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Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Welcome to ICT IN Business Outcome.

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Presentation on theme: "Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Welcome to ICT IN Business Outcome."— Presentation transcript:

1 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Welcome to ICT IN Business Outcome 3 During this outcome you will learn about the basic elements of Planning a Project and Project Management

2 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software By the end of this programme, you should be able to:  Define the term ‘Project’ and ‘Project Management’  Understand why projects fail  Describe the various elements of Project Management  Describe the process of planning a project  Understand how to create a Gantt Chart

3 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Tasks OUTCOME 3 Why Projects Fail Gantt Chart The Project Manager Work Breakdown Structure Work Breakdown Structure Project Management Terminology Project Management Terminology Why Plan? Project Management Software Project Management Software What is a Project? Click on the objects to select the topic areas

4 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software What is a Project? Click on the objects Responsibility of Project manager Responsibility of Project manager Finite life cycle Risk and innovation Risk and innovation Cuts across organisationa l boundaries Cuts across organisationa l boundaries Uses transient resources – range of skills and competencies Uses transient resources – range of skills and competencies Time, cost and work constraint s Time, cost and work constraint s Unique, non- repetitive activities Unique, non- repetitive activities Clearly identified objectives Clearly identified objectives Operates within defined funding limits – a budget Operates within defined funding limits – a budget

5 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software “A project is a temporary endeavour to achieve some specific objectives in a defined time.” (Young, 2000)

6 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Examples of Projects Launching a new product or service Overhauling operational equipment Constructing a new building Re-locating an office Installing a computer system Conducting a training programme

7 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Copyright: Getty Images - New Scottish Parliament under construction Examples of a Project New Scottish Parliament Building (click on links below to view photographs)

8 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software What is Project Management “…the art of directing and coordinating human and material resources throughout the life of a project by using modern management techniques to achieve predetermined objectives of scope, cost, time, quality and participant satisfaction.” (Cleland, 1994)

9 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software What is Project Management “Project management is a dynamic process that utilises the appropriate resources of the organisation in a controlled and structured manner to achieve some clearly defined objectives identified as strategic needs. It is always conducted within a defined set of constraints.” (Young, 2000)

10 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Three Key Components There are three key components of a project: Time, cost and work A role of a Project Manager is to manage tensions and conflicts when there is a change in cost, time or workProject Manager Cost Time Work Click on the object

11 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Project Manager A project manager is a person who looks after a project – makes sure it happens, makes sure any people working on the project do their jobs properly and finish on time with the project working successfully

12 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Responsibility of the Project Manager Day to day running including management of tensions and conflicts Completion of project Attainment of all objectives On time To budget Required quality

13 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Why do Projects Fail? Research by Standish Group has found that only 25% of information systems projects were successful. What reasons might there be for this? ResourcesProcesses StructureManagement Click on the individual jigsaw pieces

14 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Scope Creep Scope creep is where goals, outcomes, and directives change during the course of the project For example, originally the project was supposed to be repair the roof, but now the person wants the drainpipes repaired…the project is now changed, but if the job is a fixed price, you have to do more work than originally quoted for, for the same price Scope creep is the bogeyman in any major project - especially if the job will be done for a fixed price - "scope creep".

15 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Scope Creep “Stuff begins to be included in your scope that was never intended to be there. What's worse, you might not be able to deliver it at all! …and the changes in focus were handled with a handshake-a verbal commitment. The consultant didn't put in writing what the new deliverables were and he didn't relate how this change would affect the overall price of the project.”

16 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Why Plan? What are the benefits of planning? Identifies clearly What needs to be done Who needs to do it How long it will take Everyone is aware of what they are supposed to do and when by Involves team members which can help to motivate the team members as they feel involved

17 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Why Plan? If we fail to plan, we plan to fail.

