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PIG PRODUCTION. CONTENTS OF THE PRESENTATION 1.Introduction – Sow cycle 2.Breeding – Breeds and characteristics 3.Feeding – Feeding of different classes.

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Presentation on theme: "PIG PRODUCTION. CONTENTS OF THE PRESENTATION 1.Introduction – Sow cycle 2.Breeding – Breeds and characteristics 3.Feeding – Feeding of different classes."— Presentation transcript:


2 CONTENTS OF THE PRESENTATION 1.Introduction – Sow cycle 2.Breeding – Breeds and characteristics 3.Feeding – Feeding of different classes of pigs 4.Housing – Space requirements Working out pen requirements

3 BREEDING Types of breeds-3 namely Large white Landrace Duroc Mukota





8 CHARACTERISTIC-LW Originally from uk Widely used in commercial pig breeding as a parent of sows and as a terminal sire Breed characteristics Large,white –coated pig with prick ears Have erect ears and slightly dished faces Has a white color,pink skins and long deep sides

9 CHARACTERISTICS-LR White hogs with floppy eras that hang parallel to the bridge of their nose Known for their mothering ability, large litter sizes and good milking ability When harvested landraces are known for producing high percentage of carcass weight They cross well with other breeds and produce long bodied offspring Most widely used as foundation stock for hybrid gilts for commercial breeding Breed characteristics Landrace have white skin and are mostly free from black hair Are long lop-eared pig with long middle, light front quartes and excellent ham development Have good meat structure and maternal abilities Very efficient at converting food to meat and produce little excess fat Known for their rapid growth when young, typically reaching a heavier weight at weaning than other breeds. Faults with the original-leg weaknesses, spray legs and nervous disorders

10 CHARACTERISTICS-DR Deep red and mahogany in color Have floppy ears Very prolific, good longevity and are noted for outstanding terminal siring ability Known for lean gain efficieny, carcass yields and muscle quality Have medium length and slight dish of the face The boar is known to be one of the most aggressive of the pig breeds Sows are docile and have good mothering ability

11 CHARACTERISTICS-MKT Indigenous breed A hardy black pig Good resistance to disease and poor nutrition and require little water Reproduction follows an annual rhythm with peak farrowing in the early rainy season Mean litter size between 6.5-7.5 Carcass yield is about 30% less from exotic large white but is considered tasty They have moderate parasite tolerance greater than the imported breeds

12 CHARACTERISTICS TO BE CONSIDERED IN PIG BREEDING Boar Line: ‑ Daily gain - Feed Conversion Rate ‑ Relation between Lean Meat / Fat ‑ … Sow Line: ‑ No. of piglets born alive ‑ No. of piglets weaned ‑ Interval weaning – next service ‑ Mortality - Longevity - … Fatteners: ‑ mortality (survival) ‑ daily growth ‑ feed conversion rate ‑ fat deposition ‑ slaughter quality

13 FEEDING OF PIGS - Summarize feeding for different classes of pigs- Feeding preg sow During the gestation period, the requirement for nutrients changes continuously. A gestating sow needs feed for maintenance, uterine growth and for her own body-weight gain. first paritylater parities or: small sowsor: bigger sows Day of weaning:N.A.0 Next day until service3-3.5 3.5-4 First 2 months (day 0-60)2.02.25 Then (day 61-85)2.52.75 Last month(day 85-112)3.25 3.5 Last days(112-farrowing)22 Day of farrowing0-10-1

14 FEEDING Feeding of lactating sows approx. 24 hours around farrowing: 0 - 1 kg 1st day :1 kg After this first day increase the allowance gradually (daily increments of 0.5 kg) until the ‘target feed allowance' is reached Target feed-allowance: 1.5 kg + 0.5 kg per piglet Feeding of suckling piglets Piglets start their lives drinking their dam's colostrum and milk, creep feed, the practice of providing feed to suckling piglets, serves three purposes: Piglets will be weaned with higher weights Their digestive systems have been challenged to develop and produce enzymes, thus preparing them for a ration without milk, after weaning Sows, and especially gilts, will lose some less weight as their piglets will eventually drink less when they start eating additional solid feed

15 FEEDING Feeding of weaners up to 20-25 kg after weaning piglets are best fed ad lib to stimulate feed-intake and to maximize growth-rate Feeding of growing / finishing pigs The feed al­lowance or ration deter­mines both growth rate and product (car­cass) quality in growing pigs. At one extreme severe feed restriction can seriously slow down growth-rate and cause pigs to be so lean that they are hardly edible

16 Energy level of the feeds: 3200 kcal DE/kg ADG 650 grs Kgs feed/pig/day ADG 700 grs WeekLiveweight 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 23 - 26 26 - 29 29 - 33 33 - 37 37 - 41 41 - 45 45 - 50 50 - 54 54 - 59 59 - 64 64 - 69 69 - 74 74 - 79 79 - 84 84 - 89 89 - 95 95 - 100 100 - 105 105 - 110 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.7 1.8 2.0 2.1 2.3 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 23 - 26 26 - 29 29 - 33 33 - 37 37 - 41 41 - 46 46 - 51 51 - 56 56 - 61 61 - 66 66 - 72 72 - 78 78 - 83 83 - 89 89 - 95 95 - 100 100- 106 106- 111 Examples of possible feeding schemes for different growth potentials

