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Benchmark 1 Reviewer Eric Angat Teacher.

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1 Benchmark 1 Reviewer Eric Angat Teacher

2 What are landforms? Landform refers to the shape of the land like mountains and valleys.

3 Weathering and erosion
4. What are the processes that slowly change the surface of Earth? Weathering and erosion https://images.search.yahoo.com/images/view;_ylt=AwrB8o8ZjyhU5WUAQEKJzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTI0ZWlzM3JzBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1nBG9pZANmZGVmN2Q0Y2UwOWNhYjJiMjY5YzlmYTgzYzMwOWYwMwRncG9zAzEwNgRpdANiaW5n?back=https%3A%2F%2Fimages.search.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%2Fimages%3Fp%3Dweathering%2Band%2Berosion%26fr%3Dcrmas%26fr2%3Dpiv-web%26spos%3D12%26nost%3D1%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D106&w=800&h=600&imgurl=2.bp.blogspot.com%2F-t0l08Tm27fs%2FUI6bYvokZpI%2FAAAAAAAAA8o%2F3dn0nRwiw7o%2Fs1600%2F71_image_Boulder.jpg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Fearthlearningidea.blogspot.com%2F2012%2F10%2Fcracking-apart-physical-weathering.html&size=120.9KB&name=Earth+Learning+Idea&p=weathering+and+erosion&oid=fdef7d4ce09cab2b269c9fa83c309f03&fr2=piv-web&fr=crmas&tt=Earth+Learning+Idea&b=61&ni=21&no=106&ts=&tab=organic&sigr=12l26kfj9&sigb=13tsuj64u&sigi=12t5thh9k&sigt=10jga95nn&sign=10jga95nn&.crumb=L5qie/zpQtV&fr=crmas&fr2=piv-web

4 What is weathering? Weathering breaks rocks and turn them to sediments. Yosemite Valley (/joʊˈsɛmɨtiː/ yoh-sem-i-tee) is a glacial valley in Yosemite National Park in the western Sierra Nevada mountains of California.

5 Water, ice, wind, temperature, living things
What are the causes or agents of weathering?  Water, ice, wind, temperature, living things Yosemite Valley (/joʊˈsɛmɨtiː/ yoh-sem-i-tee) is a glacial valley in Yosemite National Park in the western Sierra Nevada mountains of California.

6 Why is water considered as the most powerful agent of weathering?
The physical forms and chemical properties of water can easily break rocks.

7 Why are the rocks in stream smooth and rounded?
Rocks in a stream roll because of the flowing water, this process makes them smooth and rounded.

8 Acids can dissolve the minerals in rocks thus breaking the rock.
How can acids affect rocks? Acid causes chemical weathering on rocks. Acids can dissolve the minerals in rocks thus breaking the rock.

9 Sustainable

10 Abrasion

11 Foliation- Weathering

12 Freezing and Thawing

13 Growth of Roots

14 Hot and Humid Climate

15 Type of Rocks

16 Weathered Rocks

17 Dust Bowl

18 Contour Plowing

19 Delta

20 Soil Horizon D

21 What are the three main forces inside Earth? 1. Compressional stress
causes a rock to shorten. 2. Tensional stress cause a rock to elongate, or pull apart. 3. Shear stress causes rocks to slip past each other.

22 Breaking of rocks into sediments. Moving of sediment to another place.
How is weathering different from erosion and deposition? Weathering Erosion Deposition erosion deposition erosion Breaking of rocks into sediments. Moving of sediment to another place. Settling of sediments. 5.55

23 Erosion Big particles Intermediate particles Small particles
Intermediate particles Small particles

24 Slump Erosion- large segment of land moves.
Ocean Water erodes the base. Gravity Water erosion results to SLUMP due to gravity. Gravity

25 Creep Erosion is slow movement (Gravity)
Gravity

26 No trees lead to erosion. Roots of trees bind the soil.

27 artificial levees help prevent flooding

28 Desert is type of biome that has little or no precipitation.
Wind blows the sand Desert is type of biome that has little or no precipitation.

29 Water expands when it freezes causing frost wedging.

30 Surface Area Surface area is the measure of how much exposed area a solid object has. uncrumpled paper has higher surface area Crumpled paper: uncrumpled paper crumpled paper

31 No trees lead to erosion
Erosion by water

32 Desert is type of biome that has little or no precipitation.
Wind blows the sand Desert is type of biome that has little or no precipitation.

33

34 What are barrier islands?
Barrier Island of North Carolina Barrier Island is a narrow island of sand that lies parallel to a shoreline.

