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Thermal Analysis of Thermosets Noah Menard Veritas Testing and Consulting, LLC Denton, TX.

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Presentation on theme: "Thermal Analysis of Thermosets Noah Menard Veritas Testing and Consulting, LLC Denton, TX."— Presentation transcript:

1 Thermal Analysis of Thermosets Noah Menard Veritas Testing and Consulting, LLC Denton, TX

2 Thermosets and Thermal Analysis 4 Feb 2015©Veritas Testing and Consulting. LLC2 TechniqueUncured SamplesCured SamplesUncommon Methodology DSCTime and how energetic a cure. Time/temperature/ degree of cure relationships Glass transition temperature Residual cure MT-DSC Fast Scan DSC UV-DSC TGAWeight loss on curingDecomposition temperatures Filler content Derivative controlled methods Hyphenated TGAWhat’s evolved on curingUnreacted components.TG-IR, MS, GCMS, etc TMAContraction on curingCTE on cured materialsDilatometry DMATime to gelation Re-vitrification Temperature Glass transition temperature Beta transition Strain and frequency scans Immersion/humidity tests

3 Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) Looks at changes in a materials heat capacity. Detects energy released or absorbed. 4 Feb 2015©Veritas Testing and Consulting. LLC3

4 How much did it cure? 4 Feb 2015©Veritas Testing and Consulting. LLC4 Blue Curve = -126 J/g Green Curve = -191 J/g Degree of Cure (DC) = (1 – fraction uncured)100 Uncured Fraction = (Full Cure – unknown) Full Cure = (-191 - - 126)/-191 =.34 DC = (1-.34) = 66% ΔΗ = -126 ΔΗ = -191

5 So from the cure, we predict cure time 4 Feb 2015©Veritas Testing and Consulting. LLC5

6 Then on the reheat, 4 Feb 2015©Veritas Testing and Consulting. LLC6

7 Tracking Cures by Tg 4 Feb 2015©Veritas Testing and Consulting. LLC7

8 Now in real life The Tg can be hidden by residual curing or by stress relief 4 Feb 2015©Veritas Testing and Consulting. LLC8

9 MT-DSC – cleaning up the Tg and more 4 Feb 2015©Veritas Testing and Consulting. LLC9

10 TTT Diagrams 4 Feb 2015©Veritas Testing and Consulting. LLC10

11 Fast Scanning DSC 4 Feb 2015©Veritas Testing and Consulting. LLC11 Single run at 10 C/min

12 The high rates let us… 4 Feb 2015©Veritas Testing and Consulting. LLC12 See under the exotherm Makes transitions more visible

13 Linking Tg to chemistry of cure 4 Feb 2015©Veritas Testing and Consulting. LLC13 IR Scan of Epoxy over 3 Hour Period Epoxy at Specific Times

14 Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) 4 Feb 2015©Veritas Testing and Consulting. LLC14

15 TGA-IR or MS 4 Feb 2015©Veritas Testing and Consulting. LLC15 Best match: C 3 H 8 O 2 N 2 To MS A

16 Analysis by TG-IR in Action 4 Feb 2015©Veritas Testing and Consulting. LLC16

17 Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA) The Tg is a region (Mark) Tg from the three techniques do not match – DSC { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/13/3816005/slides/slide_17.jpg", "name": "Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA) The Tg is a region (Mark) Tg from the three techniques do not match – DSC

18 CTE 4 Feb 2015©Veritas Testing and Consulting. LLC18

19 TMA - Dilatometry 4 Feb 2015©Veritas Testing and Consulting. LLC19 Dilatometer Al 2 0 3 Sample TMA Probe

20 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis The dirty secret of DMA – most of them are used for Tg measurement 4 Feb 2015©Veritas Testing and Consulting. LLC20 tan  Temperature 1.0 0.5 0.0 0 hours 1 hour 150 200 175 Heat flow (mW) 21.8 23.8 tan  Heat flow 20 C/min 2 - 8 hours 500 C/min

21 DMA gives you modulus and viscosity in cure 4 Feb 2015©Veritas Testing and Consulting. LLC21

22 As well as Tg 4 Feb 2015©Veritas Testing and Consulting. LLC22

23 DMA – Strain, Frequency, other effects 4 Feb 2015©Veritas Testing and Consulting. LLC23

24 Immersion Testing 4 Feb 2015©Veritas Testing and Consulting. LLC24 Previous immersed & run in air Previous Immersed & run in salt water Failing Epoxy Marine Paint Never wet sample in air

25 Humidity 4 Feb 2015©Veritas Testing and Consulting. LLC25

26 Other things doable in a DMA 4 Feb 2015©Veritas Testing and Consulting. LLC26 Stress-strain Curves Creep-Recovery Tests Stress-Relaxation Frequency Scans Time Temperature Superposition Mastercurves Kinetics (Roller Model) UV curing

27 Thank you.


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