2LBJ & Vietnam Gulf of Tonkin (N. Vietnam) 2 U.S. destroyers attacked by N. VietnamGulf of Tonkin Resolution: Drafted 6 weeks prior to incident.Do whatever means necessary to protect Southeast Asia.Election of 1964Campaigns for restraint. (won’t send American boys to do what Asian boys need to be doing)Goldwater advocates use of nuclear arms.Escalates involvement after election.
3LBJ & Vietnam 1966: 431,000 soldiers in Vietnam. Authorizes Operation Rolling Thunder:Air attacks.Use napalm (jelly gasoline)17.6 million gallons of agent orange.3 million tons of bombs by 1968.
4Napalm and Agent Orange Destroys jungle by burningUsed in flamethrowersAgent OrangeHerbicideDestroys jungleDangerous to health!!
7War at HomeT.V. exposes U.S. soldiers setting fire to Vietnamese homes.War cost $21B/year.Americans want out ( ).
8War at Home-Peace Movements Free speech in 1964 Berkeley.800 students are arrested as University trys to stop their demonstrations.San Francisco: Summer of Love, 1967 “be-in” of 75,000 people.Hippies spread from Boston to Seattle.Triggers sexual revolution and drug use.The new “pill” affects living situations.Unmarried couples living together1970: Live in communes where everything is shared from childcare, sexual partners, and housekeeping.
9Counterculture LSD (illegal in 1968) and marijuana use skyrockets. Bob Dylan taunts adults with, “Everybody must get stoned.”Issues waning to parents:Your sons and your daughtersAre beyond your controlYour old road isRapidly agin’Please get out of the new oneIf you can’t lend your handFor the times they are a-changin’
10Soldiers College campuses protest war. Average age of a soldier is 19. (Voting age is 21)1969 institute the draft.College deferments.Soldiers join anti war movement.8.6M total soldiers served in Vietnam.40% come back with drug dependency or PTSD.College campuses protest war.
11Antiwar Protests on College and University Campuses, 1967–1969
12Antiwar Protests on College and University Campuses, 1967–1969
13Antiwar Protests on College and University Campuses, 1967–1969
14Antiwar Protests on College and University Campuses, 1967–1969
15U.S. Military Forces in Vietnam and Casualties, 1961–1981
16LBJ’s Great Society Economic Opportunity War on poverty. Job Corps Vocational job training for urban black youth.Low paying jobs.Ignores root cause of poverty-unequal distribution of wealth.Most of the money will go to Medicare, Social Security, and unemployment.Expansion of welfare state
17Percent of Population Below Poverty Level, by race, 1959–1969
181968 Jan 30,1968 TET Offensive launched by Vietcong.( N. Vietnam) Named for Vietnamese new yearVietcong push into major cities and provincial capitals in South into SaigonShatters claims that the enemy is almost beaten.U.S.: 1,600 dead, 8,000 woundedVietcong: 40,000 deaths (1/5 thanks)49% of people think Vietnam is a mistake.Very graphic footage shown on TVLBJ will not run for another term & calls for peace talks.
19MLK MLK opposed war. (angers FBI) Shot by James Earl Ray. Plead guilty, died in prison of Hepatitis CMemphis, TennesseeApril 4, 1968Riots break out all over the US.Seen as “White America” killed himLBJ does not attend funeral.FBI celebrates.
201968 Robert F. Kennedy is running for Democratic nomination. Shot by Sirhan Sirhan. (Serving life)Hubert Humphrey wins Democrat nomination.Yippies: Counterculture group led by Abbie Hofman, (Youth International Party)Group of Hippies, called for festival of life, nude-in, wanted a pig for their candidateUndercover police to infiltrate crowd and try to start a riotElection, Nixon & Spiro Agnew (Republicans) narrowly win.
22Nixon and New Federalism Federalism: Power shared by the central government & state authorities.Local empowerment.Directed money and power away from bureaucracy and towards state municipalities.Respond more efficiently to the people by removing the bureaucratic red tape.For example, locally controlled desegregation.
23Nixon’s Presidency First president to visit “Red” China. Widens and intensifies the warHenry Kissinger: National Security CouncilUS can’t regain global leadership by appearing weak1969:Vietnamization: South Vietnamese take over fighting.Withdrawals 60K troops.Widen war to Cambodia in 1970.
24Kent State UniversityDuring early 1970’s: Largest protests across country.May 4, 1970: Kent State UniversityHuge protest on campus28 national guardsmen panic, shooting into an unarmed crowd of students.Kill four and wound nine.
26Vietnam Ho Chi Minh Trail Connected N and S Vietnam Controlled by N VietnamTransport of Vietcong, and suppliesEscape routesU.S. bombs heavily
27Difficulty in Vietnam Dense jungle Muddy trails Enemy looks like ally U.S. StrategySearch and destroyFind Vietcong and kill
28End of the War Congress wants to withdrawal funds from war. 1973: Paris Peace AgreementU.S. withdrawReturn of all U.S. POWsTotal cost of war was $150B.Over 50K U.S. deaths.South Vietnamese: 1.5MNorth Vietnamese: 1MEnd of 1975 N. Vietnam took over Saigon (S. capitol)
29Nixon’s Foreign Affairs China: Anticipates end to cold war.Ping-pong Diplomacy: (1971) Chinese host U.S. team.1972: Nixon visits China.Weakens government of Taiwan.Moscow to meet with Brezhnev.Opens Moscow as a market.Sell USSR 1$ bill grain
30Nixon’s Foreign Affairs U.S. backed dictators1973: U.S. overthrows Salvador Allende in Chile, democratically elected president.Allende is killed in junta.Pinochet becomes ruler backed by U.S.Delivers guns to Shah of IranMarcos in the PhilippinesBotha in South AfricaSomoza of Nicaragua
31Nixon’s Re-Election Fund Committee toREElect thePresident
32Watergate Nixon: Determined to win election in 1972. Takes nation off gold standard.Closely resembles democrat fiscal policies.Wiretaps news professionalsEncourage FBI to spy on civilians.Authorize CREEP to spy on Democrats.
33Nixon: CREEPSecret squad of “plumbers” to suppress leaks in the press.First go after Daniel Ellsberg, turned over secrets of our involvement in Vietnam “Pentagon Papers”NY Times v. U.S.Government cannot suppress NY Times, there is not an immediate threat to U.S.Break into Ellsberg’s psychiatrists office to try and discredit him.Wiretap DNC headquarters
34Election of 1972 McGovern is Democratic candidate. Supports LSD, abortion & amnesty for those who avoided the draft.Nixon ends up winning every state but Massachusetts.Plumbers are arrested and traced back to Nixon.He had taped every conversation in the office.Nixon has to give up tapes (Supreme Court).Tapes are bad and have blank spots.Anti-Semitic slurs, ravings and paranoia, and admits he had ordered cover up in Watergate break in.
35ImpeachmentHouse adopts 3 articles of impeachment for obstruction of justice.1972 Agnew had resigned for accepting kickbacks.Gerald Ford had replaced him.First president to resign from office on Aug 9,“Don’t blame me, I’m from MA” bumper stickers.