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Valerie M. Grubb, Principle Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Essentials.

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Presentation on theme: "Valerie M. Grubb, Principle Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Essentials."— Presentation transcript:

1 Valerie M. Grubb, Principle Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Essentials of Project Management

2 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Why PM Skills are Important  Individual Contribution  Roll-out HRIS software  Outsourcing HR activities  Developing new employee programs  Conducting legal compliance audit  Starting an HR department  Strategic Contribution  M&A  Downsizing or restructuring  Realign performance appraisals to match strategic goals  Developing crisis mgmt plan  Facilitating culture change

3 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Where to Start “ Plan your work and then work your plan. ” Norman Vincent Peale author, The Power of Positive Thinking

4 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Pre-Project Planning 1.Defining the Project Scope 2.Your Project Plan 3.Adding Costs to the Equation 4.Risks 5.Roles & Responsibilities

5 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Project Scope Why is formalizing what is IN and what is OUT so important?

6 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal What’s IN and What’s OUT Defining Project Scope  Draws a “line in the sand” of exactly what will be included and what will not  Helps to establish very clear expectations for your customer(s)  Good reference in the event there are questions as the project progresses  Acts as your foundation as new tasks are added (and the timeline adjusts)

7 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Project Goal Objectives (Critical Success Factors ) Deliverables (Critical Success Measures) Requirements (definitions on form, fit, feature, function) From Improving your Project Management Skills by Larry Richman, AMACOM, Senior Management Functional Managers Subject Matter Experts Goal Breakdown Structure

8 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal S pecific Is the objective clear about what, where, when, and how? M easurable Is there a reliable system in place to evaluate? Does it have a clear measurement of success? A ccurate & Agreed to Is it stated accurately to ensure you can measure the results correctly? Have you gained consensus and agreement from key stakeholders? R elevant Does this objective map to a company result? Can the project team make an impact on the situation? T ime- Bound Is there a finish and/or a start date clearly stated or defined? SMART Project Objectives

9 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Refining the Objectives Project Deliverables:  Measurable results, outcomes or specific products or services that must be provided in order to consider the project complete  Deliverables, like goals, should be specific and measurable  The more specific the deliverables, the easier it will be to plan and estimate project activities  Each of these deliverables requires some type of action and most large, complex projects have phased deliverables

10 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Refining the Deliverables Project Requirements:  Different from goals and deliverables – they help define how we know the goal or deliverable is completed successfully  Requirements are a further breakdown of the deliverables; they describe the characteristics of the deliverable in very specific detail  Example: our deliverable is a BEER, but the requirements are that it be AMBER, IN A BOTTLE, etc.

11 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Goal Breakdown Structure (GBS) LevelsProject GoalDouble market share of Product XYZ by end of Objectives1. Market Size (Critical Success Factors Deliverables1.1 From $25k/yr to $40K/yr (Critical Success Measures) Requirements1.1.1 Maintain 20% profit margin Breaking Down the Goal-Example

12 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Goal Breakdown Structure (GBS) LevelsProject GoalDouble market share of Product XYZ by end of Objectives1. Market Size (Critical Success Factors2. Market Share 3. Product quality 4. Rework 5. Satisfaction rates Deliverables1.1 From $25k/yr to $40K/yr (Critical Success Measures) Requirements1.1.1 Maintain 20% profit margin Breaking Down the Goal-Example

13 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Goal Breakdown Structure (GBS) LevelsProject GoalDouble market share of Product XYZ by end of Objectives1. Market Size (Critical Success Factors2. Market Share 3. Product quality 4. Rework 5. Satisfaction rates Deliverables1.1 From $25k/yr to $40K/yr (Critical Success Measures)1.2 Capture 7.5% of new market 1.3 Achieve ISO quality certification 1.4 Decrease rework by 20% 1.5 Achieve customer satisfaction rating of "best-in" by Consumer Reports standards Requirements1.1.1 Maintain 20% profit margin Breaking Down the Goal-Example

14 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal What’s IN and What’s OUT Why is formalizing what is IN and what is OUT so important? Why is gaining agreement from your boss on what is IN and what is OUT critical?

