be stopped. Our task is to make it as difficult as possible for them to succeed...” Bichard Inquiry Report, 2004, p 12 para 79 24


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