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Updated Dec. 2005 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002 1 Taxonomy Unity and Diversity Chapter 5 page 89 -125.

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Presentation on theme: "Updated Dec. 2005 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002 1 Taxonomy Unity and Diversity Chapter 5 page 89 -125."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Updated Dec Created by C. Ippolito November Taxonomy Unity and Diversity Chapter 5 page

3 2 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Taxonomy natural natural curiosity attempt to name the different organisms.

4 3 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec COMMON NAMES "local" names natives of an area. confusion scientists - global basis.

5 4 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec COMMON NAMES What is the name of this mammal?

6 5 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Mountain Lion a.k.a. puma cougar panther Indian devil Need logical system.

7 6 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec systematic naming and classifying of organisms – To make identification and comparison easier. TAXONOMY

8 7 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec based on: 1. habitat 1. habitat - location where organism was found 2. basic 2. basic structure structure - similarity Early Classification

9 8 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Aristotle’s Classification Scheme Two Two kingdoms – Plants – stationary green things – Animals - motile

10 9 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Plant Kingdom 1. trees 2. shrubs 3. herbs - one wood stem - many wood stems - soft stems

11 10 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Animal Kingdom 1. land 2. water 3. air - live on land - live in water - fly

12 11 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Later Developments in Taxonomy Immutability of Species – fixed number of living things existed –a–all will be found identified named

13 12 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec species species 1. similar individuals 2. common ancestor 3. mate in nature 4. produce fertile offspring John Ray (1700) - Species

14 13 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Linneaus ( ) Swedish botanist – BinomialNomenclature – Binomial Nomenclature Two name naming – Genus name general type – Species name specific kind – Latin names

15 14 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Why Latin? 1. language of education 2. basis of most languages 3. dead language  meanings do not change

16 15 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Binomial Nomenclature Felis Genus: Felis (cat) tigris – species: tigris (tiger) familiaris – species: familiaris (of the family) domesticus – species: domesticus (of the house) leo – species: leo (lion) concolor – species: concolor (puma)

17 16 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Modern System TAXON - (pl. taxa) – group of related organisms – hierarchy diversity to unity.

18 17 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Modern System Kingdom – largest taxon – most different Species – smallest taxon – most similarity

19 18 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Hierarchy of Taxa Kingdom Phylum (pl. phyla) Class Order Family Genus (pl. genera) species

20 19 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Kingdom Systems classification changes for: – new discoveries – use or purpose – viewpoint

21 20 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Kingdom Systems TwoKingdom Two Kingdom: Plant and Animal ThreeKingdom Three Kingdom: Plant, Animal and Protist FourKingdom Four Kingdom: Plant, Animal, Protist and Monera FiveKingdom Five Kingdom: Plant, Animal, Protist, Monera and Fungi SixKingdom Six Kingdom: Plant, Animal, Protist, Fungi, Eubacteria, Archaebacteria,

22 21 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Six Kingdoms Archaebacteria methanogens EubacteriaProtistsAnimaliaPlantaFungi

23 22 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Plant Kingdom autotrophic 1. nutrition - autotrophic multicellular 2. cells - multicellular eukaryotic 3. cell type - eukaryotic nonmotile 4. locomotion - non motile cellulose 5. cell walls - cellulose

24 23 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Animal Kingdom heterotrophic 1. nutrition - heterotrophic multicellular 2. cells - multicellular eukaryotic 3. cell type - eukaryotic motile 4. locomotion - motile not present 5. cell walls – not present

25 24 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Protist Kingdom autotrophic heterotrophic 1. nutrition – autotrophic and heterotrophic unicellular 2. cells - unicellular eukaryotic 3. cell type - eukaryotic motile 4. locomotion – most motile cellulose not present 5. cell walls – cellulose or not present

26 25 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Fungi Kingdom saprophytic 1. nutrition – saprophytic (absorbs nutrients from “dead things”) multicellular 2. cells - multicellular eukaryotic 3. cell type - eukaryotic nonmotile 4. locomotion - non motile chitin 5. cell walls - chitin

27 26 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Eubacteria Kingdom autotrophic heterotrophic 1. nutrition - autotrophic and heterotrophic unicellular 2. cells - unicellular prokaryotic 3. cell type - prokaryotic motile 4. locomotion - motile peptidoglycan 5. cell walls - peptidoglycan

