Presentation on theme: "Midterm Study Guide. Unit 1 Nature of Science Lesson 1:What is science? Science is the systematic study of natural events and conditions. Empirical evidence."— Presentation transcript:
Midterm Study Guide
Unit 1 Nature of Science
Lesson 1:What is science? Science is the systematic study of natural events and conditions. Empirical evidence includes observations, measurements, and other types of data scientists gather. *Does not include personal feelings and opinions.
Lesson 2: Scientific Knowledge Science attempts to explain the word around us. Theories- well supported explanation about the natural world. Model- is/are a presentation of something in the natural world. There are Physical models and Mathematical models. Things that are too small, too large, or some way too difficult to study. Law- describes a basic principle of nature that always occur under certain conditions. *You need to be able to separate reliable sources from the unreliable(government, university, or nationally recognized research institutions).
Lesson 3: Scientific Investigations
Lesson 4: Representing data Scientist use organize data Tables Graphs The type of graph depends upon the data Bar graph Line graph Circle graph *Vertical axis= dependent variable *Horizontal axis= independent variable
Lesson 5: Science and Society Science has had a great impact in all of all. Many occupations and professions use science. Our daily activities have been affected by advances in science.
Unit 2 Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, and Landforms
Lesson 1: Weathering The break down of a rock material by physical and chemical processes is called weathering. Physical weathering is the process where a rock is broken down into smaller pieces. Chemical weathering is the breakdown of a rock by chemical reactions.
Lesson 1: Weathering Agents of Physical Weathering Temperature (ice wedging) Pressure (exfoliation) Plant and Animals Water (abrasion) Wind (abrasion) Gravity (abrasion)
Lesson 1: Weathering Chemical Weathering Oxidation (rust) Acid in ground water (caves) Acid in living things (lichens) Acid Precipitations
Lesson 2:Erosion and Deposition by Water How does flowing water change Earth’s surface? Erosion process by which sediments and other materials are moved from place to another. Deposition process by which eroded material is dropped. *A stream gradient, discharge, and load are the three main factors that controls what sediments a stream can carry.
Lesson 2:Erosion and Deposition by Water Landforms caused by streams Canyons and Valleys by Erosion Floodplains by Deposition * Floodplain are often very fertile because of the sediments that often contain nutrients. Delta and Alluvial Fans by Deposition Landforms caused by Ocean water Costal landforms/Shoreline/Beach are made by erosion and deposition product of waves and currents.
Lesson 3:Erosion and Deposition by Wind, Ice and Gravity How can wind shape Earth? Dunes-wind deposited sand. Loess-thick deposits of windblown, fine grained sediments. Desert Pavement- the result of the removal of fine sediment by wind. This process is call deflation. Abraded Rock- grinding and wearing down of rock surfaces by other rock or sand(abrasion).
Lesson 3:Erosion and Deposition by Wind, Ice and Gravity How can ice shape Earth? Glacier-large mass of moving ice that forms by the compacting of snow by natural forces. Glacier drift- material carried and deposited by a glacier. Alpine glaciers-glacier that form in the mountainous area. They flow down the sides of the mountains and create rugged landscapes creating a U-shaped valley. Continental Glaciers- thick sheets of ice spread over large areas. They erode and remove features that existed before the ice appeared.
Lesson 3:Erosion and Deposition by Wind, Ice and Gravity How can gravity shape Earth? Rockfall-loose rocks fall down a steep slope. Landslide-rapid mass movement of material downslope. Mudflow-rapid movement of a large mass of mud. Creep-extreme slow movement of material downslope.
Lesson 4:Landforms of Florida Florida does not have mountains. Mountains are important sources of sediments. Sediments from the Appalachian Mountains is continually being transported to areas including Florida. Glaciers can be found near the Earth poles. When the ice sheet begins to melt, the sea level goes up altering Florida’s shape and size. Florida has rivers and approximately 30,000 lakes many of them are sinkhole lakes.
Unit 3 Energy in the Earth System
Lesson1: Earth’s Spheres Earth system is all of the matter, energy, and process writhing Earth’s boundary. Geosphere Atmosphere Cryosphere Biosphere Hydrosphere
Lesson1: Earth’s Spheres Geosphere-mostly solid, rocky part of the earth.
Lesson1: Earth’s Spheres Cryosphere
Lesson1: Earth’s Spheres Atmosphere-mixture of mostly invisible gases that surrounds Earth.
Lesson1: Earth’s Spheres Biosphere-made up of living things and areas of Earth where they are found.
Lesson 2: The Atmosphere Green House Effect is the process by which thermal Radiation is absorbed by the gases in the atmosphere, and is reradiated in all directions. * absorb most of the solar radiation
Lesson 3: Energy Transfer Temperature-measure of the average kinetic energy of particles. Thermal Energy-total kinetic energy of the particles. Thermal Expansion-increase of volume that result from increase of temperature. Heat-energy transferred between object with different temperature.
Lesson 3: Energy Transfer
Lesson 4:Wind in the Atmosphere Wind- movement of air. High pressure=cold Low pressure=hot Coriolis Effect-the apparent curving of the path of a moving object due to earth’s rotation. Jet stream- narrow belts of high-speed winds that blow from west to east, between 7km and 16 km above Earth’s surface.
Lesson 4:Wind in the Atmosphere
Sea and land breezes
Lesson 5: Oceans Currents Ocean currents-stream like movement of ocean water. Surface currents-ocean currents that occur near the surface. What affects surface currents? 1. Continental deflections 2. Coriolis effect 3. Global winds Deep currents-movements of ocean water far below the surface. Convection current- movement of water that result from density differences. Oceans currents transport energy and matter (upwelling).