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Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012

2 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Contents BHEL Steam Generators Emerging Market Requirements Trends in Cycle parameters Supercritical Boilers Major Systems Startup System Pressure part Arrangement Firing System High Temperature Materials Ultra Supercritical Boilers Advanced Ultra Supercritical Boilers

3 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 BHEL Utility Units - A Summary 62 % Total Installed Capacity of India is Contributed by BHEL Utility Sets

4 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 UnitContractedCommissioned VU 404645 VU 40 S15 VU 603819 MU33 VP2316 V2RV2R17 HRSG177121 AFBC7259 CFBC2810 Others28 Total447333 BHEL Industrial Units - A Summary

5 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 BHEL is currently adopting Advanced Steam Cycles to Improve the Environmental & Economic Performance of India’s Power Generation

6 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Reference List of Supercritical Boilers NTPC / BARH 2 x 660MW APPDCL / Krishnapatnam 2 x 800 MW PPGCL / BARA 3 x 660 MW RPCL / Yermaras 2 x 800 MW RPCL / Edlapur1 x 800 MW KPCL / Bellary 1 x 700 MW LPGCL/Lalithpur- BHL3 x 660 MW DB Power / Singrauli2 x 660 MW NTPC / Mouda St. II 2 x 660 MW 18 Boilers Contracted

7 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Emerging Market Requirements For Thermal Power Generation  High Reliability & Availability  Highest Plant efficiency  Suitable for differing modes of operation  Suitable for varying fuel quality  Minimum emission of Pollutants  Lowest cost

8 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Higher Plant efficiency for Conservation of fuel resources Reduction of Atmospheric Pollutants - CO 2, SO X & NO X

9 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Measures to improve Plant Efficiency Cycle Parameters : Higher steam parameters with Once Thro’ Boilers Boiler side measures : Highest Boiler Efficiency Minimum RH spray Minimum SH spray (if tapped off before feed heaters) Reduced auxiliary power consumption

10 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Increase of Plant Cycle Efficiency due to Steam Parameters

11 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 500 MW Steam Generator Coal Consumption and Emissions

12 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Current Trends in Steam Parameters 1980s: Pressure increased from 175-180 bar to 225 bar; Temperature mostly around 540 °C 1990 : Pressures raised to 285 bar; Temperature raised to 565-580-600 °C 300 bar & 620 °C not unusual today 255 bar & 568/596 °C commonly used presently

13 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Coal will continue to have maximum share towards installed capacity for electricity at least upto 2050 CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY –Minimise CO 2 emissions and environmental impact –Extend life of coal reserves Approach: Develop technology for SC, USC & Adv-USC power plants

14 14 #The improvements are with respect to the best units under construction in India Extension of coal reserves by 11% Competitive in electricity cost on deployment Efficiency and CO 2 Emission Plant type with power rating Steam Pressure (kg/cm 2 ) Steam Temperature (  C) Efficiency (%) CO 2 Emissions (g/kW-hr) Sub Critical (500 MWe) 17054035900 # Super Critical 24756540830 Ultra Super Critical 25060042784 Advanced Ultra Super Critical 30070045740

15 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Trend in unit sizes & Cycle parameters Unit Size SHO Pressure (kg/cm 2 (a)) SHO/RHO Temperature (Deg.C) Year of Introduction 60 / 70 MW965401965 110 / 120 MW139540/5401966 200 / 210 MW137 / 156540/5401972 250 MW156540/5401991 500 MW 179 540/540 540/568 1979 1985 660 MW256568/5962008 800 MW256568/596 2008

16 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Type of boilers  Drum type - for sub-critical parameters  Once-through type - for sub/super Critical Parameters

17 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Drum type boiler  Steam generation takes place in furnace water walls  Fixed evaporation end point - the drum  Steam -water separation takes place in the drum  Separated water mixed with incoming feed water

18 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Types of Circulation

19 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Drum type boiler  Natural Circulation Boiler  Circulation thru water walls by thermo-siphon effect  Controlled Circulation Boiler  At higher operating pressures just below critical pressure levels, thermo-siphon effect supplemented by pumps

20 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Natural CirculationControlled Circulation

21 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Pressure range Sub critical : Below 221 bar Super critical : 221 bar and above What is Super critical pressure ?

22 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012

23 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Supercritical Boilers Supercritical pressure boiler has no drum and heat absorbing surface being, in effect, one continuous tube, in which the water & steam generated in the furnace water walls passes through only once hence called ‘Once through Supercritical pressure boilers’ The water in boiler is pressurized by Boiler Feed Pump, sensible heat is added in feed heaters, economizer and furnace tubes, until water attains saturation temperature and flashes instantaneously to dry saturated steam and super heating commences.

