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The Vietnam War 1965-1974 AP U.S. History. LBJ & Vietnam Gulf of Tonkin (N. Vietnam) Gulf of Tonkin (N. Vietnam) 2 U.S. destroyers attacked by N. Vietnam.

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Presentation on theme: "The Vietnam War 1965-1974 AP U.S. History. LBJ & Vietnam Gulf of Tonkin (N. Vietnam) Gulf of Tonkin (N. Vietnam) 2 U.S. destroyers attacked by N. Vietnam."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Vietnam War AP U.S. History

2 LBJ & Vietnam Gulf of Tonkin (N. Vietnam) Gulf of Tonkin (N. Vietnam) 2 U.S. destroyers attacked by N. Vietnam 2 U.S. destroyers attacked by N. Vietnam Gulf of Tonkin Resolution: Drafted 6 weeks prior to incident. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution: Drafted 6 weeks prior to incident. Do whatever means necessary to protect Southeast Asia. Do whatever means necessary to protect Southeast Asia. Election of 1964 Election of 1964 Campaigns for restraint. (won’t send American boys to do what Asian boys need to be doing) Campaigns for restraint. (won’t send American boys to do what Asian boys need to be doing) Goldwater advocates use of nuclear arms. Goldwater advocates use of nuclear arms. Escalates involvement after election. Escalates involvement after election.

3 LBJ & Vietnam 1966: 431,000 soldiers in Vietnam. 1966: 431,000 soldiers in Vietnam. Authorizes Operation Rolling Thunder: Authorizes Operation Rolling Thunder: Air attacks. Air attacks. Use napalm (jelly gasoline) Use napalm (jelly gasoline) 17.6 million gallons of agent orange million gallons of agent orange. 3 million tons of bombs by million tons of bombs by 1968.

4 Napalm and Agent Orange Napalm Napalm Destroys jungle by burning Destroys jungle by burning Used in flamethrowers Used in flamethrowers Agent Orange Agent Orange Herbicide Herbicide Destroys jungle Destroys jungle Dangerous to health!! Dangerous to health!!

5 Napalm

6 Agent Orange

7 War at Home T.V. exposes U.S. soldiers setting fire to Vietnamese homes. T.V. exposes U.S. soldiers setting fire to Vietnamese homes. War cost $21B/year. War cost $21B/year. Americans want out ( ). Americans want out ( ).

8 War at Home-Peace Movements Free speech in 1964 Berkeley. Free speech in 1964 Berkeley. 800 students are arrested as University trys to stop their demonstrations. 800 students are arrested as University trys to stop their demonstrations. San Francisco: Summer of Love, 1967 “be-in” of 75,000 people. San Francisco: Summer of Love, 1967 “be-in” of 75,000 people. Hippies spread from Boston to Seattle. Hippies spread from Boston to Seattle. Triggers sexual revolution and drug use. Triggers sexual revolution and drug use. The new “pill” affects living situations. The new “pill” affects living situations. Unmarried couples living together Unmarried couples living together 1970: Live in communes where everything is shared from childcare, sexual partners, and housekeeping. 1970: Live in communes where everything is shared from childcare, sexual partners, and housekeeping.

9 Counterculture LSD (illegal in 1968) and marijuana use skyrockets. LSD (illegal in 1968) and marijuana use skyrockets. Bob Dylan taunts adults with, “Everybody must get stoned.” Bob Dylan taunts adults with, “Everybody must get stoned.” Issues waning to parents: Issues waning to parents: Your sons and your daughters Are beyond your control Your old road is Rapidly agin’ Please get out of the new one If you can’t lend your hand For the times they are a-changin’

10 Soldiers Average age of a soldier is 19. Average age of a soldier is 19. (Voting age is 21) (Voting age is 21) 1969 institute the draft institute the draft. College deferments. College deferments. Soldiers join anti war movement. Soldiers join anti war movement. 8.6M total soldiers served in Vietnam. 8.6M total soldiers served in Vietnam. 40% come back with drug dependency or PTSD. 40% come back with drug dependency or PTSD. College campuses protest war. College campuses protest war.

