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The Vietnam War 1965-1974 AP U.S. History.

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Presentation on theme: "The Vietnam War 1965-1974 AP U.S. History."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Vietnam War AP U.S. History

2 LBJ & Vietnam Gulf of Tonkin (N. Vietnam)
2 U.S. destroyers attacked by N. Vietnam Gulf of Tonkin Resolution: Drafted 6 weeks prior to incident. Do whatever means necessary to protect Southeast Asia. Election of 1964 Campaigns for restraint. (won’t send American boys to do what Asian boys need to be doing) Goldwater advocates use of nuclear arms. Escalates involvement after election.

3 LBJ & Vietnam 1966: 431,000 soldiers in Vietnam.
Authorizes Operation Rolling Thunder: Air attacks. Use napalm (jelly gasoline) 17.6 million gallons of agent orange. 3 million tons of bombs by 1968.

4 Napalm and Agent Orange
Destroys jungle by burning Used in flamethrowers Agent Orange Herbicide Destroys jungle Dangerous to health!!

5 Napalm

6 Agent Orange

7 War at Home T.V. exposes U.S. soldiers setting fire to Vietnamese homes. War cost $21B/year. Americans want out ( ).

8 War at Home-Peace Movements
Free speech in 1964 Berkeley. 800 students are arrested as University trys to stop their demonstrations. San Francisco: Summer of Love, 1967 “be-in” of 75,000 people. Hippies spread from Boston to Seattle. Triggers sexual revolution and drug use. The new “pill” affects living situations. Unmarried couples living together 1970: Live in communes where everything is shared from childcare, sexual partners, and housekeeping.

9 Counterculture LSD (illegal in 1968) and marijuana use skyrockets.
Bob Dylan taunts adults with, “Everybody must get stoned.” Issues waning to parents: Your sons and your daughters Are beyond your control Your old road is Rapidly agin’ Please get out of the new one If you can’t lend your hand For the times they are a-changin’

10 Soldiers College campuses protest war. Average age of a soldier is 19.
(Voting age is 21) 1969 institute the draft. College deferments. Soldiers join anti war movement. 8.6M total soldiers served in Vietnam. 40% come back with drug dependency or PTSD. College campuses protest war.

11 Antiwar Protests on College and University Campuses, 1967–1969

12 Antiwar Protests on College and University Campuses, 1967–1969

13 Antiwar Protests on College and University Campuses, 1967–1969

14 Antiwar Protests on College and University Campuses, 1967–1969

15 U.S. Military Forces in Vietnam and Casualties, 1961–1981

16 LBJ’s Great Society Economic Opportunity War on poverty. Job Corps
Vocational job training for urban black youth. Low paying jobs. Ignores root cause of poverty-unequal distribution of wealth. Most of the money will go to Medicare, Social Security, and unemployment. Expansion of welfare state

17 Percent of Population Below Poverty Level, by race, 1959–1969

18 1968 Jan 30,1968 TET Offensive launched by Vietcong.( N. Vietnam)
Named for Vietnamese new year Vietcong push into major cities and provincial capitals in South into Saigon Shatters claims that the enemy is almost beaten. U.S.: 1,600 dead, 8,000 wounded Vietcong: 40,000 deaths (1/5 thanks) 49% of people think Vietnam is a mistake. Very graphic footage shown on TV LBJ will not run for another term & calls for peace talks.

19 MLK MLK opposed war. (angers FBI) Shot by James Earl Ray.
Plead guilty, died in prison of Hepatitis C Memphis, Tennessee April 4, 1968 Riots break out all over the US. Seen as “White America” killed him LBJ does not attend funeral. FBI celebrates.

20 1968 Robert F. Kennedy is running for Democratic nomination.
Shot by Sirhan Sirhan. (Serving life) Hubert Humphrey wins Democrat nomination. Yippies: Counterculture group led by Abbie Hofman, (Youth International Party) Group of Hippies, called for festival of life, nude-in, wanted a pig for their candidate Undercover police to infiltrate crowd and try to start a riot Election, Nixon & Spiro Agnew (Republicans) narrowly win.

21 The Election of 1968

22 Nixon and New Federalism
Federalism: Power shared by the central government & state authorities. Local empowerment. Directed money and power away from bureaucracy and towards state municipalities. Respond more efficiently to the people by removing the bureaucratic red tape. For example, locally controlled desegregation.

23 Nixon’s Presidency First president to visit “Red” China.
Widens and intensifies the war Henry Kissinger: National Security Council US can’t regain global leadership by appearing weak 1969:Vietnamization: South Vietnamese take over fighting. Withdrawals 60K troops. Widen war to Cambodia in 1970.

24 Kent State University During early 1970’s: Largest protests across country. May 4, 1970: Kent State University Huge protest on campus 28 national guardsmen panic, shooting into an unarmed crowd of students. Kill four and wound nine.


26 Vietnam Ho Chi Minh Trail Connected N and S Vietnam
Controlled by N Vietnam Transport of Vietcong, and supplies Escape routes U.S. bombs heavily

27 Difficulty in Vietnam Dense jungle Muddy trails Enemy looks like ally
U.S. Strategy Search and destroy Find Vietcong and kill

28 End of the War Congress wants to withdrawal funds from war.
1973: Paris Peace Agreement U.S. withdraw Return of all U.S. POWs Total cost of war was $150B. Over 50K U.S. deaths. South Vietnamese: 1.5M North Vietnamese: 1M End of 1975 N. Vietnam took over Saigon (S. capitol)

29 Nixon’s Foreign Affairs
China: Anticipates end to cold war. Ping-pong Diplomacy: (1971) Chinese host U.S. team. 1972: Nixon visits China. Weakens government of Taiwan. Moscow to meet with Brezhnev. Opens Moscow as a market. Sell USSR 1$ bill grain

30 Nixon’s Foreign Affairs
U.S. backed dictators 1973: U.S. overthrows Salvador Allende in Chile, democratically elected president. Allende is killed in junta. Pinochet becomes ruler backed by U.S. Delivers guns to Shah of Iran Marcos in the Philippines Botha in South Africa Somoza of Nicaragua

31 Nixon’s Re-Election Fund
Committee to R E Elect the President

32 Watergate Nixon: Determined to win election in 1972.
Takes nation off gold standard. Closely resembles democrat fiscal policies. Wiretaps news professionals Encourage FBI to spy on civilians. Authorize CREEP to spy on Democrats.

33 Nixon: CREEP Secret squad of “plumbers” to suppress leaks in the press. First go after Daniel Ellsberg, turned over secrets of our involvement in Vietnam “Pentagon Papers” NY Times v. U.S. Government cannot suppress NY Times, there is not an immediate threat to U.S. Break into Ellsberg’s psychiatrists office to try and discredit him. Wiretap DNC headquarters

34 Election of 1972 McGovern is Democratic candidate.
Supports LSD, abortion & amnesty for those who avoided the draft. Nixon ends up winning every state but Massachusetts. Plumbers are arrested and traced back to Nixon. He had taped every conversation in the office. Nixon has to give up tapes (Supreme Court). Tapes are bad and have blank spots. Anti-Semitic slurs, ravings and paranoia, and admits he had ordered cover up in Watergate break in.

35 Impeachment House adopts 3 articles of impeachment for obstruction of justice. 1972 Agnew had resigned for accepting kickbacks. Gerald Ford had replaced him. First president to resign from office on Aug 9, “Don’t blame me, I’m from MA” bumper stickers.

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