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Transportation Security SYST 461/660, OR750 SPRING 2013 Irvin Varkonyi Adj Professor GMU School of Public Policy.

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Presentation on theme: "Transportation Security SYST 461/660, OR750 SPRING 2013 Irvin Varkonyi Adj Professor GMU School of Public Policy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Transportation Security SYST 461/660, OR750 SPRING 2013 Irvin Varkonyi Adj Professor GMU School of Public Policy

2 Transportation Security The Who, What, When, Where, Why and How Exaggerated? Or real? UZU

3 Transportation Security O Your Bob Crandall video about American Airlines – Security concerns? O Are there differences between security and safety? O Are there connections between security in the aviation industry and other transportation modes?

4 Transportation Security O Aviation security violations O 9/11 O The Shoe bomber – Richard Reid O The Underwear bomber - Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab O Yemeni bomber

5 Transportation Security O Privacy and Airport Screening O 4c 4c O The tip of the iceberg? nOf4 nOf4

6 Transportation Security Who? O Good guys O Bad guys O Passers-by

7 Transportation Security What? O Protection of people, assets O Our economy and our lifestyle O Risk Management

8 Transportation Security When? O 1960’s/1970’s Hijackings/terrorism O 1990’s aviation terrorism outside US, such as Pan Am Lockerbie O 2000’s/aviation terrorism inside US

9 Transportation Security Where? O Cuba O Europe O US – DB Cooper - refers to an unidentified man who hijacked a Boeing 727 aircraft in the airspace between Portland, Oregon, and Seattle, Washington, on November 24, 1971. He extorted $200,000 in ransom and parachuted to an uncertain fate. Despite an extensive manhunt and an ongoing FBI investigation, the perpetrator has never been located or positively identified. The case remains the only unsolved air piracy in American aviation history.

10 Transportation Security Why? O Money? O Cold War? O Middle East conflict? O Mental breakdowns?

11 Transportation Security How? 1. Transportation Security – Edwards/Goodrich 2. Aviation Security – After Four Decades, It’s Time for Fundamental Review – Jenkins 3. TSA Transportation Systems Specific Plan

12 Edwards/Goodrich O Transportation is the lifeline of any nation, connecting people, goods and services, supporting the economy and facilitating the delivery of public safety response services. O Part of the critical infrastructure O Surface transportation is an open system, inherently vulnerable to attack O Ease of use for commuters O Length of systems precludes physical security 12 ©2013, CRC Press/ Taylor & Francis

13 Edwards/Goodrich O Security = the effort to protect assets—physical, human, or intellectual—from criminal interference, removal or destruction, whether by terrorists or domestic criminals, or incidental to technological failures or even natural hazards events. O Security = deter, detect, deny and mitigate. These objectives may be accomplished by direct intervention by human or canine assets, or through physical barriers and the application of technology. 13 ©2013, CRC Press/ Taylor & Francis

14 Edwards/Goodrich O Safety, security, emergency management often used interchangeably, but are different. O Security is oldest = protect something valuable from deliberate interference. O Security requires a physical response to an external conscious threat, normally meaning that this is a human versus human issue. O Goods being transported, equipment and system transporting them= different priorities. 14 ©2013, CRC Press/ Taylor & Francis

15 Edwards/Goodrich 15 O Open system, passengers prefer passive system but system has to discourage attacks O Transportation Research Board = Elements of security system O Deter O Detect O Deny O Mitigate ©2013, CRC Press/ Taylor & Francis

16 Edwards/Goodrich O Risk assessment= the systematic analysis of the potential sources of damage or disruption to a valuable asset, with the goal of instituting mitigation or protective measures that would prevent or lessen the impact of such an event. O Risk assessment for transportation infrastructure has four segments O understanding what natural and technological hazards and human caused threats exist in the target community O determination of the likelihood of a hazard or threat event occurring O defining the elements of a system that are vulnerable to the hazards or threat O evaluating the consequence of such an occurrence. 16 ©2013, CRC Press/ Taylor & Francis

17 Edwards/Goodrich O Point of vulnerability for a given transportation asset determines which security strategy is the best investment O Evaluate for the vulnerability, e.g. bridge piers O Concentrate surveillance and mitigation at point of vulnerability 17 ©2013, CRC Press/ Taylor & Francis

18 Edwards/Goodrich O What would happen if that transportation asset were attacked? O Destruction, denial of service? O Are there alternate methods of continuing service? O Impact on human safety? Impact on economy? O Indirect impacts from passing through contaminated areas? 18 ©2013, CRC Press/ Taylor & Francis

19 Edwards/Goodrich O Critical Infrastructure/Key Resources O Identification, Prioritization, and Protection O HSPD-7: “The Nation possesses numerous key resources, whose exploitation or destruction by terrorists could cause catastrophic health effects or mass casualties comparable to those from the use of a weapon of mass destruction, or could profoundly affect our national prestige and morale. In addition, there is critical infrastructure so vital that its incapacitation, exploitation, or destruction, through terrorist attack, could have a debilitating effect on security and economic well-being.” 19 ©2013, CRC Press/ Taylor & Francis

20 Jenkins/Rand O From 9/12/01 through end of 2011, there were 75 terrorist attacks on airliners with 157 deaths O In same period, 2000 terrorist attacks on trains with 4000 fatalities

21 Jenkins/Rand O US population – a cantankerous bunch O Hostility of Congress – hostility between Executive/Legislative – hostility between Democrats and Republicans O Hawley – Permanent Emergency O Develop flexibility O Less focus on objects, more focus on passengers O Use of Pre-check

22 Jenkins/Rand O Consider real changes: O Outside organizations to design optimal aviation security (i.e. take security outside of terminal?) O Trusted travelers/trusted cargo shippers

23 TSA Transportation Systems Specific Plan O l-transportation-systems l-transportation-systems O Fulfill requirements of HSPD – 7 (see earlier reference by Edwards/Goodrich) O National Infrastructure Protection Plan O TSA and US Coast Guard are Sector-Specific Agencies for Transportation Systems Sector

24 TSA Transportation Systems Specific Plan O Expansive, open and accessible set of interconnected systems of airways, roads, tracks, terminals, and conveyances that provide services essential to our way of life O The Sector Partnership Model O Transportation Systems Sector Risk Management Framework

25 TSA Transportation Systems Specific Plan O Four goals 1. Prevent and deter acts of terrorism 2. All-hazard preparedness and resilience 3. Effective use of resources 4. Improve sector situational awareness Risk = f(probability, consequence) (natural disaster Risk = f(threat, vulnerability, consequence) (terrorism)

26 TSA Transportation Systems Specific Plan O Mission, Asset and System Specific Risk Assessments – a scenario specific approach O Modal Assessments – high risk focus with a mode of transportation O Sector Assessment and Comparative Analysis – cross modal comparative analyses focusing on two or more modes O Risk prioritization, measuring effectiveness, research and development

27 TSA Transportation Systems Specific Plan O Capability Gap Process – a tool used to develop detailed risk-based needs that focus on delivering the necessary capabilities to mitigate top risks.

28 Transportation Security

29 O Summary O History O Participants O Intermodal approach O A political process O Risk Assessment approach

30 Transportation Security Irvin Varkonyi 703 863-9686

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