24 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 The Concept The mass flow rate thru’ all heat transfer circuits from Eco. inlet to SH outlet is kept same except at low loads wherein recirculation is resorted to protect the water wall system

25 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012  Increased mass flow through spiral waterwall tubing, or improved heat transfer through rifled vertical wall tubing.  No fixed evaporator end point  No thick wall components Features Once Through Boiler Flow Diagram Evaporator Water separator Feedwater Economizer FW- Pump Live steam Superheater

26 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Supercritical Boilers- Major Systems

27 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 General Arrangement of Steam Generator – Elevation

28 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 General Arrangement of Steam Generator – Plan

29 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Once through Supercritical Boilers Major differences from Drum type boiler : Evaporator system Low load Recirculation system Separator

30 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Circulation Systems Drum TypeOnce-through

31 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Once -through Operating Range

32 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Once -thru Boiler Requirements : Stringent water quality Different control system compared to drum type Low load circulation system Special design to support the spiral furnace wall weight High pressure drop in pressure parts Higher design pressure for components from feed pump to separator

33 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Features of Once Through Steam Generator To ensure adequate mass flow rates through water wall, spirally wound water wall tubes are used. Start-up and low load system up to 30-40% BMCR required. Feed water quality requirements are very stringent. Can be designed for both sub-critical and super-critical pressures. Ideally suited for sliding pressure operation due to the absence of thick walled components.

34 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Once -thru Boiler Evaporator system : Formed by a number of parallel tubes Tubes spirally wound around the furnace to reduce number of tubes and to increase the mass flow rate thru’ the tubes Small tube diameter Arrangement ensures high mass velocity thru the tubes

35 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012  Reduced number of tubes with pitch.  Increased mass flow.  Mass flow rate can be selected by number of tubes. Features Spiral Tube Arrangement

36 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Once -thru Boiler - Furnace Wall

37 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Spiral Water wall Tubing Lateral Heat Flux Profile

38 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Sliding Pressure Supercritical Design Spiral Wall Windbox

39 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 SPIRAL WALL SUPPORT Support Fingers Spiral to Vertical Transition Area - Load Transfer Sliding Pressure Supercritical Design

40 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Furnace Wall Designs Spiral Wall ConfigurationVertical Wall Configuration

41 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Supercritical Boiler with Vertical wall Unit Mw e: 750 Max. Continuous Rating: 2522 t/h SH Outlet Press: 262 bar SH Outlet Temp: 568°C RH Outlet Temp: 596 °C Fuel: Sub-bituminous

42 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 SCREEN TUBES SMOOTH TUBING FRONT WALL RIFLED TUBING SMOOTH TUBING FROM THIS ELEVATION ALL WALLS SIDE WALL RIFLED TUBING REAR WALL RIFLED TUBING ARCH RIFLED TUBING HANGER TUBES SMOOTH TUBING FRONT WALL RIFLED TUBING SIDE WALL RIFLED TUBING Vertical Wall Sliding Pressure Supercritical Design

43 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Vertical Furnace Wall Design Vertical tube furnace walls will provide all the operational benefits of the currently popular spiral design while significantly reducing the cost and construction time for the furnace and providing some reduction in pressure drop.

44 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Vertical Wall Design - Advantages The tubes are self supporting. Transition headers at spiral/vertical interface are avoided. Ash hopper tubing geometry simplified Corners are easier to form Reduced pressure drop, auxiliary power

45 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Spiral Vs. Vertical Wall Comparison Spiral Furnace System Applicable for all size units Benefits from averaging of lateral heat absorption variation (each tube forms a part of each furnace wall) Simplified inlet header arrangement Large number of operating units Use of smooth bore tubing throughout entire furnace wall system One material utilized throughout entire waterwall system No individual tube orifices – Less maintenance & pluggage potential Vertical Furnace Wall System Limited to larger capacity units. Less complicated windbox openings Traditional furnace water wall support system Elimination of intermediate furnace wall transition header Less welding in the lower furnace wall system Easier to identify and repair tubes leaks Lower water wall system pressure drop thereby reducing required feed pump power

46 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Vertical Wall Wind box Straight Tubes Only a Few Bends at the Top and Bottom

47 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Supercritical Boilers- Start-up and Low load recirculation Systems

48 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Low load system with circulating pump

49 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Once -thru Boiler Separator : Separates steam and water during the circulating mode operation Runs dry during once-thru flow mode Smaller in size compared to drum in a drum type boiler