11 Antiwar Protests on College and University Campuses, 1967 – 1969

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15 U.S. Military Forces in Vietnam and Casualties, 1961 – 1981

16 LBJ’s Great Society Economic Opportunity Economic Opportunity War on poverty. War on poverty. Job Corps Job Corps Vocational job training for urban black youth. Vocational job training for urban black youth. Low paying jobs. Low paying jobs. Ignores root cause of poverty-unequal distribution of wealth. Ignores root cause of poverty-unequal distribution of wealth. Most of the money will go to Medicare, Social Security, and unemployment. Most of the money will go to Medicare, Social Security, and unemployment. Expansion of welfare state Expansion of welfare state

17 Percent of Population Below Poverty Level, by race, 1959 – 1969

18 1968 Jan 30,1968 Jan 30,1968 TET Offensive launched by Vietcong.( N. Vietnam) TET Offensive launched by Vietcong.( N. Vietnam) Named for Vietnamese new year Named for Vietnamese new year Vietcong push into major cities and provincial capitals in South into Saigon Vietcong push into major cities and provincial capitals in South into Saigon Shatters claims that the enemy is almost beaten. Shatters claims that the enemy is almost beaten. U.S.: 1,600 dead, 8,000 wounded U.S.: 1,600 dead, 8,000 wounded Vietcong: 40,000 deaths (1/5 thanks) Vietcong: 40,000 deaths (1/5 thanks) 49% of people think Vietnam is a mistake. 49% of people think Vietnam is a mistake. Very graphic footage shown on TV Very graphic footage shown on TV LBJ will not run for another term & calls for peace talks. LBJ will not run for another term & calls for peace talks.

19 MLK MLK opposed war. (angers FBI) MLK opposed war. (angers FBI) Shot by James Earl Ray. Shot by James Earl Ray. Plead guilty, died in prison of Hepatitis C Plead guilty, died in prison of Hepatitis C Memphis, Tennessee Memphis, Tennessee April 4, 1968 April 4, 1968 Riots break out all over the US. Riots break out all over the US. Seen as “White America” killed him Seen as “White America” killed him LBJ does not attend funeral. LBJ does not attend funeral. FBI celebrates. FBI celebrates.

20 1968 Robert F. Kennedy is running for Democratic nomination. Robert F. Kennedy is running for Democratic nomination. Shot by Sirhan Sirhan. (Serving life) Shot by Sirhan Sirhan. (Serving life) Hubert Humphrey wins Democrat nomination. Hubert Humphrey wins Democrat nomination. Yippies: Counterculture group led by Abbie Hofman, (Youth International Party) Yippies: Counterculture group led by Abbie Hofman, (Youth International Party) Group of Hippies, called for festival of life, nude-in, wanted a pig for their candidate Group of Hippies, called for festival of life, nude-in, wanted a pig for their candidate Undercover police to infiltrate crowd and try to start a riot Undercover police to infiltrate crowd and try to start a riot Election, Nixon & Spiro Agnew (Republicans) narrowly win. Election, Nixon & Spiro Agnew (Republicans) narrowly win.

21 The Election of 1968

22 Nixon and New Federalism Federalism: Power shared by the central government & state authorities. Federalism: Power shared by the central government & state authorities. Local empowerment. Local empowerment. Directed money and power away from bureaucracy and towards state municipalities. Directed money and power away from bureaucracy and towards state municipalities. Respond more efficiently to the people by removing the bureaucratic red tape. Respond more efficiently to the people by removing the bureaucratic red tape. For example, locally controlled desegregation. For example, locally controlled desegregation.

23 Nixon’s Presidency First president to visit “Red” China. First president to visit “Red” China. Widens and intensifies the war Widens and intensifies the war Henry Kissinger: National Security Council Henry Kissinger: National Security Council US can’t regain global leadership by appearing weak US can’t regain global leadership by appearing weak 1969:Vietnamization: South Vietnamese take over fighting. 1969:Vietnamization: South Vietnamese take over fighting. Withdrawals 60K troops. Withdrawals 60K troops. Widen war to Cambodia in Widen war to Cambodia in 1970.

24 Kent State University During early 1970’s: Largest protests across country. During early 1970’s: Largest protests across country. May 4, 1970: Kent State University May 4, 1970: Kent State University Huge protest on campus Huge protest on campus 28 national guardsmen panic, shooting into an unarmed crowd of students. 28 national guardsmen panic, shooting into an unarmed crowd of students. Kill four and wound nine. Kill four and wound nine.

