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Yarmouk University Hijjawi Faculty For Engineering Tech Project Management and Quality Control Fall A. Al-Tamimi ©Lecture 01
Class Rules You as an engineer: – Good manners – High moral values No cheating ! – Obey the laws as a member of the society No cheating ! Class respect: – Noise, tardiness, carelessness are not accepted A. Al-Tamimi ©2
Class Rules Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©3
Class Rules Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©4
Class Rules Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©5
Grading A. Al-Tamimi ©6 First Exam 20% Second Exam 25% Final Exam 50%
Tentative Syllabus and Schedule A. Al-Tamimi ©7 TopicWeeks Introduction to project management1 Week Project types and main stages1 Week Project evaluation process and project selection2 Weeks Project planning and scheduling2 Weeks First Exam Cost analysis and risk management 2 Weeks Introduction to quality control and management 2 Weeks Second Exam Methods of quality control and key concepts 2 Weeks Quality engineering, and auditing quality 2 Weeks Final Exam
Recommended Books A. Al-Tamimi ©8
Recommended Books A. Al-Tamimi ©9
Recommended Books Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©10
Recommended Books Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©11
Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©12
Lecture Overview Project Definition Project Characteristics Project Parameters The Scope Triangle Project Classifications A. Al-Tamimi ©13Lecture 01
Project Definition A project is a sequence of unique, complex, and connected activities having one goal or purpose and that must be completed by a specific time, within budget, and according to specification Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©14
Project: Sequence of Activities A project comprises a number of activities that must be completed in some specified order, or sequence – The sequence of the activities is based on technical requirements An activity is a defined chunk of work The output of one activity or set of activities becomes the input to another activity or set of activities Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©15
Project: Unique Activities The activities in a project must be unique A project has never happened before, and it will never happen again under the same conditions. Something is always different each time the activities of a project are repeated These random variations are the challenge for the project manager Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©16
Project: Complex Activities The activities that make up the project are not simple, or repetitive acts Difference between difficult and complex: – Complication (complexity) is a measure of the number of steps, components and elements involved in the problem – Difficulty is usually a measure of your endurance, your will, your fortitude and generally your commitment to following through on the task Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©17
Project: Connected Activities Connectedness implies that there is a logical or technical relationship between pairs of activities They are considered connected because the output from one activity is the input to another Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©18
Project: One Goal Projects must have a single goal Very large or complex projects may be divided into several subprojects – Simplifies the scheduling of resources and reduces the need for interdepartmental communications – The downside is that the projects are now interdependent Even though interdependency adds another layer of complexity and communication, it can be handled Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©19
Project: Specified Time Projects have a specified completion date This date can be self-imposed by management or externally specified by a customer or government agency The deadline is beyond the control of anyone working on the project The project is over on the specified completion date whether or not the project work has been completed Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©20
Project: Within Budget Projects also have resource limits, such as a limited amount of people, money, or machines that are dedicated to the project While these resources can be adjusted up or down by management, they are considered fixed resources to the project manager Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©21
Project: According to Specification The customer, or the recipient of the project’s deliverables, expects a certain level of functionality and quality from the project It is unrealistic to expect the specification to remain fixed through the life of the project Systems specification can and will change, thereby presenting special challenges to the project manager The new project management style is Agile Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©22
Program Definition A program is a collection of projects The projects must be completed in a specific order for the program to be considered complete Because programs comprise multiple projects, they are larger in scope than a single project Unlike projects, programs can have many goals – The NASA space program Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©23
Project Parameters Five Constraints operate on every project: – Scope – Quality – Cost – Time – Resources These constraints are an interdependent set – a change in one can cause a change in another constraint to restore the equilibrium of the project Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©24
Scope Scope is a statement that defines the boundaries of the project. It tells not only what will be done but also what will not be done – In the information systems industry, scope is often referred to as a functional specification – In the engineering profession, it is generally called a statement of work Detecting that change of the scope and deciding how to accommodate it in the project plan are major challenges for the project manager Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©25
Quality Two types of quality are part of every project: – The first is product quality. This refers to the quality of the deliverable from the project – The second type of quality is process quality, which is the quality of the project management process itself The focus is on how well the project management process works and how can it be improved. Continuous quality improvement and process quality management are the tools used to measure process quality Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©26
Cost Cost is a major consideration throughout the project management life cycle The customer can simply offer a figure about equal to what he or she had in mind for the project In more formal situations, the project manager prepares a proposal for the projected work. That proposal includes an estimate (perhaps even a quote) of the total cost of the project Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©27
Time The customer specifies a timeframe or deadline date within which the project must be completed – To a certain extent, cost and time are inversely related to one another. The time a project takes to be completed can be reduced, but cost increases as a result The objective for the project manager is to use the future time allocated to the project in the most effective and productive ways possible Once a project has begun, the prime resource available to the project manager to keep the project on schedule or get it back on schedule is time Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©28
