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Week 15: CS202 Exam Review.

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Presentation on theme: "Week 15: CS202 Exam Review."— Presentation transcript:

1 Week 15: CS202 Exam Review

2 Topics covered in IS370 Key Knowledge Areas
Introduction to Project Management Context and Processes Project Integration Management Project Scope Management Project Time Management Project Cost Management Project Quality Management Project HR Management Communications Management Project Risk Management Project Procurement Management Key Knowledge Areas

3 Learning Objectives Have knowledge of: Project management methodologies, processes and techniques including critical areas of scope management, time management, cost management, quality management, risk management, communication and human resource management. Have knowledge of: The scientific tools and techniques (both qualitative and quantitative) which project managers can use to improve the chances of success in their projects Have knowledge of: Common project management software tools used by professionals in the Industry.

4 Learning Objectives Gain understanding of: How the knowledge in project management areas should be applied and the relationship exist between them Gain understanding of: Factors contributing to effective communication among all project stakeholders Gain understanding of: The ongoing need for continuing professional education & development

5 Learning Objectives Acquire skills for: Using project management tools, techniques and methodologies effectively to ensure project outcomes satisfy both the specified and the expected requirements of the project stakeholders Acquire skills for: Identifying problems that occur during the implementation phase of projects and developing strategies to address the situation Have developed attributes which allow students to: Develop their own conceptual framework to assist them in the interaction with their colleagues and other stakeholders towards the success of all future projects in which they may be involved

6 Context of your learning
Process Groups Project Quality Management Risk Management Managerial Initiating Cost Management Technical Planning Time Management Scope Management Executing Context HR Management Controlling Communication Management Project Integration Closing Procurement Management Project Management Tools

7 Process Groups Learning Objectives Describe the five project management process groups, the typical level of activity for each, and the interactions among them Understand how the project management process groups relate to the project management knowledge areas Discuss how organizations develop information technology project management methodologies to meet their needs

8 Project Management Process Groups
Project management can be viewed as a number of interlinked processes The project management process groups include initiating processes planning processes executing processes controlling processes closing processes Managerial Planning ? Risk Management Technical Context

9 Process Groups ,

10 Process Groups IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 3

11 Execution Learning Objectives Understand the concept, development, implementation, and close-out phases of the project life cycle Distinguish between project development and product development Discuss the unique attributes and diverse nature of information technology projects List the skills and attributes of a good project manager in general and in the information technology field

12 A Systems View of Project Management
Execution A systems approach emerged in the 1950s to describe a more analytical approach to management and problem solving Three parts include: Systems philosophy: View things as systems, interacting components working within an environment to fulfill some purpose Systems analysis: problem-solving approach Systems management: Address business, technological, and organizational issues before making changes to systems

13 What Helps Projects Succeed?
Execution What Helps Projects Succeed? According to the Standish Group’s report, the following items help IT projects succeed, in order of importance: Executive support User involvement Experienced project manager Clear business objectives Minimized scope Standard software infrastructure Firm basic requirements Formal methodology Reliable estimates

14 Product Life Cycles Products also have life cycles
Execution Product Life Cycles Products also have life cycles The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a framework for describing the phases involved in developing and maintaining information systems Systems development projects can follow predictive models: the scope of the project can be clearly articulated and the schedule and cost can be predicted adaptive models: projects are mission driven and component based, using time-based cycles to meet target dates

15 Distinguishing Project Life Cycles and Product Life Cycles
Execution Distinguishing Project Life Cycles and Product Life Cycles The project life cycle applies to all projects, regardless of the products being produced Product life cycle models vary considerably based on the nature of the product Most large IT systems are developed as a series of projects Project management is done in all of the product life cycle phases

16 RUP process architecture
Execution RUP process architecture

17 Suggested Skills for a Project Manager
Execution Communication skills: listening, persuading Organizational skills: planning, goal-setting, analyzing Team Building skills: empathy, motivation, esprit de corps Leadership skills: set examples, be energetic, have vision (big picture), delegate, be positive Coping skills: flexibility, creativity, patience, persistence Technological skills: experience, project knowledge

18 Integration Learning Objectives Describe an overall framework for project integration management as it relates to the other project management knowledge areas and the project life cycle Describe project plan development, including project plan content, using guidelines and templates for developing plans, and performing a stakeholder analysis to help manage relationships Explain project plan execution, its relationship to project planning, the factors related to successful results, and tools and techniques to assist in project plan execution Understand the integrated change control process, planning for and managing changes on information technology projects, and developing and using a change control system Describe how software can assist in project integration management

19 Integration The Key to Overall Project Success: Good Project Integration Management Project managers must coordinate all of the other knowledge areas throughout a project’s life cycle Many new project managers have trouble looking at the “big picture” and want to focus on too many details Project integration management is not the same thing as software integration

20 Project Integration Management Processes
Project Plan Development: taking the results of other planning processes and putting them into a consistent, coherent document—the project plan Project Plan Execution: carrying out the project plan Integrated Change Control: coordinating changes across the entire project