28 27 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Archaebacteria Kingdom autotrophic heterotrophic 1. nutrition - autotrophic and heterotrophic unicellular 2. cells - unicellular prokaryotic 3. cell type - prokaryotic motile 4. locomotion - motile peptidoglycan 5. cell walls – not peptidoglycan

29 28 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Archaebacteria Simplest and most primitive ProkaryoticProkaryotic - no membrane bound organelles methanogens of swamps thermophiles of ocean vents

30 29 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Eubacteria 1. Schizophyta 1. Schizophyta (heterotrophs) -bacteria 2. Cyanophyta 2. Cyanophyta (autotrophs) cyanobacteria 3. Viruses 3. Viruses ?? - obligate intercellular parasites 4. Prions 4. Prions ?? – naked proteins – “Mad Cow” disease

31 30 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Schizophyta - bacteria Basic shapes 1. bacillus 1. bacillus - rods 2. coccus 2. coccus - round 3. spirillus 3. spirillus - spiral

32 31 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Viruses phages “phages” - Greek = to eat. – protein protein cover – nucleic acids ( DNA DNA or RNA)

33 32 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Types of Viruses 1. B acteriophages – attack bacterial cells 2. Z oophages – attack animal cells 3. P hytophages – attack plant cells

34 33 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Viral Life Cycle

35 Created by C. Ippolito November Protists

36 35 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Protist Groups Two types: 1. P rotozoa - animal-like 2. A lgae - plant-like

37 36 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Protozoa Ciliata Ciliata – cilia (i.e. paramecium) Sarcodina Sarcodina – pseudopodia (i.e. ameba) Zoomastigophora Zoomastigophora – flagella (i.e. euglena) Sporozoa Sporozoa – spores (i.e. Plasmodium – causes malaria)

38 37 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Algae ChlorophytaChlorophyta (green plant) green RhodophytaRhodophyta (red plant) red pigments PhaeophytaPhaeophyta brown pigments

39 38 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Algae ChrysophytaChrysophyta (crystal plant) silica shell – diatoms shells of dead cells form diatomaceous earth – grit of toothpaste PyrophytaPyrophyta (fire plant) fluoresce responsible for St. Elmo’s Fire

40 39 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Plant Kingdom Phyla of plant kingdom are called divisions. – Bryophyta – mosses and liverworts – Pterophyta – ferns – Cycadphyta – cycads – Ginkophyta – ginko – Coniferophyta – conifers – Anthophyta – flowering plants Alternation of Generations – Gametophyte (haploid - n) – produces gametes – Sporophyte (diploid - 2n) – makes spores to reproduce

41 40 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Division: Bryophyta Mosses, Liverworts – No vascular tissue roots stems leaves – Gametophyte dominant – Sperm swims to egg – Sporophyte dependent on gametophyte

42 41 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Division: Pterophyta Ferns – Rhizoid root like structure – Fronds finely divided leaves – Gametophyte – rarely seen – Sporophyte spore sacs (sori) under leaves

43 42 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Division: Cycadophyta Gymnosperms - naked seeds Cone protects seeds Stems underground

44 43 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Division: Ginkophyta Gymnosperm – fan-shaped leaf – was thought to be “extinct” One species found in China in 1920’s – tolerant of pollutants often planted in cities

45 44 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Division: Coniferophyta Gymnosperm Cone bearing Needles Many evergreen

46 45 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Division: Anthophyta Flowering plants Angiosperms - (hidden seed) – Vascular tissue – Stems, roots, leaves – Sporophyte dominant – Gametophyte dependent on sporophyte

47 46 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Class: Monocotyledonae Grass, Orchid, Bamboo Monocot –c–characteristics Flower – parts in multiples of 3 Leaves – have parallel veins Seed – single cotyledon (food storage for embryo plant) Stems – have scattered vascular tissue – “monkey face” –X–X–X–Xylem – water up – “mouth” –P–P–P–Phloem – food down – “eyes” Roots - fibrous

48 47 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Class: Dicotyledonae Apple, Sunflower Dicot – characteristics Flower Flower – parts in multiples of 4 or 5 Leaves Leaves – netted veins Seed Seed – two cotyledons Stems Stems –vascular tissue in rings around periphery – Xylem – Xylem – inside carries water up – Phloem – Phloem – outside carries food down Root Root – Tap root

49 Updated Dec Created by C. Ippolito November Kingdom: Animal Phyla: Porifera Coelenterata (Cnidaria) Platyheminthes Nematoda Annelida Arthropoda Mollusca