17 FEEDING Feeding of replacement stock Feeding replacement stock is very much like feeding fattening pigs. The dif­ference is: we do not want maximum daily gains This slower growth rate (compared to fatteners) can be achieved by: Restricting feed intake more severely; Offering feed with lower energy level. Feeds or diets for replacement stock: 20 - 45 kg:starter feed 45 kg-service:lactating sow feed (or special rearing feed) after service:gestating sow feed

18 FEEDING Feeding of boars Boars require feed for maintenance and production, which is: growth, mating and production of semen­. The feeds suitable for boars are: all sow feeds except the gestating-sow types, which are too poor in protein and amino-acids

19 Feed type Class fed Period fed Level and mode remarks B&S feedboar From 6mnths till culling 1.5-2.5kg /head/day fed wet or dry Adjust according to condition B&s feed Sow(lactati ng) During lactation 2kg +1/2kg/per piglet being nursed. Wet feeding Frequent feeding to encourage intake Sow feedDry sow Btwn weaning and servicing 3- 4kg/head/day.wet or dry feeding Level helps sow to quickly come on heat Sow feed Pregnant sow Btwn weaning and farrowing 2kg per head/day.wet or dry feeding Overfeedind causes farrowing prob Creep feed Suckling piglets and weaners Week 1-8adlib Creep feeding reduces digestive probles at weaning Colostru m and ordinary milk Suckling piglets Birth to weaning Ad lib(unrestricted)Must for all pigs Sow feedgilts 6 months till farrowing 2kg/head/day wet feed or dryy feeding Adjust ration during flusshing Grower feed growers 8 weeks to 60 kg Adlib or restricted If restricted feed twice per day Finisher feed finishers 60 to slaughter Adlib or restrictedSame as above waterAll classesThroughout life adlibWater must be cool and clean

20 HOUSING OF PIGS The objectives of housing pigs are: protection from climatic extremes enabling better management protection against theft In the following presentation we will discuss the following issues 1.Spacing requirements It’s important that we have the right number of pigs in a pig sty. Overcrowding can result in depressed growth in addition to transmission of disease Spacing guidelines

21 HOUSING CLASSAREA(SQUARE METER) Sow pen1.7-2.0 Farrowing pen including crate6.2 Porkers(pen including dunging area) 0.73/pig Baconers(pen including dunging area) 0.93/pig Trough space per pig Light porkers0.2 Heavy porkers0.25 Baconers0.3 Gilts/sows0.35

22 HOUSING 2. PEN REQUIREMENT WORKOUT Starting points the number of sows on the farm; the expected number of litters per sow per year; the weaning age; what kind of weaner pens the farmer wants to use; whether the farmer wants to use A.I. or natural mating; whether he wants to select his own young breeding stock or buy them from outside and at what age; what type of housing for dry and pregnant sows (group or individual); the expected culling rate; the expected growth of the piglets; days needed for desinfection and cleaning; the expected growth for the fatteners; the number of animals per pen.

23 HOUSING The number of places or pens can be calculated as follows: Assumptions Weaning age 5 weeks 20 weaners produced per sow per year 18 pigs are sold per sow per year Sows enter farrowing house 1 week before farrowing and the pens are rested for a week after weaning Weaners occupy weaner pens for three weeks and the pens are rested for 5 days Fatteners occupy the fattening pens for 105 days and the pens are rested for 3 days

24 HOUSING FARROWING PLACES Farrowings per year 100*2.0=200 With a seven week occupation period the number of times the same farrowing place can be used=52/7=7 No. of farrowing places required=200/7=29

25 HOUSING DRY SOW PLACES The sow is weaned after 5 weeks The sow enters the farrowing house a week before farrowing.At 2 litters per sow year a period of (6*2)=12 weeks is spend away from dry –sow housing.the period the sow is in the dry sow pens is 40 weeks The number of dry sow places required is 40*100/52=77 If sows are housed 8 in a pen No of pens required=77/8=10

26 HOUSING Weaner pens Output of weaners per year =100*2*10=2000weaners Weaners stay in the weaner pens for three weeks with the pen being rested for 5 days Batches per year=365/26=14 batches No of pigs /batch=2000/14=143 pigs At 12 weaners/pen the number of pens required=143/12=12pens

27 HOUSING Fattening pens Pigs occupy the fattening pens after 6 weeks Fatteners are marketed when they are about 51/2 months of age allowing 3 days cleaning between batches the number that can use the same facility per year is 365/109=3.3 Output per year is 100*18=1800 For a 100 sow unit the number of pigs per batch is 100*18/3.3=545 545 fattening places are required per time At 15 pigs /pen the number of pens required is 530/15=34 pens

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