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Benchmark 1 Reviewer Eric Angat Teacher. What are landforms? Landform refers to the shape of the land like mountains and valleys.

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Presentation on theme: "Benchmark 1 Reviewer Eric Angat Teacher. What are landforms? Landform refers to the shape of the land like mountains and valleys."— Presentation transcript:

1 Benchmark 1 Reviewer Eric Angat Teacher

2 What are landforms? Landform refers to the shape of the land like mountains and valleys.

3 4. What are the processes that slowly change the surface of Earth? Weathering and erosion

4 What is weathering? Weathering breaks rocks and turn them to sediments.

5 What are the causes or agents of weathering? Water, ice, wind, temperature, living things

6 Why is water considered as the most powerful agent of weathering? The physical forms and chemical properties of water can easily break rocks.

7 Why are the rocks in stream smooth and rounded? Rocks in a stream roll because of the flowing water, this process makes them smooth and rounded html

8 How can acids affect rocks? Acid causes chemical weathering on rocks. Acids can dissolve the minerals in rocks thus breaking the rock.

9 Sustainable

10 Abrasion

11 Foliation- Weathering

12 Freezing and Thawing

13 Growth of Roots

14 Hot and Humid Climate

15 Type of Rocks

16 Weathered Rocks

17 Dust Bowl

18 Contour Plowing

19 Delta

20 Soil Horizon

21 What are the three main forces inside Earth? 1. Compressional stress causes a rock to shorten. 2. Tensional stress cause a rock to elongate, or pull apart. 3. Shear stress causes rocks to slip past each other.

22 How is weathering different from erosion and deposition? 5.55 Weathering Breaking of rocks into sediments. Erosion Moving of sediment to another place. Deposition Settling of sediments. deposition erosion

23 Erosion Big particles Intermediate particles Small particles

24 Slump Erosion- large segment of land moves. Gravity Ocean Water erodes the base. Water erosion results to SLUMP due to gravity. Gravity

25 Creep Erosion is slow movement (Gravity) Gravity Slow movement

26 erosion No trees lead to erosion. Roots of trees bind the soil.

27 artificial levees help prevent flooding

28 Wind blows the sand Desert is type of biome that has little or no precipitation.

29 Water expands when it freezes causing frost wedging.

30 Surface Area Surface area is the measure of how much exposed area a solid object has. uncrumpled paper crumpled paper uncrumpled paper has higher surface area

31 Erosion by water No trees lead to erosion

32 Wind blows the sand Desert is type of biome that has little or no precipitation.

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34 What are barrier islands? Barrier Island is a narrow island of sand that lies parallel to a shoreline. Barrier Island of North Carolina

35 Barrier islands protect the coastlines from erosion and severe storm surge and they harbor several habitats that are refuges for wildlife. Why are barrier islands important?

36 Erosion by gravity glaciation avalanche Soil creep Rock slide Ice (slow) Snow ( fast) Soil (slow) Rocks ( fast) Use Venn diagram to compare glaciation, avalanche, soil creep, rock slide and lahar. lahar (volcano)

37 Sea Floor spreading happening in the Atlantic Ocean Magma rises forming new crust. Atlantic Ocean widening on both sides

38 Sea floor spreading is making the Atlantic Ocean wider. But the Earth is not growing bigger! Why? Because Pacific Ocean crust is subducted into the mantle. Subduction recycles Earth’s crust into new rocks.

39 Most earthquakes happen around the Pacific Ocean. A lot of volcanoes!

40 Name the locations of the continents. Northern Hemisphere Equator Northern Hemisphere

41 What are the three types of plate boundaries? Divergent boundary Transform or Shear boundary Convergent boundary

42 What type of stress on rocks do plate boundaries produce? Divergent boundary Transform boundary Convergent boundary Tensional stress Shear stress Compressional stress

43 Alfred Wegener. The Origins of Continents and Oceans

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46 How did Alfred Wegener use the CONTINENTS to explain the Continental Drift theory? The continents fit together like a puzzle. Climate in this region was similar.

47 How did Alfred Wegener use ROCKS to explain the Continental Drift theory? The Appalachian mountains to the shores were used to be part of Africa. And the rocks matched! United States Africa Appalachian Mountain

48 What causes the continents to move? Continents move because of the convection current in the mantle. Earth’s core convection

49 These circular currents in the asthenosphere are called convection currents. Hot magma goes up and cooler magma goes down. What is convection current?

50 What are the different types of plate boundaries? Rift valley in Africa Sea floor spreading in the Atlantic ocean Volcanic activities Trench, mountain ranges, volcanic activities, subduction zones San Andreas fault, no volcanic activity Horizontal Shear divergent convergent Transform

51 This image shows San Andreas Lake and Crystal Springs reservoir from the air, looking SouthEast from HERE. The highway paralleling the lakes to the left is Interstate 280, ``the most beautiful urban highway in the United States''. (And it is indeed very scenic.)from HERE. Transform or Shear boundary What type of boundary is the San Andreas fault?

52 Convergent - Oceanic-continental boundary forms_________________. trench volcanoes subduction

53 Convergent – Continental -continental boundary forms_________________. Mountain range subduction

54 Convergent - Oceanic-oceanic boundary forms_________________. subduction trench volcanoes

55 Splitting Africa Widening Atlantic Ocean How is Earth affected by divergent boundaries?

56 Young Crust is nearer to the ridge. Old Crust is farther from the ridge.

57 Rift Valley is a divergent boundary What kind of boundary is a rift valley?

58 Most EARTHQUAKES happen anywhere around the Pacific Ring of Fire! Where do most earthquakes happen?

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60 Ridge push Rocks are melted and recycled into new rocks. convection Ridge push Rocks are melted and recycled into new rocks. Ridge

61 Transform boundary San Andreas fault Convergent boundary volcanoes Pacific Ring of Fire Earthquake prone Earthquakes happen because of too much stress in fault lines or a result of volcanic eruption. They are most common in the Pacific Ring of Fire. In what area of our planet are earthquakes most common?

