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Safeguarding & Promoting the welfare of children

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Presentation on theme: "Safeguarding & Promoting the welfare of children"— Presentation transcript:

1 Safeguarding & Promoting the welfare of children
Elaine Spink

2 Learning Intentions To increase awareness of the wider context, legislation & frameworks for safeguarding/child protection and promoting the welfare of children and young people To know what constitutes abuse and to appreciate the scale of abuse To understand aspects of offender behaviour and how child sex abusers typically operate within organisations To know what to do if you have concerns about a child

3 Your wellbeing Outline of the session What is the context?
What is abuse? What is the scale of abuse? Who are the abusers? A model of abuser behaviour Developing safer cultures Your wellbeing

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5 What is the context? Bichard Inquiry (2004) The Children Act 2004
Every Child Matters Agenda (ECM Agenda) 2003 Be healthy; Stay safe; Enjoy and achieve; Make a positive contribution; Achieve economic well-being Recruiting Safely - guidance CWDC 2009 Working Together to Safeguard Children DfE March 2013 Keeping Children Safe in Education: Statutory guidance for schools and colleges DfE April 2014 Deter Reject Prevent

6 The Children’s Workforce
Managers & Leaders Early Years Education Health Justice & Crime Prevention Social, Family & Community Support Sport & Culture

7 Jail those who turn a blind eye to child abuse, says Cameron
Tuesday 3rd March 2015 Jail those who turn a blind eye to child abuse, says Cameron Professionals – teachers, social workers, councillors - face five years in prison for turning blind eye under new plan set out by prime minister The Guardian

8 disqualification by association
Disqualification under the Childcare Act 2006 Statutory guidance for local authorities, maintained schools, independent schools, academies and free schools February 2015 https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/disqualification-under-the-childcare-act-2006 https://www.atl.org.uk/publications-and-resources/factsheets/disqualification-by-association.asp

9 Abuse

10 Accidental/inadvertent Deliberate/Intentional
What is abuse? Accidental/inadvertent Deliberate/Intentional Physical Emotional Neglect Sexual

11 True or False? Most abuse is perpetrated by a stranger.
False: statistics show that most abusers come from within the family or people the child knows. Abuse is more prevalent in lower income or poorly educated families. False: abuse of all kinds happens to children across all social, ethnic and religious divides Most victims will tell someone without prompting. False: most victims suffer abuse in silence. Abusers fit common stereotypes and are easy to identify. False: abusers do not fit stereotypes and anyone could be an abuser. Sexual abuse is the most common form of abuse. False: sexual abuse is only one of a number of forms of abuse.

12 What is the scale of abuse?
What would you estimate to be the % of : a) Children who experience physical abuse 24% b) Children aged under 16 who experience sexual abuse 15% c) Children who experienced serious absence of care at home during childhood 6% d) Sexually abused children who did not tell anyone about the abuse at the time 72%

13 What is the scale of abuse?
An estimated 3,000 allegations of abuse made against staff in maintained schools each year. - 66% (1,980) physical abuse, - 15% (450) sexual abuse, - 15% (450) inappropriate behaviour. In 2005, 2,416 people were reported to DfES for inclusion on List 99 or PoCA List; 525 people were added to the lists ‘Child sexual abuse: What the statistics tell us’ - Making sense of the recent spate of child sex abuse revelations has to begin with the context of numbers. But those statistics are incredibly hard to find. Mona Chalabi The Guardian June 2013 7

14 Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children is defined as:
protecting children from maltreatment; preventing impairment of children’s health or development; ensuring that children grow up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe and effective care; and taking action to enable all children to have the best outcomes DfE 2014 Keeping Children Safe in Education

15 The prevalence of child sexual abuse
16% or more of adults state that they experienced sexual abuse as children (Cawson et al 2000) Estimated rates of children reporting sexual crime: 2% incest 6% outside the family, but known to the child 9

16 The prevalence of child sexual abuse
10% – 20% 20% – 30% Women Men 8a

17 Estimated rates of reporting sexual crime
2% 6% 17% Incest Extra-familial abuse Rape 9a

18 Less than 5% of all allegations lead to a conviction
95 of every 100 allegations never lead to a conviction 10

19 Who are the sex offenders?
Adult males % + ? Adult females – 20% ? Adolescents and children 30% + ? Source: Home Truths about Child Sexual Abuse; Itzin 2000 Myths and Facts about Sex Offenders; Center for Sex Offender Management 2000 Preventing Child Sexual Abuse; Smallbone 2008 “The majority of perpetrators sexually assault children known to them, with about 80% of offences taking place in the home of either the offender or the victim”. Source: Sexual Offending against Children: Understanding the Risk; Grubin 1998