35 Why are barrier islands important?
Barrier islands  protect the coastlines from erosion and severe storm surge and they harbor several habitats that are refuges for wildlife.

36 Snow ( fast) Ice (slow) Rocks ( fast) Soil (slow)
lahar (volcano) avalanche glaciation Snow ( fast) Ice (slow) Erosion by gravity Rock slide Rocks ( fast) Soil creep Soil (slow) Use Venn diagram to compare glaciation, avalanche, soil creep, rock slide and lahar.

37 Sea Floor spreading happening in the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean widening on both sides Magma rises forming new crust.

38 But the Earth is not growing bigger! Why?
Sea floor spreading is making the Atlantic Ocean wider. But the Earth is not growing bigger! Why? Because Pacific Ocean crust is subducted into the mantle. Subduction recycles Earth’s crust into new rocks.

39 Most earthquakes happen around the Pacific Ocean.
A lot of volcanoes!

40 Name the locations of the continents.
Northern Hemisphere Equator Northern Hemisphere

41 What are the three types of plate boundaries?
Divergent boundary Transform or Shear boundary Convergent boundary

42 What type of stress on rocks do plate boundaries produce?
Divergent boundary Tensional stress Transform boundary Shear stress Convergent boundary Compressional stress

43 Alfred Wegener. The Origins of Continents and Oceans

44 http://ph. images. search. yahoo

45

46 The continents fit together like a puzzle.
How did Alfred Wegener use the CONTINENTS to explain the Continental Drift theory? Climate in this region was similar. https://fretzreview.wikispaces.com/Adam+and+Christian+-+Plate+Tectonics The continents fit together like a puzzle.

47 How did Alfred Wegener use ROCKS to explain the
Continental Drift theory? United States Appalachian Mountain Africa Africa The Appalachian mountains to the shores were used to be part of Africa. And the rocks matched!

48 Continents move because of the convection current in the mantle.
What causes the continents to move? Continents move because of the convection current in the mantle. Harry Hess (1962) and R.Deitz (1961) to publish similar hypotheses based on mantle convection currents, now known as "sea floor spreading". This idea was basically the same as that proposed by Holmes over 30 years earlier, but now there was much more evidence to further develop and support the idea. convection Earth’s core

49 What is convection current?
These circular currents in the asthenosphere are called convection currents. Hot magma goes up and cooler magma goes down.

50 What are the different types of plate boundaries?
divergent Rift valley in Africa Sea floor spreading in the Atlantic ocean Volcanic activities convergent Trench, mountain ranges, volcanic activities, subduction zones Transform Horizontal Shear San Andreas fault, no volcanic activity

51 What type of boundary is the San Andreas fault?
Transform or Shear boundary This image shows San Andreas Lake and Crystal Springs reservoir from the air, looking SouthEast from HERE. The highway paralleling the lakes to the left is Interstate 280, ``the most beautiful urban highway in the United States''. (And it is indeed very scenic.)

52 Convergent - Oceanic-continental boundary forms_________________.
volcanoes trench subduction

53 Continental -continental boundary forms_________________.
Convergent – Continental -continental boundary forms_________________. Mountain range subduction

54 Convergent - Oceanic-oceanic boundary forms_________________.
volcanoes trench subduction

55 How is Earth affected by divergent boundaries?
Splitting Africa Widening Atlantic Ocean

56 Old Crust is farther from the ridge.
Young Crust is nearer to the ridge.

57 Rift Valley is a divergent boundary
What kind of boundary is a rift valley? Rift Valley is a divergent boundary

58 Where do most earthquakes happen?
Most EARTHQUAKES happen anywhere around the Pacific Ring of Fire!

59

60 Ridge Ridge push Ridge push
convection Rocks are melted and recycled into new rocks. Rocks are melted and recycled into new rocks.

61 In what area of our planet are earthquakes most common?
Transform boundary San Andreas fault Convergent boundary volcanoes Earthquakes happen because of too much stress in fault lines or a result of volcanic eruption. They are most common in the Pacific Ring of Fire. Pacific Ring of Fire Earthquake prone

62 How is Earth affected by plate boundaries?
Divergent –Tensional stress Convergent -Compressional stress Transform-Shear stress

63 Which is the hanging wall and which is the foot wall in a fault?
A is the _______wall while B is the _____ wall. hanging foot

64 Describe the motion of the foot wall and the hanging wall in a normal fault.

65 5. Describe the motion of the foot wall and the hanging wall in a reverse fault.