Resources Resources are assets, such as people, equipment, physical facilities, or inventory, that have limited availabilities, can be scheduled, or can be leased from an outside party Some are fixed; others are variable only in the long term Depending on the project in hand, the major resource differ Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©29
The Scope Triangle The triangle represents a system in balance before any project work has been done (also known as the Triple Constraint or the Iron Triangle) Projects are dynamic systems that must be kept in equilibrium – The geographic area inside the triangle represents the scope and quality of the project – Lines representing time, cost, and resource availability bound scope and quality – Time is the window of time within which the project must be completed – Cost is the dollar budget available to complete the project – Resources are any consumables used on the project: people, equipment availability, and facilities Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©30
The Scope Triangle Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©31
The Scope Triangle The project plan will have identified the time, cost, and resource availability needed to deliver the scope and quality of a project The project manager controls resource utilization and work schedules Management controls cost and resource level The customer controls scope, quality, and delivery dates Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©32
The Scope Triangle Another representation of the scope triangle The scope of the project (functionality) is determined by the required quality, available time and available cost This triangle reflects the fact that the three properties of a project are interrelated, and it is not possible to optimize all three Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©33
Example Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©34
Example You are given the options of Fast, Good and Cheap, and told to pick any two – Here Fast refers to the time required to deliver the product – Good is the quality of the final product – and Cheap refers to the total cost of designing and building the product Design something quickly and to a high standard, but then it will not be cheap Design something quickly and cheaply, but it will not be of high quality Design something with high quality and cheaply, but it will take a long time Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©35
Scope Creep Scope creep is the term that has come to mean any change in the project that was not in the original plan. (also called requirement creep) in project management refers to uncontrolled changes or continuous growth in a project's scope. – Change is constant Your management might decide that getting to the market before the competition is necessary Your job as project manager is to figure out how these changes can be accommodated Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©36
Hope Creep Hope creep is the result of a project team member’s getting behind schedule, reporting that he or she is on schedule, but hoping to get back on schedule by the next report date The project manager must be able to verify the accuracy of the status reports received from the team members – Random checks can be used effectively Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©37
Effort Creep Effort creep is the result of the team member’s working but not making progress proportionate to the work expended Other than random checks, the only effective thing that the project manager can do is to increase the frequency of status reporting by those team members who seem to suffer from effort creep Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©38
Feature Creep Feature creep results when the team members arbitrarily add features and functions to the deliverable that they think the customer would want to have – Closely related to scope creep The message here is that a formal change request must be filed, and if it is approved, the project plan and all related activities will be appropriately modified Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©39
Project Classifications Projects are classified based on these characteristics: – Risk : Establish levels of risk (high, medium, low) – Business value : Establish levels (high, medium, low) – Length : Establish several categories (i.e., 3 months, 3 to 6 months, 6 to 12 months, etc.) – Complexity : Establish categories (high, medium, low) – Technology used : Establish several categories (well- established, used somewhat, basic familiarity, unknown, etc.) – Number of departments affected : Establish some categories (one, few, several, all) – Cost Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©40
Project Types and Classes CLASSDURATIONRISKCOMPLEXITYTECHNOLOGYLIKELIHOOD OF PROBLEMs Type A> 18 monthsHigh BreakthroughCertain Type B9–18 monthsMedium CurrentLikely Type C3–9 monthsLow Best of breedSome Type D< 3 monthsVery low PracticalNone Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©41 A best-of-breed product has been identified as the best product of its type
Main Project Types : Type A Type A projects: Projects of Type A are the high- business-value, high- complexity projects They are the most challenging projects the organization undertakes Type A projects use the latest technology, which, when coupled with high complexity, causes risk to be high also The organization requires that these projects utilize all the methods and tools available in their project management methodology An example of a Type A project is the introduction of a new technology into an existing product that has been very profitable for the company Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©42
Main Project Types: Type B Type B projects: Projects of Type B are shorter in length, yet they still are significant projects for the organization All of the methods and tools in the project management process are probably required The projects generally have good business value and are technologically challenging Many product development projects fall in this category Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©43
Main Project Types: Type C Type C projects: Projects of Type C are the projects occurring most frequently in an organization They are short by comparison and use established technology Many are projects that deal with the infrastructure of the organization A typical project team consists of five people, the project lasts six months, and the project is based on a less-than-adequate scope statement Many of the methods and tools are not required for these projects The project manager uses those tools, which are optional, if he or she sees value in their use Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©44
Main Project Types: Type D Type D Projects: Projects of Type D just meet the definition of a project and may require only a scope statement and a few scheduling pieces of information A typical Type D project involves making a minor change in an existing process or procedure or revising a course in the training curriculum Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©45
Methodology Use in Projects Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©46
Resources Chapter 1 from R. Wysocki et. Al, "Effective Project Management", 2nd Edition. ISBN: Wikipedia Article: ent_triangle ent_triangle Lecture 01A. Al-Tamimi ©47
Questions A. Al-Tamimi ©48Lecture 01
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