15 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal GOAL: Reduce Inventory Costs WITHIN Project ScopeNOT WITHIN Project ScopeComments Determine the cost savings of reducing the total number of parts by 25%. Reducing total number of parts will reduce our storage and tracking costs and reduce complexity. We should know by how much. Benchmark current inventory costs against key competitors. That would take too much time. Besides, we don't have to know what our competitors are doing in order to achieve significant reductions. Develop a plan to design parts complexity our of future products. Great idea, but it should be a separate project run by product development people. Develop a plan for just-in- time parts delivery. This will save us on floor space and inventory-carrying costs. We should have done this years ago. From The Essential of Project Management by Harvard Business Press, What’s IN and What’s OUT

16 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Finalizing the Project Scope Written sign-off of Project Scope is CRITICAL before you begin!!!

17 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Finalizing the Project Scope Before sign-off, ensure you’ve answered the following:  Can we afford the project?  If the project succeeds, will it be worth the cost?  Do we have the skills needed to succeed?  Will the project finish in time to make a difference for our business?

18 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Finalizing the Project Scope Sign-off of Project Scope:  Key Stakeholders  Key Management Team Members  Project Sponsor Who could come back after the fact and “balk” at the scope of the project?

19 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Pre-Project Planning 1.Defining the Project Scope 2.Your Project Plan 3.Adding Costs to the Equation 4.Risks 5.Roles & Responsibilities

20 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Your Project Plan Where do you start when trying to define your Project Plan?

21 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Where to Start? START with the END!

22 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Start with the end in mind to help you define where you need to go and what you need to do to get there. As-is state To-be state  What major drivers exist that you should review?  What tasks define how you’ll evaluate each major driver? Where to Start?

23 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal When Beginning With the End… Think of the End Deliverable from your boss’s perspective: How would your boss define success? OR How will he or she indicate that the project has been completed satisfactorily?

24 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Anheuser Busch Project: $3.0 billion in revenue across Canada Upwards of $300MM residing in A/R In 2010, 30%+ of A/R were overdue ~2% of avg monthly receivables balance is written off as bad debt resulting in ~$2-3MM EBIDTA impact each year WHAT IS THE END DELIVERABLE? SUGGESTIONS ON HOW TO GET TO THE END DELIVERABLE? 24 Begin with the End

25 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Defining Your Project Plan Any questions on beginning with the end?

26 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Defining Your Project Plan Project Managers use a tool called a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) to illustrate what tasks need to be accomplished.

27 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal WBS Best Practices  Start with major deliverables/milestones then work your way “down” (i.e., more detailed) based on each major task or deliverable.  Involve the people who will have to do the work. You DON’T need to do it alone!  Be sure to include any assumptions regarding the project.  Consider presenting time factors as a range vs. a fixed # of days.  Include a contingency BUT spell it out (don’t hide it within your estimate).

28 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Defining Your Project Plan  A Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is simply an outline of what needs to be done to accomplish your project.  Simple WBS: Goal: Make land useable for construction 1.Conduct site survey 2.Obtain permits 3.Clear site 4.Excavate site 5.Regrade and groom site

29 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal HRIS Work Breakdown Structure Major TaskLevel 1 Subtask Level 2 Subtasks 1 - Conduct needs assessment 1.1 Assess proposed system's interact with current systems Survey other HR depts. for their best practices Interview HR staffers to define process flows and functionality 2 - Create system specifications 2.1 Specify database functionality Write separate specs for each module (benefits, recruitment, etc.) Specify data-entry and retrieval processes 3 - Design system3.1 Design report formats Design ad hoc report formats Design standard report formats 4 - Develop system 4.1 Ensure system's security Engage technical security specialist Create security plan 5 - Install system 5.1 Develop user training program Develop online tutorial Create in person training 6 - Evaluate system 6.1 Assess effectiveness of modules Assess recruiting module Assess applicant tracking modules WBS Example

30 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Defining Your Project Plan Once you identify the tasks that need to be accomplished, you then need to add the time it takes to accomplish each task.