66 Hanging wall goes down and foot wall goes up. Movement of the crust
Reverse Fault Normal Fault Hanging wall goes down and foot wall goes up. Movement of the crust Hanging wall goes up and foot wall goes down.

67 Rocks break in the focus because of too much stress!
What is the location within Earth where earthquake begin? Epicenter Seismic waves Earthquake Facts The largest recorded earthquake in the United States was a magnitude 9.2 that struck Prince William Sound, Alaska on Good Friday, March 28, 1964 UTC. Before electronics allowed recordings of large earthquakes, scientists built large spring-pendulum seismometers in an attempt to record the long-period motion produced by such quakes. The largest one weighed about 15 tons. There is a medium-sized one three stories high in Mexico City that is still in operation. The earliest reported earthquake in California was felt in 1769 by the exploring expedition of Gaspar de Portola while the group was camping about 48 kilometers (30 miles) southeast of Los Angeles. The largest recorded earthquake in the world was a magnitude 9.5 (Mw) in Chile on May 22, 1960. The average rate of motion across the San Andreas Fault Zone during the past 3 million years is 56 mm/yr (2 in/yr). This is about the same rate at which your fingernails grow. Assuming this rate continues, scientists project that Los Angeles and San Francisco will be adjacent to one another in approximately 15 million years. The East African Rift System is a km (31-37 miles) wide zone of active volcanics and faulting that extends north-south in eastern Africa for more than 3000 km (1864 miles) from Ethiopia in the north to Zambezi in the south. It is a rare example of an active continental rift zone, where a continental plate is attempting to split into two plates which are moving away from one another. Moonquakes (“earthquakes” on the moon) do occur, but they happen less frequently and have smaller magnitudes than earthquakes on the Earth. It appears they are related to the tidal stresses associated with the varying distance between the Earth and Moon. They also occur at great depth, about halfway between the surface and the center of the moon. The first “pendulum seismoscope” to measure the shaking of the ground during an earthquake was developed in 1751, and it wasn’t until 1855 that faults were recognized as the source of earthquakes. Although both are sea waves, a tsunami and a tidal wave are two different unrelated phenomenona. A tidal wave is a shallow water wave caused by the gravitational interactions between the Sun, Moon, and Earth. A tsunami is a sea wave caused by an underwater earthquake or landslide (usually triggered by an earthquake) displacing the ocean water. The world’s greatest land mountain range is the Himalaya-Karakoram. It countains 96 of the world’s 109 peaks of over 7,317m (24,000 ft). The longest range is the Andes of South America which is 7,564km (4700 mi) in length. Both were created bythe movement of tectonic plates. The hypocenter of an earthquake is the location beneath the earth’s surface where the rupture of the fault begins. The epicenter of an earthquake is the location directly above the hypocenter on the surface of the earth. It is thought that more damage was done by the resulting fire after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake than by the earthquake itself. It is estimated that there are 500,000 detectable earthquakes in the world each year. 100,000 of those can be felt, and 100 of them cause damage. A seiche (pronounced SAYSH) is what happens in the swimming pools of Californians during and after an earthquake. It is “an internal wave oscillating in a body of water” or, in other words, it is the sloshing of the water in your swimming pool, or any body of water, caused by the ground shaking in an earthquake. It may continue for a few moments or hours, long after the generating force is gone. A seiche can also be caused by wind or tides. Each year the southern California area has about 10,000 earthquakes. Most of them are so small that they are not felt. Only several hundred are greater than magnitude 3.0, and only about are greater than magnitude 4.0. If there is a large earthquake, however, the aftershock sequence will produce many more earthquakes of all magnitudes for many months. The magnitude of an earthquake is a measured value of the earthquake size. The magnitude is the same no matter where you are, or how strong or weak the shaking was in various locations. The intensity of an earthquake is a measure of the shaking created by the earthquake, and this value does vary with location. The Wasatch Range, with its outstanding ski areas, runs North-South through Utah, and like all mountain ranges it was produced by a series of earthquakes. The 386 km (240-mile)-long Wasatch Fault is made up of several segments, each capable of producing up to a M7.5 earthquake. During the past 6,000 years, there has been a M6.5+ about once every 350 years, and it has been about 350 years since the last