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26 Vietnam Ho Chi Minh Trail Ho Chi Minh Trail Connected N and S Vietnam Connected N and S Vietnam Controlled by N Vietnam Controlled by N Vietnam Transport of Vietcong, and supplies Transport of Vietcong, and supplies Escape routes Escape routes U.S. bombs heavily U.S. bombs heavily

27 Difficulty in Vietnam Dense jungle Dense jungle Muddy trails Muddy trails Enemy looks like ally Enemy looks like ally U.S. Strategy U.S. Strategy Search and destroy Search and destroy Find Vietcong and kill Find Vietcong and kill

28 End of the War Congress wants to withdrawal funds from war. Congress wants to withdrawal funds from war. 1973: Paris Peace Agreement 1973: Paris Peace Agreement U.S. withdraw U.S. withdraw Return of all U.S. POWs Return of all U.S. POWs Total cost of war was $150B. Total cost of war was $150B. Over 50K U.S. deaths. Over 50K U.S. deaths. South Vietnamese: 1.5M South Vietnamese: 1.5M North Vietnamese: 1M North Vietnamese: 1M End of 1975 N. Vietnam took over Saigon (S. capitol) End of 1975 N. Vietnam took over Saigon (S. capitol)

29 Nixon’s Foreign Affairs China: Anticipates end to cold war. China: Anticipates end to cold war. Ping-pong Diplomacy: (1971) Chinese host U.S. team. Ping-pong Diplomacy: (1971) Chinese host U.S. team. 1972: Nixon visits China. 1972: Nixon visits China. Weakens government of Taiwan. Weakens government of Taiwan. Moscow to meet with Brezhnev. Moscow to meet with Brezhnev. Opens Moscow as a market. Opens Moscow as a market. Sell USSR 1$ bill grain Sell USSR 1$ bill grain

30 Nixon’s Foreign Affairs U.S. backed dictators U.S. backed dictators 1973: U.S. overthrows Salvador Allende in Chile, democratically elected president. 1973: U.S. overthrows Salvador Allende in Chile, democratically elected president. Allende is killed in junta. Allende is killed in junta. Pinochet becomes ruler backed by U.S. Pinochet becomes ruler backed by U.S. Delivers guns to Shah of Iran Delivers guns to Shah of Iran Marcos in the Philippines Marcos in the Philippines Botha in South Africa Botha in South Africa Somoza of Nicaragua Somoza of Nicaragua

31 Nixon’s Re-Election Fund Committee to Committee to R E Elect the Elect the President President

32 Watergate Nixon: Determined to win election in Nixon: Determined to win election in Takes nation off gold standard. Takes nation off gold standard. Closely resembles democrat fiscal policies. Closely resembles democrat fiscal policies. Wiretaps news professionals Wiretaps news professionals Encourage FBI to spy on civilians. Encourage FBI to spy on civilians. Authorize CREEP to spy on Democrats. Authorize CREEP to spy on Democrats.

33 Nixon: CREEP Secret squad of “plumbers” to suppress leaks in the press. Secret squad of “plumbers” to suppress leaks in the press. First go after Daniel Ellsberg, turned over secrets of our involvement in Vietnam “Pentagon Papers” First go after Daniel Ellsberg, turned over secrets of our involvement in Vietnam “Pentagon Papers” NY Times v. U.S. NY Times v. U.S. Government cannot suppress NY Times, there is not an immediate threat to U.S. Government cannot suppress NY Times, there is not an immediate threat to U.S. Break into Ellsberg’s psychiatrists office to try and discredit him. Break into Ellsberg’s psychiatrists office to try and discredit him. Wiretap DNC headquarters Wiretap DNC headquarters

34 Election of 1972 McGovern is Democratic candidate. McGovern is Democratic candidate. Supports LSD, abortion & amnesty for those who avoided the draft. Supports LSD, abortion & amnesty for those who avoided the draft. Nixon ends up winning every state but Massachusetts. Nixon ends up winning every state but Massachusetts. Plumbers are arrested and traced back to Nixon. Plumbers are arrested and traced back to Nixon. He had taped every conversation in the office. He had taped every conversation in the office. Nixon has to give up tapes (Supreme Court). Nixon has to give up tapes (Supreme Court). Tapes are bad and have blank spots. Tapes are bad and have blank spots. Anti-Semitic slurs, ravings and paranoia, and admits he had ordered cover up in Watergate break in. Anti-Semitic slurs, ravings and paranoia, and admits he had ordered cover up in Watergate break in.

35 Impeachment House adopts 3 articles of impeachment for obstruction of justice. House adopts 3 articles of impeachment for obstruction of justice Agnew had resigned for accepting kickbacks Agnew had resigned for accepting kickbacks. Gerald Ford had replaced him. Gerald Ford had replaced him. First president to resign from office on Aug 9, First president to resign from office on Aug 9, “Don’t blame me, I’m from MA” bumper stickers. “Don’t blame me, I’m from MA” bumper stickers.


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