Presentation on theme: "METEOROLOJİ, TOZ TAŞINIMI, ÇÖLLEŞME VE EROZYONLA MÜCADELE ÇALIŞTAYI Doç.Dr Mustafa Başaran, Yard. Doç.Dr. A.Uğur Özcan, Araş.Gör. Oğuzhan Uzun, Prof.Dr."— Presentation transcript:
METEOROLOJİ, TOZ TAŞINIMI, ÇÖLLEŞME VE EROZYONLA MÜCADELE ÇALIŞTAYI Doç.Dr Mustafa Başaran, Yard. Doç.Dr. A.Uğur Özcan, Araş.Gör. Oğuzhan Uzun, Prof.Dr. Günay Erpul Erciyes Üniversitesi Seyrani Ziraat Fakültesi, Toprak Bilimi ve Bitki Besleme Bölümü, Kayseri Karatekin Üniversitesi, Orman Fakültesi, Peyzaj Mimarlığı Bölümü, Çankırı Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi, Toprak Bilimi ve Bitki Besleme Bölümü, Dışkapı, Ankara
A proces of detechment, transport and deposiation of soil particles. Transport of upper soil and nutrients Loss of yield potential Internal and external hazards
Soil losses within wind erosion side Organic matter and nutrients losses Degradation of soil physical properties Yield losses http://www.eoearth.org/article/Geoindicators
Air quality deterioration Road close up İrrigation channel pluging Accidents Hazards on electronic devices Fatal health hazards (Lung and skin cancer, asthma, infectious desiases) http://adlib.everysite.co.uk/adlib/defra/content.aspx?doc=110535&id=110536
Treshold velocity; Initiates soil transport Transport through creep, splash and suspention Deposition http://milford.nserl.purdue.edu/weppdocs/overview/wndersn.html
Vegetation cover Depth of loose soil material Soil moisture content Micro topography Size of wind-exposured site Soil properties (Aggregate grain size distribution, soil textural chracteristics, organic matter content)
Create soil roughness Create clody soil surface Decrease wind-exposeure through wind-breaks Provide and maintain sufficient plant cover
Emergency plow: Plowing perpendicular to promininent wind direction to create clods and ridges to provide surface roughness and change wind profile.
Ridge cultivation: Best efficiency at 1:4 ridge height:ridge spacing ratio (Woodruff and Siddoway, 1965). A 50% reduction in wind erosion at ridge height of 6 cm.
Stubbles or plant residues: 500- 700 kg da -1 stubble or hay cover may provide soil moisture preservation and wind deflection over soil surface. http://www.ahi-ka.org.tr/index.php?page=haber&id=428
Manure application over soil surface: Another efficient way to preserves soil moisture and wind deflection over the soil surface. Maximum benefit at 2.5-3 ton da -1 implementation. http://www.amasyadsyb.org/
Emergency irrigation: High irrigation rates may be beneficial when the wind erosion threathens the newly emerging plants. A special attention must be paid in implementation since irrigation droplets can break up the agregates. http://aydin.ormansu.gov.tr/Aydin/AnaSayfa/AgmOrkoySubesi/agmAydinFidanlik. aspx?sflang=tr
Soil surface stabilizers: Implementation of bitimunious and meloses like organic materials to improve adhesion among soil particules may prevent soil erosion. It is a high-cost implementation. Therefore, recommended for high-income crops and plants.
A soil stabilazor must: Provide a 100% cover Not have negative impacts of plant growth and yield. Able either prevent erosion or redeuce the impatcs of erosion Be easy-to-apply and low-cost (Armbrust and Lyles, 1975)
Wind breaks: One of the most efficient means of erosion prevention. Chepil (1957) reported increasing sediment flow rate with the lenthg of wind-exposure and reaches to a maximum value at a certain wind velocity.
Assuming a constant wind direction, a proper wind break may decrease wind eroion by 50%. Such a break may also provide a 50% erosion prevention over 20h size land area (h is the hegith of break).
Band seeding, plow paralel to counters, plant rotation are also the common method for erosion prevention. Plant strips may preserve soil surface.
The common phylosopyh of “sperate and manage” may be efficient over bare sites. Breaks are used to seperate a large field into small plots and decrease the risk of erosion.
Determine the tolarable soil losses for the relavent site (ton/ha/year) Calculate potentail soil losses (ton/ha / year) Select the method able to provide tolerable soil losses
Wind erosion equation summaries the principles for erosion control and prevention (Woodruff and Siddoway (1965); Where; E; soil losses (ton ha -1 yıl -1 ), I ; erosion sensitivity index, K; surface roughness, C; climate factor, L; lenthg of wind exposure V; plant cover factor.
Basin mangement strategy for erosion-effected sites Land use planning Regional problems creating wind erosion (agriculture, grazing, soil properties; organic material, texture, exchangable sodium percentage) Sociao-economical reasons and possible solutions Training of rural people Basin-scale wind erosion monitoring and evaluation systems Calibrate internally proven models and equations for relavent basin Monitoring indicator parameters