21 Project Plan Development
Execution Project Plan Development A project plan is a document used to coordinate all project planning documents Its main purpose is to guide project execution Project plans assist the project manager in leading the project team and assessing project status Project performance should be measured against a baseline plan

22 Execution Stakeholder Analysis A stakeholder analysis documents important (often sensitive) information about stakeholders such as stakeholders’ names and organizations roles on the project unique facts about stakeholders level of influence and interest in the project suggestions for managing relationships

23 Integrated Change Control Process
Execution Integrated Change Control Process

24 Change Control on Information Technology Projects
Execution Change Control on Information Technology Projects Former view: The project team should strive to do exactly what was planned on time and within budget Problem: Stakeholders rarely agreed up-front on the project scope, and time and cost estimates were inaccurate Modern view: Project management is a process of constant communication and negotiation Solution: Changes are often beneficial, and the project team should plan for them

25 Suggestions for Managing Integrated Change Control
Execution Suggestions for Managing Integrated Change Control View project management as a process of constant communications and negotiations Plan for change Establish a formal change control system, including a Change Control Board (CCB) Use good configuration management Define procedures for making timely decisions on smaller changes Use written and oral performance reports to help identify and manage change Use project management and other software to help manage and communicate changes

26 Scope Learning Objectives Discuss the scope definition process and construct a work breakdown structure using the analogy, top- down, bottom-up, and mind mapping approaches Understand the importance of scope verification and scope change control to avoid scope creep on information technology projects Describe how software can assist in project scope management

27 Scope Verification and Scope Change Control
It is very difficult to create a good scope statement and WBS for a project It is even more difficult to verify project scope and minimize scope changes Many IT projects suffer from scope creep and poor scope verification FoxMeyer Drug filed for bankruptcy after scope creep on a robotic warehouse 21st Century Insurance Group wasted a lot of time and money on a project that could have used off-the-shelf components What factors might present problems for a WBS and consequently the Project??

28 IS370 Project Management Dr Pat Halloran
Learning Objectives Scope Understand the importance of project schedules and good project time management Define activities as the basis for developing project schedules Describe how project managers use network diagrams and dependencies to assist in activity sequencing Explain how various tools and techniques help project managers perform activity duration estimating and schedule development Use a Gantt chart for schedule planning and tracking schedule information IS370 Project Management Dr Pat Halloran

29 PERT Formula and Example
Scope PERT Formula and Example PERT weighted average formula: optimistic time + 4X most likely time + pessimistic time 6 Example: PERT weighted average = 8 workdays + 4 X 10 workdays + 24 workdays = 12 days where 8 = optimistic time, 10 = most likely time, and 24 = pessimistic time IS370 Project Management Dr Pat Halloran

30 Simple Example of Determining the Critical Path
Scope Simple Example of Determining the Critical Path Consider the following project network diagram. Assume all times are in days. a. How many paths are on this network diagram? b. How long is each path? c. Which is the critical path? d. What is the shortest amount of time needed to complete this project? IS370 Project Management Dr Pat Halloran

31 Determining the Critical Path for Project X
Scope Determining the Critical Path for Project X a. How many paths are on this network diagram? b. How long is each path? c. Which is the critical path? d. What is the shortest amount of time needed to complete this project? IS370 Project Management Dr Pat Halloran

32 Words of Caution on Using Project Management Software
Scope Words of Caution on Using Project Management Software Many people misuse project management software because they don’t understand important concepts and have not had good training You must enter dependencies to have dates adjust automatically and to determine the critical path You must enter actual schedule information to compare planned and actual progress IS370 Project Management Dr Pat Halloran

Quick Review Execution THE SEVEN PHASES OF A PROJECT Wild enthusiasm Planning Disillusionment Fear / Panic / Chaos Search for the guilty Punishment of the innocent Praise and Honors for the Non- Participants

34 Conflict Intensity Over the Life of a Project
Execution Conflict Intensity Over the Life of a Project

35 Quality Learning Objectives Understand the importance of project quality management for information technology products and services Define project quality management and understand how quality relates to various aspects of information technology projects Describe quality planning and its relationship to project scope management Discuss the importance of quality assurance Describe how leadership, cost, organizational influences, and maturity models relate to improving quality in information technology projects Discuss how software can assist in project quality management

36 Project Quality Management Processes
Quality planning: identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and how to satisfy them Quality assurance: evaluating overall project performance to ensure the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards Quality control: monitoring specific project results to ensure that they comply with the relevant quality standards while identifying ways to improve overall quality

37 Shewhart Cycle (Deming)
Quality Shewhart Cycle (Deming)

38 Improving Information Technology Project Quality
Several suggestions for improving quality for IT projects include Leadership that promotes quality Understanding the cost of quality Focusing on organizational influences and workplace factors that affect quality Following maturity models to improve quality