62 Divergent – Tensional stress Convergent - Compressional stress Transform-Shear stress How is Earth affected by plate boundaries?

63 Which is the hanging wall and which is the foot wall in a fault? A is the _______wall while B is the _____ wall. hanging foot

64 Describe the motion of the foot wall and the hanging wall in a normal fault. Foot wall Hanging wall

65 5. Describe the motion of the foot wall and the hanging wall in a reverse fault. Foot wall Hanging wall

66 Normal Fault Reverse Fault Movement of the crust Hanging wall goes down and foot wall goes up. Hanging wall goes up and foot wall goes down.

67 Rocks break in the focus because of too much stress! Deep focus-weak earthquake Shallow focus- strong earthquake Seismic waves Epicenter What is the location within Earth where earthquake begin?

68 7. Which state has the most frequent earthquakes? Why? make-think-again.html Alaska registers the most earthquakes in a given year, with California placing second. California, however, has the most damaging earthquakes because of its greater population and extensive infrastructure.

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70 Nuclear power plants in the United States Describe the locations of nuclear power plants in the United States? Any relation with the earthquake map?

71 They calculate the distance and arrival time of seismic waves to determine the epicenter. How do seismologists determine the location of the EPICENTER?

72 Breaks. Deformed- does not return to original form. Returns to original form or shape. Stress causes Strain. What are the three types of strain? Brittle strain Ductile strain Elastic strain

73 Primary Wave (fastest) expands and contracts Secondary Wave right angle Surface Wave Rolling motion

74 Intensity is determined from effects on people, human structures, and the natural environment. Magnitude measures the energy released at the source of the earthquake. It is measured with a seismograph based on the amplitude. What is the difference between intensity and magnitude?

75 divergent No plate boundary convergent Transform or strike slip convergent Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean

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77 The three types of volcanoes. Explosive or non- explosive eruption Biggest Gentle or non-explosive eruptions of flowing lava. widest Most violent ( explosive) eruption. Smallest type

78 Caldera is a collapsed crater due to volcanic eruption.

79 Why do volcanoes erupt and explode? Magma is lighter than rock so it rises and comes out as lava. The pressure that it carries with it causes volcanoes to erupt and even explode when lake water comes in contact with the very hot lava.

80 A lahar is a volcanic rocks, ash and water that flows rapidly along a slope.

81 Lahars are extremely deadly destructive they can destroy any structures in their path. Effects of lahar?

82 Lahars can destroy forests.

83 Lahars can bury communities with debris.

84 Lahars can block tributary streams. Tributaries are water channels that supply water to the river.

85 d. Lahars can lead to increased deposition of sediment. Deposition of sediment makes rivers shallow.

86 Pyroclastic refers to the masses of rock fragments and gases from a volcano.

87 All three are from volcanic eruptions. Lava Pyroclastic flow Lahar Molten rocks Fast moving volcanic ash and rocks Fast moving flow of muddy water

88 Draw this picture in your notebook.

89 FOCUS - Origin of the earthquake, happens underground. Fault line Transform Boundary Seismic waves Epicenter. Earthquake felt on the surface

90 Seismic Waves are produced by Earthquakes Body WavesSurface Waves Slowest Travels only on Earth’s surface P-Wave Fastest Can travel through Earth S-Wave Fast Can travel through Earth, but not through the core.

91 Seismic Waves are produced by Earthquakes Body WavesSurface Waves Slowest Travels only on Earth’s surface P-Wave Fastest Can travel through Earth S-Wave Fast Can travel through Earth, but not through the core.

92 Seismic Waves are produced by Earthquakes Body WavesSurface Waves Slowest Travels only on Earth’s surface P-Wave Fastest Can travel through Earth S-Wave Fast Can travel through Earth, but not through the core.

93 Surface waves are seismic waves that stays on the surface.

94 S waves cannot penetrate the liquid outercore. P-wave

95 10. Which seismic wave can penetrate the core but refracts? P waves also refracts but is able to penetrate the core. P-wave

96 In what directions do the P, S, and Surface waves move? sideways Right angle rolling

97 There are different types of seismic waves based on the movement. The two major types are body waves ( S and P waves ) and surface waves. Body waves can travel through earth inner layers while surface waves can travel only on the surface of the land. 13. Which is faster S or P wave? 4000 km 7 minutes 4000 km 13 minutes 4000 km

98 Figure 10-10, page 503 Refraction or bending of waves provide scientists information on the composition and interior of Earth. 15. Which type of wave can penetrate the outer and inner core? 16. What happens to S and P waves as they travel inside earth? 15. Which type of wave can penetrate the outer and inner core? 16. What happens to S and P waves as they travel inside earth? Refraction

99 is the bending of light. Pencil looks nearer to the surface. Pencil looks distorted.

100 How are we affected by Earthquakes? Liquefaction tsunami Destruction of properties landslide avalanche

101 How are we affected by Earthquakes? Liquefaction Soil turns to mud. landed-in-earthquake1.htm

102 How are we affected by Earthquakes? tsunami

103 How are we affected by Earthquakes? Destruction of properties

104 How are we affected by Earthquakes? landslide

105 How are we affected by Earthquakes? avalanche


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