powerful earthquake, which was on the Nephi segment. There is no such thing as “earthquake weather”. Statistically, there is an equal distribution of earthquakes in cold weather, hot weather, rainy weather, etc. Furthermore, there is no physical way that the weather could affect the forces several miles beneath the surface of the earth. The changes in barometric pressure in the atmosphere are very small compared to the forces in the crust, and the effect of the barometric pressure does not reach beneath the soil. From there were only four states that did not have any earthquakes. They were: Florida, Iowa, North Dakota, and Wisconsin. The core of the earth was the first internal structural element to be identified. In 1906 R.D. Oldham discovered it from his studies of earthquake records. The inner core is solid, and the outer core is liquid and so does not transmit the shear wave energy released during an earthquake. Earthquakes occur in the central portion of the United States too! Some very powerful earthquakes occurred along the New Madrid fault in the Mississippi Valley in Because of the crustal structure in the Central US which efficiently propagates seismic energy, shaking from earthquakes in this part of the country are felt at a much greater distance from the epicenters than similar size quakes in the Western US. The swimming pool at the University of Arizona in Tucson lost water from sloshing (seiche) caused by the 1985 M8.1 Michoacan, Mexico earthquake 2000 km (1240 miles) away. The San Andreas fault is NOT a single, continuous fault, but rather is actually a fault zone made up of many segments. Movement may occur along any of the many fault segments along the zone at any time. The San Andreas fault system is more that 1300 km (800 miles) long, and in some spots is as much as 16 km (10 miles) deep. Most earthquakes occur at depths of less than 80 km (50 miles) from the Earth’s surface. The world’s deadliest recorded earthquake occurred in 1556 in central China. It struck a region where most people lived in caves carved from soft rock. These dwellings collapsed during the earthquake, killing an estimated 830,000 people. In 1976 another deadly earthquake struck in Tangshan, China, where more than 250,000 people were killed. Florida and North Dakota have the smallest number of earthquakes in the United States. The majority of the earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur along plate boundaries such as the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American plate. One of the most active plate boundaries where earthquakes and eruptions are frequent, for example, is around the massive Pacific Plate commonly referred to as the Pacific Ring of Fire. Alaska is the most earthquake-prone state and one of the most seismically active regions in the world. Alaska experiences a magnitude 7 earthquake almost every year, and a magnitude 8 or greater earthquake on average every 14 years. The deepest earthquakes typically occur at plate boundaries where the Earth”s crust is being subducted into the Earth’s mantle. These occur as deep as 750 km (400 miles) below the surface. The cause of earthquakes was stated correctly in 1760 by British engineer John Michell, one of the first fathers of seismology, in a memoir where he wrote that earthquakes and the waves of energy that they make are caused by “shifting masses of rock miles below the surface”. It was recognized as early as 350 BC by the Greek scientist Aristotle that soft ground shakes more than hard rock in an earthquake. The earliest recorded evidence of an earthquake has been traced back to 1831 BC in the Shandong province of China, but there is a fairly complete record starting in 780 BC during the Zhou Dynasty in China. Human beings can detect sounds in the frequency range 20-20,000 Hertz. If a P wave refracts out of the rock surface into the air, and it has a frequency in the audible range, it will be heard as a rumble. Most earthquake waves have a frequency of less than 20 Hz, so the waves themselves are usually not heard. Most of the rumbling noise heard during an earthquake is the building and its contents moving. In 1663 the European settlers experienced their first earthquake in America. When the Chilean earthquake occurred in 1960, seismographs recorded seismic waves that traveled all around the Earth. These seismic waves shook the entire earth for many days! This phenomenon is called the free oscillation of the Earth. The interior of Antarctica has icequakes which, although they are much smaller, are perhaps more frequent than earthquakes in Antarctica. The icequakes are similar to earthquakes, but occur within the ice sheet itself instead of the land underneath the ice. Some of our polar observers have told us they can hear the icequakes and see them on the South Pole seismograph station, but they are much too small to be seen on enough stations to obtain a location. Rocks break in the focus because of too much stress! Deep focus-weak earthquake Shallow focus- strong earthquake