50 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Start-up System

51 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Overview of Firing Systems Close-Coupled Overfire Air Close-Coupled Overfire Air CFS Air Nozzle Tips Flame Attachment Coal Nozzle Tip Flame Attachment Coal Nozzle Tip NOx < 0.18 – 0.30 kg/Mkcal* Furnace Diagonal Furnace Diagonal Separated Overfire Air HP Pulverizer with Dynamic Classifier HP Pulverizer with Dynamic Classifier *NOx at furnace outlet

52 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Wind Box arrangement

53 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Upper SOFA on Walls Lower SOFA in Corners Tilt +/-30 o Yaw +/-20 o Plan View for SOFA arrangement

54 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Materials in 660 MW (Typical)

55 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Pressure part 660 MW OTSC (Supercritical) 500 MW (Sub-critical) DrumNot applicableSA 299 (Carbon Steel) Vertical SeparatorSA 335 P91Not applicable Water WallsSA 213 T22SA 210 Gr C EconomiserSA 210 Gr CSa 210 Gr C SHT91, TP 347HT11/T22/T91/ TP 347H RH T12/T23/T91/TP347H/ Super 304H T22, T91, TP 347H Material Comparison

56 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Boiler Parameters DescriptionUnit 660 MW (Supercritical) 500 MW (Sub critical) Boiler Parameters-BMCR SH steam flowt/h21201625 SHO pressurekg/cm 2 (a)256179 SHO/RHO temp. oCoC568/596540/540 Feed water temp. oCoC294254

57 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Description (Source/Type) UnitDesign CoalWorst CoalBest Coal Proximate Analysis Fixed Carbon%26.0023.0032.00 Volatile matter%19.0018.0022.00 Moisture%15.0017.0012.00 Ash%40.0042.0034.00 Total%100 HHVkcal/kg330028004000 Ultimate Analysis Carbon%31.3728.9340.08 Hydrogen%3.402.403.50 Sulphur%0.400.50.36 Nitrogen%1.51.451.78 Oxygen(difference)%7.757.268.03 Moisture%15.017.012.0 Ash%40.042.034.0 Carbonates + Phosphorous%0.580.460.25 Hard Grove Index555060 Fuel Analysis - Coal

58 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 General Arrangement of Steam Generator – Plan

59 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 ULTRA SUPER CRITICAL TECHNOLOGY & ADVANCED ULTRA SUPER CRITICAL TECHNOLOGY

60 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 The Basic Heat Cycle Sub-critical units: Main steam pressure < 221. 1 bar Super-critical units: Main steam pressure > 221. 1 bar Ultra-supercritical units: Higher steam pressure and temperature than supercritical units Japan: Main steam pressure >242 Bar, or Steam temperature >593 ℃ Demark: Main steam pressure >275 Bar China: Main steam pressure >270 Bar USA (EPRI) : Main steam temperature>593 ℃

61 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Supercritical Plant with steam pressure exceeding 225 kg/cm 2 is said “Supercritical” Ultra Super-Critical Supercritical plant with main steam temperature  600  C is said “Ultra Super-Critical” Advanced Ultra Super-Critical Supercritical plant with main steam temperature  700  C is “Advanced Ultra Super-Critical STEAM PARAMETERS

62 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Evolution of Steam Power Stations Efficiency Worldwide

63 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012

64 64 ADVANCED USC TECHNOLOGY 28 August 2012 EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE AND ADVANCEMENT FOR ADVANCED USC Pulverised Fuel-importance in World Power Generation Background of Development Of USC Plant with Steam Temperature around 600 0 C Immediate Possibility of going to 650 0 C & 700 0 C with Nickel Alloy Best Strategy for reduction of CO 2 Emission

65 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012

66 66 ADVANCED USC TECHNOLOGY 28 August 2012 AD700 TECHNOLOGY USC steam parameters-700 0 C and 350 bar This can be achieved only by using Nickel based alloys In July 2005 :COMTES 700 testing most important components – started operation in power plant Scholven in Gelchen-kirchen Completed in 2009. During operation phase, valuable operational experience and processing technical knowledge were gained Welding of thick walled materials must be improved More test needed for improved welding techniques for 617 or Alloy 740 or Nimonic 263

67 67 ADVANCED USC TECHNOLOGY 28 August 2012 Japanese programme 2007 & 2008 (finding out and stabilising the structure parameters affecting creep strength and degradation for accurately estimating 1,00,000 hr creep strength) New alloys Fundamental studies on creep strength degradation assessment needed to ensure long term safe use.(FS->650 0 C AS ->700 0 C Ni-> 750 0 C) FS->100 MPa @ 650 0 C beyond 30000 hrs without any type IV degradation AS->generated by means of inter metallic compound precipitation strength grain boundary, strongest creep. R&D PROGRAM FOR A-USC MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT WITH CREEP STRENGTH/DEGRADATION ASSESMENT STUDIES