18 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Project Management Process 1.Establish what needs to be done 2.Plan how it is to be achieved 3.Allocate resources 4.Monitor and control implementation 5.Evaluate Resources Results Project Management Evaluation PROCESS INPUT OUTPUT

19 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Project Management Identify parts of project Identify what jobs need to be done Identify how long a task takes to complete Identify resources required Planning

20 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Project Management Terminology Tasks Milestones Deliverables Predecessors Resources Select to view a specific term or navigate using the arrows below Click here to see example of summary tasks, milestones, and predecessors Click here to see example of summary tasks, milestones, and predecessors

21 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Tasks A project can be split into a number of tasks. Some of these tasks can be grouped together under a summary task

22 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Milestones A significant event that might be reached within the project or imposed upon the project. In Project Management software like MS Project, milestones are normally represented as tasks with zero duration.software

23 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Deliverables A deliverable is something tangible that is obtained by completing a task or a set of tasks For example when building a fence, a deliverable associated with the project would be the new fence Projects may contain many deliverables. These are often associated with reaching milestones milestones

24 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Predecessors A link between a predecessor task and a successor task. A dependency controls the start or finish of one task relative to the start or finish of the other task. The most common dependency is finish-to-start, in which the finish date of the predecessor task determines the start date of the successor task.

25 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Dependencies or Predecessors For example: You can not place the scrambled eggs on the toast until the toast is buttered, or even the toast is made! Socks on first before putting your shoes on Make foundations first before building a wall …and so on

26 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Resources Money Time Human Resources Materials and consumables Plant and machinery

27 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Work Breakdown Structure A method used to break parts of the project into smaller tasks Step 1: List all tasks Step 2: Determine sequence of tasks Step 3: Estimate how long each task will take Step 4: Assign times

28 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Work Breakdown Structure WBSTaskOrderPeriodTime 100Check stock 1 5 mins2:25-2:30 200Go to bank 210 mins2:30-2:40 300Buy groceries 340 mins2:40-3:20 400Drive home 4 5 mins3:25-3:30

29 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Gantt Chart Gantt Charts were invented by Henry Gantt to show what tasks are to be carried out when The chart also shows the duration of the tasks 123456 A B C D LIST OF TASKS TIME

30 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Gantt Chart For example, Task 1 is to be carried out in January and February while Task 2 and 3 will start in March and Task 4 in May.

31 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Gantt Chart List all the tasks down the Left Hand Side of your table. Try to put them in order of which ones need to be done first and so on You can group tasks together under a summary task Time goes along the top row from Left to Right Time could be hours, days, months Eg Jan Feb Mar, or 1 st May, 2 nd May, 3 rd May

32 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Gantt Chart Estimate how long each task will take and block in with colour when the task will be scheduled to be done Take care to make sure that dependencies (or Predecessors) are taken into account when deciding when tasks are to be scheduled to startdependencies Click Here to See an Example of a Gantt Chart

33 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Project Management Software It is software which allows the user to keep records about a project and to manage a project on a computer. An example of software is MS Project Gantt chart views are created It is like a sophisticated calendar, where a project manager can input people and tasks and can shuffle them around in the software to try out various options of dates and times to make the project work efficiently. It’s a way of planning the future of a project on a computer.

34 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Examples of Software Microsoft Project (MS Project) SuperProject Expert MacProject Artemis Click here to see example of a Gantt Chart view of a project using MS Project Click here to see example of a Gantt Chart view of a project using MS Project

35 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Benefits of Project Management Software The software can ‘model’ (simulate) what happens in real life before it happens For example, if a project must be finished by a certain date, the project manager can break the project down into smaller tasks work out how many people they need to do the project and when each part of the work is to be completed by, in order to achieve the correct finish date for the project. Project Management Software enables you to work backwards from a target (eg target finish date) easily which is impossible to do in real life.

36 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Benefits of Project Management Software It is important to use the software properly. It can then be used to keep track of worker and project hours, several projects at once. The software can easily calculate the cost of a project.