68 7. Which state has the most frequent earthquakes? Why?
Alaska registers the most earthquakes in a given year, with California placing second. California, however, has the most damaging earthquakes because of its greater population and extensive infrastructure.

69 http://www. washingtonstatesearch

70 Nuclear power plants in the United States
Describe the locations of nuclear power plants in the United States? Any relation with the earthquake map? Nuclear power plants in the United States There are 104 nuclear power plants currently in operation in the United States. For a link to the U.S. government NRC  Click Here In addition there are 23 new nuclear plant locations planned in the United States. Of this total;  2 have been suspended, 2 suspended indefinitely, 1 delayed, 2 temporarily suspended, leaving 16 in progress with opposition. The U.S. Chamber of Commerce has a website Project No Project  I put together a summary table from that source. But if you go to the Project No Project link you can find out the current status by state of new nuclear power plants.

71 How do seismologists determine the location of the EPICENTER?
They calculate the distance and arrival time of seismic waves to determine the epicenter.

72 Deformed-does not return to original form.
Stress causes Strain. What are the three types of strain? Breaks. Brittle strain Ductile strain Deformed-does not return to original form. Elastic strain Returns to original form or shape.

73 Primary Wave (fastest)
Describe the movements of the three types of seismic waves? Primary Wave (fastest) expands and contracts Surface Wave Rolling motion Secondary Wave right angle

74 What is the difference between intensity and magnitude?
Magnitude measures the energy released at the source of the earthquake. It is measured with a seismograph based on the amplitude. Intensity is determined from effects on people, human structures, and the natural environment.

75 convergent Atlantic Ocean Transform or strike slip convergent convergent divergent Pacific Ocean No plate boundary divergent

76

77 The three types of volcanoes.
Gentle or non-explosive eruptions of flowing lava. widest Most violent ( explosive) eruption. Smallest type Explosive or non- explosive eruption Biggest

78 Caldera is a collapsed crater due to volcanic eruption.

79 Why do volcanoes erupt and explode?
Magma is lighter than rock so it rises and comes out as lava. The pressure that it carries with it causes volcanoes to erupt and even explode when lake water comes in contact with the very hot lava.

80 A lahar is a volcanic rocks, ash and water that flows rapidly along a slope.

81 Effects of lahar? Lahars are extremely deadly destructive they can destroy any structures in their path.

82 Lahars can destroy forests.

83 Lahars can bury communities with debris.

84 Lahars can block tributary streams.
Tributaries are water channels that supply water to the river.

85 d. Lahars can lead to increased deposition of sediment.
Deposition of sediment makes rivers shallow.

86 Pyroclastic refers to the masses of rock fragments and gases from a volcano.

87 Molten rocks Pyroclastic flow Lava Lahar Fast moving flow of muddy
Fast moving volcanic ash and rocks All three are from volcanic eruptions. Lahar Fast moving flow of muddy water

88 Draw this picture in your notebook.

89 Transform Boundary Fault line
Epicenter. Earthquake felt on the surface Seismic waves Fault line FOCUS- Origin of the earthquake, happens underground.

90 are produced by Earthquakes
Seismic Waves are produced by Earthquakes Body Waves Surface Waves Slowest Travels only on Earth’s surface S-Wave Fast Can travel through Earth, but not through the core. P-Wave Fastest Can travel through Earth

91 are produced by Earthquakes
Seismic Waves are produced by Earthquakes Body Waves Surface Waves Slowest Travels only on Earth’s surface S-Wave Fast Can travel through Earth, but not through the core. P-Wave Fastest Can travel through Earth

92 are produced by Earthquakes
Seismic Waves are produced by Earthquakes Body Waves Surface Waves Slowest Travels only on Earth’s surface S-Wave Fast Can travel through Earth, but not through the core. P-Wave Fastest Can travel through Earth

93 are seismic waves that stays on the surface.
Surface waves are seismic waves that stays on the surface.

94 cannot penetrate the liquid outercore.
S waves cannot penetrate the liquid outercore. P-wave

95 10. Which seismic wave can penetrate the core but refracts?
P waves also refracts but is able to penetrate the core. P-wave 10. Which seismic wave can penetrate the core but refracts?

96 In what directions do the P, S, and Surface waves move?
sideways Right angle rolling

97 13. Which is faster S or P wave?
13 minutes 4000 km 4000 km 7 minutes There are different types of seismic waves based on the movement . The two major types are body waves ( S and P waves ) and surface waves. Body waves can travel through earth inner layers while surface waves can travel only on the surface of the land. 4000 km

98 15. Which type of wave can penetrate the outer and inner core?
16. What happens to S and P waves as they travel inside earth? Figure 10-10, page 503 Refraction or bending of waves provide scientists information on the composition and interior of Earth. Refraction

99 Refraction is the bending of light. Pencil looks distorted.
Pencil looks nearer to the surface. Pencil looks distorted.

100 Destruction of properties
How are we affected by Earthquakes? Liquefaction tsunami Destruction of properties landslide avalanche

101 Soil turns to mud. Liquefaction How are we affected by Earthquakes?

102 tsunami How are we affected by Earthquakes?

103 Destruction of properties
How are we affected by Earthquakes? Destruction of properties

104 landslide How are we affected by Earthquakes?

105 avalanche How are we affected by Earthquakes?


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