31 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Defining Your Project Plan  Gantt charts are a graphical representation of the duration of tasks  Gantt charts illustrate how long a project should take  Gantt charts also lay out the order in which tasks need to be carried out and any dependencies

32 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal HRIS Work Breakdown Structure Level 2 subtask duration (days) Major TaskLevel 1 Subtask Level 2 Subtasks 1 - Conduct needs assessment 1.1 Assess proposed system's interact with current systems Survey other HR depts for their best practices Interview HR staffers to define process flows and functionality Create system specifications 2.1 Specify database functionality Write separate specs for each module (benefits, recruitment, etc.) Specify data-entry and retrieval processes Design system3.1 Design report formats Design ad hoc report formats Design standard report formats Develop system 4.1 Ensure system's security Engage technical security specialist Create security plan Install system 5.1 Develop user training program Develop online tutorial Create hands-on training Evaluate system 6.1 Assess effectiveness of modules Assess recruiting module Assess applicant tracking modules 3 TOTAL DURATION (DAYS): 46 Estimating Time via WBS

33 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Where to Exercise: Using the End Goal worksheet, detail the major milestones and sub-tasks for your upcoming project. How long will it take you to accomplish each individual task? What is the total length of your project?

34 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Defining Your Project Plan Has anyone done a Gantt chart before?

35 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Sample Gantt Chart

36 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Pre-Project Planning 1.Defining the Project Scope 2.Your Project Plan 3.Adding Costs to the Equation 4.Risks 5.Roles & Responsibilities

37 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Estimating Costs Conventional Project Management Wisdom says: You may want it good, fast and cheap BUT you only get TWO!!

38 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Estimating Costs Time, Cost & Performance Trade-offs:  If technical requirements are fixed, compressing the schedule will probably increase project costs.  The more the schedule is compressed, the greater the rate of increase in cost per unit of time. From Improving your Project Management Skills by Larry Richman, AMACOM, 2006.

39 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Estimating Costs Time, Cost & Performance Trade-offs :  Adding requirements to the scope will either increase cost or time (or both!).  If the budget is fixed, negotiation is necessary on the other two parameters. From Improving your Project Management Skills by Larry Richman, AMACOM, 2006.

40 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal From Improving your Project Management Skills by Larry Richman, AMACOM, UNITS of TIME UNITS of COST Late Finish Date Early Finish Date Least Cost Solution Highest Cost Solution Estimating Costs Time vs. Cost Trade-off

41 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal From Improving your Project Management Skills by Larry Richman, AMACOM, UNITS of TIME UNITS of COST Late Finish Date Early Finish Date Least Cost Solution Highest Cost Solution LIMITS Estimating Costs Time vs. Cost Trade-off

42 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Estimating Costs If you have to estimate costs, where do you start?

43 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Estimating Costs Tips on determining costs:  Historical costs for similar projects completed in the past  Pull costs for the individual pieces, then sum them up for the total (equipment, labor, etc.)  Speak with experts in the field of your project – who might that include?  Request for Quotes from vendors if outside labor is required  Speak with Finance for similar spend

44 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Estimating Costs At most companies, asking for $ can be a challenge... How do you sell the cost for your project?

45 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Estimating Costs When asking for Money:  Start with WIIFT (What’s In It For Them) or benefits  Craft your message around the ROI of the project: Time Efficiency Other cost savings?

46 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Monitoring the Project Budget Typical Budget Challenges:  Scope creep  Inflation during long-term projects  Unfavorable changes in currency rates  Failing to get firm prices from suppliers or contractors (or not properly defining the scope during the RFP process).  Unplanned personnel costs such as overtime, training or consulting fees

47 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Pre-Project Planning 1.Defining the Project Scope 2.Your Project Plan 3.Adding Costs to the Equation 4.Risks 5.Roles & Responsibilities

48 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Risks, Constraints, Assumptions Why is identifying risks and constraints important?

49 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal IMPACT LowModerateHigh PROBABILITY High Moderate Low From Improving your Project Management Skills by Larry Richman, AMACOM, Risks and Constraints Identifying Risks Risk Probability vs. Impact

50 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Risks and Constraints The “critical path” of a project is one of the best ways to track RISKs or CONSTRAINTs to your project. What is meant by the “critical path”?

51 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Determining the Critical Path Critical Path is the series of tasks with the longest duration. If anything is delayed in that path, it will delay project completion.