37 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Disadvantages of Project Management Software To use the software properly can take a good portion of the project manager’s time to set it up to maintain it The downside of this is that the process can distract the Project Manager from the job of managing the real people and real tasks of the project. However ‘hard evidence’ of progress can be produced. Managers can: look at the plan check it, see the progress etc all without visiting the project or talking to the project manager.

38 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Disadvantages of Project Management Software In some cases Project Management Software can become a chore and the Project file is completed after the ‘real’ life decisions are made, just so that other people can see how a project is progressing.

39 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software You have now completed this tutorial Click here to return to the home page

40 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Planning Project Development Work Sub-part: What is a Project? Three Key Components Why Projects Fail

41 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Finite Life Cycle Every project has a starting point (when the project starts) and an end point (when the project is completed) Start Date End Date Time Life of the project

42 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Clearly Identified Objectives The objectives of the project are clearly identified so that the project manager and the team of people brought together to complete the project know exactly what they are supposed to do and what they are aiming to achieve.

43 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Unique, Non-Repetitive Activities Every project is unique – a one-off It has its own constraints and objectives Similar projects may have been done before Activities carried out throughout the project are not repetitive

44 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Time, Cost and Work Constraints The project usually has various constraints placed upon it: time, cost and scope of work The project has to be completed by a set deadline date. If not, strict penalties are often imposed, usually financial An estimate of costs is made regarding how much the project will cost to complete. If you are being paid for the project, the amount charged is based upon the costs likely to be incurred plus a % profit. If costs overrun, then less profit is obtained. Work is required to carry out the project eg by manpower. The number of man-hours available will affect how long the task takes to complete. However, only a certain amount of manpower is available If more work is required, then the project will take longer or require more people. Either way, this will cost more!

45 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Responsibility of Project Manager A project manager has the responsibility of planning, overseeing the implementation of, coordinating and controlling the project. A project manager reports back to the champion of the project and/or senior management

46 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Risk and Innovation All projects have an element of risk. The projects have never been done before and therefore there is an element of uncertainty surrounding the task, the outcome and its success Innovation is required to solve problems and come up with plausible solutions throughout the project

47 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Cuts Across Organisational Boundaries Often work carried out within organisations is contained within certain areas of the organisation Project teams consist of representatives from various areas of the organisation eg production, marketing, technical support, quality, distribution and so on. These teams make the decisions on how to carryout the project

48 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Operates Within Defined Funding Limits A certain amount of funds are available to carry out the project and a budget is set. Costs are carefully monitored throughout the project to ensure the project is not over budget

49 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Uses Transient Resources Transient means “of short duration; not permanent; not lasting or durable” There are mainly two types of Transient Resources Resources used for only the project, and once the project is complete, the resources are either deployed elsewhere, used up during the project, or disposed of People with certain skills and capabilities who may be deployed only for a certain part of the project and then deployed on another project or moved back into their main role within the organisation – short-term deployment

50 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Why do Projects Fail? Lack of resources: time, money, people, equipment, consumable Poor estimate of resource requirements Wrong resources obtained or utilised Conflict or incompatibility between resources Resources

51 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Why do Projects Fail? Lack of planning No clear definition of project requirements Important tasks not identified or carried out Scope creep Processes

52 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Why do Projects Fail? Poor selection of project team members Insufficient support of project team by other organisational members eg senior management Project team unable to make relevant decisions due to lack of power Structure

53 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Why do Projects Fail? Lack of resources: time, money, people, equipment, consumable Poor estimate of resource requirements Wrong resources obtained or utilised Conflict or incompatibility between resources Management

54 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Example Using MS Project Summary Tasks Tasks Milestones Predecessors Task 18 “concrete posts in place” can not be done until tasks 17 and 10 are finished (“All materials delivered” and “dig trenches”)

55 Home What is …? Project Manager Why They Fail? Why Plan? WBS Gantt Chart Topics Menu Terminology OUTCOME 3 Software Example of Gantt Chart using MS Project


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