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22 Media v Reality

23 Rotherham child abuse scandal: 1,400 children exploited, report finds
Operation Yewtree 6 Nov Former Terra Nova school teacher jailed for sexual abuse of 24 pupils Keith Cavendish-Coulson, 71, sentenced to more than six years for abusing boys aged as young as eight in early 1970s Rotherham child abuse scandal: 1,400 children exploited, report finds BBC August 2014

24 June 2013

25 What do we know about “professional” abusers?
92.5% are aware of interest by 21. 67.5% have offended by 21. 15% chose career solely to abuse. 41.5% state abuse is part of motivation. 77.5% arranged meetings outside work for abuse. 67.5% took children away overnight. 49 - the average number of admitted victims. 42% had reputation as ‘touchy’, ‘pervy’ etc. Source: Sullivan & Beech 2004 – Sample of 42 workers with children who were serious sexual offenders

26 ‘Creating Opportunity’
Finkelhor - ‘Four Preconditions’ Motivation ‘Wanting To’ Thoughts Sex with a child Internal Inhibitors ‘Conscience’ External Inhibitors ‘Creating Opportunity’ Overcome Victim Resistance ‘Doing It And Getting Away With It’

27 A model of abuser behaviour
(Finkelhor) Thoughts: Sex with a child Motivation ‘Wanting to sexually offend’ Internal inhibitors ‘Conscience’ External inhibitors Other people (‘creating opportunity’) Overcome victim resistance ‘Doing it and getting away with it’ 15

28 Audio presentation As the audio presentation plays note what the offender says about his pattern of abusing that fits each stage.

29 Strategies to gain a victim’s trust
Spending lots of time with them 95% Touching non-sexually % Share personal information % Tell them they’re special % Treat them like adults % Play with them % Saying loving/caring things % Give special rewards/privileges % Talking like you were their age 35% Source: Benoit Leclerc, Jean Proulxt, André McKibben, May 2005

30 Strategies to desensitise a victim to sexual contact
Touching non-sexually % Saying loving/caring things % Getting victims sexually excited or curious % Talking more and more about sex % Source: Benoit Leclerc, Jean Proulxt, André McKibben, May 2005

31 Strategies to maintain a victim’s silence
Saying you will go to jail/get into trouble 35% Giving rewards for secrecy 21% Saying they will go to jail % Saying others would think they’re gay 13% Threats to harm/injure 0% Source: Benoit Leclerc, Jean Proulxt, André McKibben, May 2005

32 What can we do? Dealing with a disclosure
Don’t panic Don’t interrupt the child or ask leading questions Disclosure training permits the use of open questions – who, what, where, when? Don’t make promises or agree to keep a secret Report your concern as soon as you can to the Designated Person - DP

33 What can we do? Reporting a concern in school/setting
Do not ask the child probing questions & do not challenge parents Individual has a concern DP may liaise with other agencies to make a decision Report to Designated Person (DP) Record information in line with school policy

34 What can we do? Applying the model to the stages of recruitment – 12 Steps to Safer Recruitment
Deter Invite applications Reject Interview applicants Prevent Appoint and induct staff Prevent & Detect - Develop and maintain safe culture

35 Features of a safer culture
Open, no secrets Belief that ‘it could happen here’ Clear procedures for reporting concerns Support in raising concerns and commitment to take action Code of conduct Policies and procedures put into practice Induction and probationary periods Commitment to safeguarding and an ongoing culture of vigilance 5

36 Case Studies Questions: Are you happy with this person’s behaviour? What do you think is behind the behaviour? What would you do in this situation?

37 Government April 2013 Working Together to Safeguard Children
April 2014 Keeping Children Safe in Education Teaching Agency September 2011 For NQTs and trainee teachers – “to support with personal use of social networking services to keep themselves, their students and their job safe.” Includes resources to teach pupils about e-safety Disclosure & Barring Service (DBS) – replaced CRB and ISA (Independent Safeguarding Authority) in Dec 2012 NSPCC Childnet International

38 Further Reading Hobart & Frankel (2010) Good Practice in Safeguarding Children Chapter 5 The Rights of Children & the Legal Framework Chapter 8 Safeguarding Children (see page 121 – checklist of Good Practice) Chapter 11 – Current Issues

39 “For those agencies whose job it is to protect children and vulnerable people, the harsh reality is that if a sufficiently devious person is determined to seek out opportunities to work their evil, no one can guarantee that they will be stopped. Our task is to make it as difficult as possible for them to succeed...” Bichard Inquiry Report, 2004, p 12 para 79 24


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