52 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Risks and Constraints Other Risks/Constraints:  When do decisions need to be made to keep you on track and how long does it take to schedule the decision makers?  Are resources (i.e., people or equipment) available when you need them?  What happens if funding is not approved?  How to ensure Senior Management support on a recommendation?

53 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Risks and Constraints Other Considerations:  Anticipate what’s going to go wrong 2-3 steps down the road.  Figure out where/how you’ll make up for lost time later in the project.  How to meet deadlines without burning bridges?

54 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Monitoring the Project Budget What is scope creep?

55 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Monitoring the Project Budget How Scope Creep occurs:  Lack of agreement on the original Project Scope statement  Not sticking to the original Project Scope statement  Lack of a Project Scope statement

56 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Pre-Project Planning 1.Defining the Project Scope 2.Your Project Plan 3.Adding Costs to the Equation 4.Risks 5.Roles & Responsibilities

57 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Monitoring the Project Budget Where do you start when identifying your project team?

58 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Roles & Responsibilities Determining your Project Team: 1.Skills needed for each task or group of tasks 2.Ability to learn new things 3.Knowledge 4.Personality 5.Availability 6.Experience 7.Ability to work with others

59 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Defining Skills Required by Task TasksSkills NeededLevel of ExperiencePotential Team Members Define program requirements Web programming 2 years Oracle database 2 years Good communication skills Experience writing requirements on previous internal projects Determine platform and languages Senior programming skills 5 years Design programming modulesOO design/UML 5 years Write help screens and manualTechnical writing 1 year Roles & Responsibilities

60 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Skills Inventory EmployeeTitleSkills/TrainingYearsEducation Bob SmithProgrammer IDegreeBS Computer Science Java3 XML2.NET0 Payroll System1 PeopleSoft HRIS2 Suzy Jones Database AdministratorDegreeBS Computer Science Oracle programming5 Oracle administration3 Payroll System3 Accounting System3 Tyrell BisognoTechnical writerDegree1BA English Roles & Responsibilities

61 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Roles & Responsibilities Need answers to the following:  Are the right resources going to be available at the right time?  Has priority been established between your project and their other tasks?  Do the resources have the available time to put towards the project? What happens if these are not in place?

62 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Name Project Leader Bob R. Controller Function Name Position Name Position Core Team As Needed Support/ Functional Experts Name Project Champion Name Position Name Position Function Name Position Name Position Name Position Function Name Position Name Position Name Position Step 2: Define Roles: Who is responsible for what? Organizing Your Resources Clearly Define Roles & Responsibilities Name Position Function Name Position Name Position Steering Committee

63 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Name Project Leader Bob R. Controller Function Name Position Name Position Core Team As Needed Support/ Functional Experts Name Project Champion Name Position Steering Committee Name Position Step 2: Define Roles: Who is responsible for what? Organizing Your Resources Clearly Define Roles & Responsibilities Responsibilities:  Deliver weekly updates on budget tracking  Validate Financial Analysis  Align saving to budgeting process  Contribute to Business case

64 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Pre-Project Planning 1.Defining the Project Scope 2.Your Project Plan 3.Adding Costs to the Equation 4.Risks and Constraints 5.Roles & Responsibilities Any Final Questions?

65 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal ChallengeStrategies Responsibility vs. authority trap  Draw on your expertise, knowledge, and track record to influence and persuade others to support your efforts. Unrealistic targets  Resist temptation to develop your project schedule by starting with the imposed unrealistic finish date.  Assemble evidence showing why deadline is unrealistic.  Present the situation as concisely as you can to your boss. Serving multiple bosses  Negotiate conflicting demands from both bosses: ask for clarification on priorities, highlighting deadlines for both bosses. Project Uncertainty or Undefined Goals  Use ranges of values instead of single figures when providing cost and schedule estimates. Typical PM Challenges

66 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Continue Your Learning Good Resources  The Essential of Project Management, Harvard Business School Press,  Project Management Jump Start: The Best First Step Toward a Career in Project Management, Kim Heldman, Jossey- Bass Publisher,  Improving your Project Management Skills, Larry Richman, AMA, 2006.

67 Valerie M. Grubb, Principal Essentials of Project Management Any Final Questions?


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