39 HR Learning Objectives Explain the importance of good human resource management on projects, especially on information technology projects Define project human resource management and understand its processes Summarize key concepts for managing people by understanding the theories of Abraham Maslow, Frederick Herzberg, David McClelland, and Douglas McGregor on motivation, H. J. Thamhain and D. L. Wilemon on influencing workers, and Stephen Covey on how people and teams can become more effective -

40 HR Learning Objectives Discuss organizational planning and be able to create a project organizational chart, responsibility assignment matrix, and resource histogram Understand important issues involved in project staff acquisition and explain the concepts of resource assignments, resource loading, and resource leveling Assist in team development with training, team- building activities, and reward systems Describe how project management software can assist in project human resource management -

41 What is Project Human Resource Management?
HR What is Project Human Resource Management? Project human resource management includes the processes required to make the most effective use of the people involved with a project. Processes include Organizational planning Staff acquisition Team development -

42 Keys to Managing People
HR Keys to Managing People Psychologists and management theorists have devoted much research and thought to the field of managing people at work Important areas related to project management include motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic) influence and power effectiveness -

43 Project Resource Management Involves Much More Than Using Software
HR Project Resource Management Involves Much More Than Using Software Project managers must Treat people with consideration and respect Understand what motivates them Communicate carefully with them Focus on your goal of enabling project team members to deliver their best work -

44 Communications Learning Objectives Understand the importance of good communication on projects and describe the major components of a communications management plan Discuss the elements of project communications planning, including information distribution, performance reporting, and administrative closure Discuss various methods for project information distribution and the advantages and disadvantages of each Understand individual communication needs and how to determine the number of communications channels needed for a project

45 Importance of Good Communications
The greatest threat to many projects is a failure to communicate Our culture does not portray IT professionals as being good communicators Research shows that IT professionals must be able to communicate effectively to succeed in their positions Strong verbal skills are a key factor in career advancement for IT professionals

46 Project Communications Management Processes
Communications planning: determining the information and communications needs of the stakeholders Information distribution: making needed information available in a timely manner Performance reporting: collecting and disseminating performance information Administrative closure: generating, gathering, and disseminating information to formalize phase or project completion

47 Suggestions for Improving Project Communications
Manage conflicts effectively Develop better communication skills Run effective meetings Use effectively Use templates for project communications

48 Developing a Communications Infrastructure
A communications infrastructure is a set of tools, techniques, and principles that provide a foundation for the effective transfer of information Tools include , project management software, groupware, fax machines, telephones, teleconferencing systems, document management systems, and word processors Techniques include reporting guidelines and templates, meeting ground rules and procedures, decision-making processes, problem-solving approaches, and conflict resolution and negotiation techniques Principles include using open dialog and an agreed upon work ethir

49 RISK Learning Objectives Understand what risk is and the importance of good project risk management Discuss the elements involved in risk management planning List common sources of risks on information technology projects Describe the risk identification process and tools and techniques to help identify project risks Discuss the qualitative risk analysis process and explain how to calculate risk factors, use probability/impact matrixes, the Top Ten Risk Item Tracking technique, and expert judgment to rank risks ,

50 RISK Learning Objectives Explain the quantify risk analysis process and how to use decision trees and simulation to quantitative risks Provide examples of using different risk response planning strategies such as risk avoidance, acceptance, transference, and mitigation Discuss what is involved in risk monitoring and control Describe how software can assist in project risk management Explain the results of good project risk management

51 What is Project Risk Management?
The goal of project risk management is to minimize potential risks while maximizing potential opportunities. Major processes include Risk management planning: deciding how to approach and plan the risk management activities for the project Risk identification: determining which risks are likely to affect a project and documenting their characteristics Qualitative risk analysis: characterizing and analyzing risks and prioritizing their effects on project objectives Quantitative risk analysis: measuring the probability and consequences of risks Risk response planning: taking steps to enhance opportunities and reduce threats to meeting project objectives Risk monitoring and control: monitoring known risks, identifying new risks, reducing risks, and evaluating the effectiveness of risk reduction

52 Procurement Learning Objectives Understand the importance of project procurement management and the increasing use of outsourcing for information technology projects Describe the procurement planning process, procurement planning tools and techniques, types of contracts, and statements of work Discuss what is involved in solicitation planning and the difference between a request for proposal and a request for quote Explain what occurs during the solicitation process

53 Procurement Learning Objectives Describe the source selection process and different approaches for evaluating proposals or selecting suppliers Discuss the importance of good contract administration Describe the contract close-out process Discuss types of software available to assist in project procurement management

54 Importance of Project Procurement Management
Procurement means acquiring goods and/or services from an outside source Other terms include purchasing and outsourcing Worldwide information technology outsourcing market exceeds $300 billion U.S. federal spending on IT outsourcing is projected to increase from $6.6 billion in 2002 to nearly $79 billion by 2010due to an emphasis on e-government, homeland security, and the shortage of IT workers in government

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