50 49 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Porifera Porifera ( L: hole bearer)- sponges most sessile – (stationary) most marine – (salt water) asymmetrical body fibrous skeleton made of “spongin” filter feeders – numerous holes – draw water and plankton in – Osculum – opening at top releases water

51 50 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Coelenterata (Cnidaria) Coelenterata (Cnidaria) (L: hollow gut) hydra, jellyfish tentacles mouth with tentacles twowaydigestive two way digestive cavity two cell layers – endoderm – endoderm – inner layer – ectoderm – ectoderm – outer layer radialsymmetry radial symmetry

52 51 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Platyhelminthes Platyhelminthes - (L: flat worms) Planaria, tapeworms, flukes bilateral symmetry three layers of cells – endoderm- – endoderm- inner layer – mesoderm – mesoderm – middle layer – ectoderm – ectoderm – outer layer two way digestion – Food enters and wastes leave from same opening free living or parasitic

53 52 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Nematoda Nematoda – (round worms) Trichinella, Ascaris round body bilateral symmetry onewaydigestion one way digestion – mouth – mouth – receives food – anus – anus – releases wastes – tubeintube – tube in a tube organization free living – important decomposers parasitic – filarial worms – cause elephantiasis – cause schistosomiasis

54 53 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Annelida Annelida (L: ring)- segmented worms. leech, earthworm segmented bodies bilateral symmetry one way digestion – mouth – mouth – receives food – anus – anus – releases wastes – tubeintube – tube in a tube organization

55 54 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Arthropoda Arthropoda (L: jointed legs) insects, spiders, lobsters segmented body exoskeleton jointed appendages

56 55 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Class: Crustacea – crabs, lobsters, pill bugs Two body regions – cephalothorax – “head and chest” – abdomen Two antennae

57 56 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Class: Arachnoidea Two body regions –C–Cephalothorax –A–Abdomen Four pairs of legs

58 57 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Class: Chilopoda Multiple segments One pair of legs per segment carnivorous

59 58 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Class: Diplopoda multiple segments two pairs of legs per segment herbivorous & decomposers

60 59 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Class: Insecta three body regions – Head – Thorax – Abdomen three pairs of legs two pairs of wings

61 60 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Echinodermata Echinodermata (L: spiny skinned) starfish, sea cucumbers radial symmetry internalskeleton internal calcium skeleton – plates of calcium under skin – thought to be ancestor of chordates water vascular system for movement

62 61 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Chordata Chordata (L: cord) fish, mammals, birds dorsal dorsal hollow nerve nerve cord gill gill slits slits during some part of their development most are vertebrates

63 62 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Class: Agnatha (L: jawless fishes) hagfish, lamprey

64 63 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Class: Pisces Order: Chondrichthyes (Gr: cartilage fish) sharks, manta rays white whale hammer head

65 64 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Class: Pisces Order : Osteichthyes (Gr: bony fish) bass, trout, barracuda, flounder striped bass barracuda

66 65 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Class:Amphibia (L & Gr: both lives) salamanders, newts, frogs, toads moist skin larva aquatic adult lungs but breathes through skin reproduce in water

67 66 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Class Reptilia (L: to creep) Snakes, lizards, turtle, crocodile dry scaly skin land dwelling breathe with lungs amniotic egg with leathery shell

68 67 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec cobra crocodile iguana box turtle

69 68 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Class: Aves (L: birds) Avocet, barn owl, chaffinch feathers Homeothermic – Maintain constant body temperature amniotic egg with calcium shell

70 69 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec avocet barn owl chaffinch

71 70 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Class: Mammalia (L: of the breast) bear live young – develop with in uterus (womb) of female young fed milk bodies covered with hair Homeothermic -warm blooded – Maintain constant internal body temperature

72 71 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Order Monotremata (Gr: one hole) Spiny anteater, platypus lay eggs feed young milk

73 72 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec spiny anteater platypus

74 73 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Order Protheria (Gr: early womb) kangaroo, opossum youngincompletelydevelopedlive young incompletely developed marsupiumfinish development in pouch (marsupium)

75 74 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec. 2005

76 75 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec Order Eutheria (Gr: true womb) Cats, dogs, bears, monkey, man Bear live young from womb

77 76 Created by C. Ippolito November 2002Updated Dec. 2005


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