68 68 ADVANCED USC TECHNOLOGY 28 August 2012 USC POWER PLANT DEVELOPMENT IN JAPAN

69 69 ADVANCED USC TECHNOLOGY 28 August 2012 METI/NEDO MATERIAL R&D PROGRAM

70 70 ADVANCED USC TECHNOLOGY 28 August 2012 China first established use with parameters 600 0 C/25 MPa in 2006  TP347FGH & Super304H  GH984, Nimonic 80A Ni-Cr-Co Inconel 740 studied with Special Metal Corp. USA for steam temperature of 700 0 C STRUCTURAL STABILITY STUDY ON USE POWER PLANT ADVANCE HEAT RESISTANCE STEELS AND ALLOYS IN CHINA

71 71 ADVANCED USC TECHNOLOGY 28 August 2012 A cost effective CO 2 emission reduction option Engineering design study(EPRI) Cost and performance of USC with conventional coal power plants Slightly more expensive Cost of avoided CO 2 emission was less than $25 per metric ton of CO 2 capture and storage ECONOMIC ANALYSIS (EPRI)

72 72 ADVANCED USC TECHNOLOGY 28 August 2012 STEAM SIDE OXIDATION FIRE SIDE CORROSION CREEP STRENTH MATERIAL SELECTION

73 73 ADVANCED USC TECHNOLOGY 28 August 2012 GKM TEST RIG

74 74 ADVANCED USC TECHNOLOGY 28 August 2012 GKM TEST RIG

75 75 ADVANCED USC TECHNOLOGY 28 August 2012 Strengthening and degradation of long term creep properties and the relevant microstructural evolution in advance high Cr-Ferritic steels and Austenitic steels at high temperature GKM TEST RIG Investigation of the long term operation behaviour tubes and forgings made of alloys for future high nuclear power plants Qualification of key materials for 700°C fossil fuel power plant Demonstration of material performance with special consideration of oxidation and corrosion behaviour Creep damage development Early detection of damage in new material in connection with advance calculation tools for components ADVANCES IN MATERIAL TECHNOLOGY

76 76 ADVANCED USC TECHNOLOGY 28 August 2012 ADVANCE CONCEPT FOR MAINTANENCE AND REPAIR FOR COMPONENTS MADE OF NEW MATERIALS SH Test Track Creep Test Track (upto 630 °C Austenite steel & upto 725 °C Ni based alloys) Monitoring devices for evolution of ongoing damage ADVANCES IN MATERIAL TECHNOLOGY

77 77 ADVANCED USC TECHNOLOGY 28 August 2012 BY SPECIAL METALS CORPORATION Developed for operating with 700°C steam temperature and higher pressure. EUROPEAN TARGET Stress rupture requirement of 1,00,000 Hrs rupture life at 750°C and 100 MPa stress. Metal loss of less than 2 mm in 2,00,000 hrs of Superheater service. DISADVANTAGE OF INCONEL ALLOY 740 Thick section fabrication posed weldability challenges. Grain boundary microfissuring occurred in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the base metal. OPTIMIZATION OF INCONEL ALLOY 740

78 78 28 August 2012 Advanced USC Presentation BHEL Development, Design & Manufacture of Power Cycle Equipment, System Engineering, Test Facility and Evaluation NTPC Detailed Project Report Project Management Operation and Maintenance Testing of Real Life Components in an existing plant IGCAR Advanced Design Analysis Materials Development Manufacturing Technology Testing and Evaluation 800 MWe Advanced Ultra Super Critical Power Plant MoU&Synergy Robust Roadmap for Success of Mission

79 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 Gearing-up to introduce Advanced Ultra supercritical boilers (AUSC) AUSC Boilers (300 ata, 700  C / 700  C) will be developed based on OTSC technology Test Facility (400 bar, 700 Deg. C) installed and tests are on to collect critical design data BHEL is one among the Five MNC’s to have this facility Member of the National Technology Mission program to install AUSC plant by 2017 Advanced Ultra Super Critical Plants

80 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012 SUMMARY OTSC plants offer better cycle efficiency Proven technologies leading to lower GHG emissions and lesser fuel burnt BHEL has the technology for offering 660/700/800 MW supercritical units

81 Enhancing Capacity – Empowering Nation Presentation on Supercritical Boilers 28 August 2012


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