InitiatingPlanning Executing Controlling Closing “keeping things in control and in order“ Controlling Projects
Ensuring that the project objectives are met by monitoring and measuring progress and taking corrective action when needed. Controlling Phase
Controlling Phase FOCUS Involves: Measuring progress toward project objectives, Monitoring deviation from the plan, and taking “Corrective Actions” OUTPUTS include: Performance Reports, Requested changes, and Updates to various plans
Scope Quality Cost Time You must work with your clients to determine what THEIR definition of SUCCESS is. ◦ TRIPLE CONSTRAINT: Project Vs Operational Work Similarities”
Triple Constraint cont. 1. TIME constraint deals with the time necessary to finish a project. Should be comprised of a SCHEDULE. 2. COST can be dependent on material costs, the costs of labor, risk, and machines. PROFIT must be analyzed 1. SCOPE is the GOAL of the overall project
Triple Constraint cont. The 3 constraints of project management will almost always be competing with each other. o If a team decides to enlarge the SCOPE of a project, the time will become larger, along with the cost. o If the time constraint is tighter, the SCOPE may be reduced, but the costs will remain high. o If the team should decide to tighten the budget, the SCOPE will become smaller but the time will increase.
TRIPLE CONSTRAINT cont. If even 1 of these constraints is not properly used, the project will be a complete failure. o IF you do not come in on time you will not be successful, (even if the project is high in “quality”) o Improper costs projection--spend too much or too little and end up with an inferior product or service. o If you don’t meet the SCOPE of your project you can miss the objectives and goals entirely.
Project Change Management Definition: ◦ “a general term describing the procedures used to ensure that changes are introduced in a controlled and coordinated manner.”
Change and adapting to change is another critical aspect of project management. Change can come in the form of a crisis, market shift or technological development A successful project manager will learn how to adapt and even predict changes Effective change management is a critical core competency and Project Managers have to be able to adapt to their changing environments. Change Management
Change Management Processes Change Request ◦ -Requests to EXPAND or REDUCE the project SCOPE, ◦ -MODIFY policies, processes, plans or procedures, ◦ -MODIFY costs or budgets, or ◦ -REVISE schedules. ◦ -Need to get APPROVAL for them Change Order ◦ -Used in some companies to IDENTIFY APPROVED “Change Requests” (order ONCE IT HAS BEEN APPROVED)
Top 5 Obstacles To Implementing Change 1. Employee and staff resistance, 2. Middle-management resistance, 3. Poor executive sponsorship, 4. Limited resources, and 5. Corporate inertia and politics. 4 out of 5 of these obstacles are about people, while only 1 of these obstacles refers to resources
Changes Most change requests are the result of: An EXTERNAL EVENT Weather, schedule didn’t take into the consideration of a religious holiday, supplier goes bankrupt An ERROR or OMISSION in defining the SCOPE of the product or project A “value-added” change (e.g., new technology, new software version, etc.)
Changes to the project that result in additional work. If not properly identified and managed properly, ◦ your project may come in considerably over budget and/or behind in schedule. Scope Creep
Main Causes Of Scope Creep Are 1. Poor “Requirements ANALYSIS”: Customers don’t always know what they want and can only provide a “vague idea”. The "I’ll know it when I see it" syndrome. 2. Not Involving the USERS EARLY Enough: Thinking you know what the users want or need is a serious mistake. It is important to involve them in both the requirements analysis and design phases. 3. Underestimating the COMPLEXITY of the Project: Many projects run into problems because they are new in an industry and have never been done before. Nobody knows what to expect, there are no lessons learned and no one to ask.
Main Causes Of Scope Creep cont. LACK OF “CHANGE CONTROL”: You can expect there to be a degree of “Scope Creep” in most projects, therefore it is important to design a process to MANAGE these changes. A simple process of document, consider, approve and resource can be implemented. GOLD PLATING: This term is given to the practice of exceeding the “Scope” of a project in the belief that “VALUE”is being added. These changes inevitably consume time and budget and are NOT guaranteed to increase customer satisfaction.
How to Control Scope Creep 1. Expect that there will be “Scope Creep” 2. Be sure you thoroughly understand the project VISION. Meet with the stakeholders 3. Understand your priorities and the priorities of the stakeholders; make a list 4. Define your deliverables and have them approved by the stakeholders 5. Break the approved deliverables into “actual work requirements” 6. Break the project down into major and minor milestones and complete a schedule to be approved by the stakeholders
“Scope Creep” AVOIDANCE Document, document, document! ◦ Document meetings ◦ Anticipate areas of miscommunication. ◦ Be as succinct as possible. ◦ Add what is NOT required. ◦ Obtain sign-off by key stakeholders. Use signed-off SCOPE and REQUIREMENTS documents to manage your project ◦ What’s “in” and what’s “out”
InitiatingPlanning ExecutingControlling Closing “Crossing all your T’s, dotting all the I’s“ Closing Projects
Project Closeout Are activities, from making sure the “T”s are crossed in terms of the ◦ CONTRACT and assessing the PROJECT and establishing any “LESSONS LEARNED” Often shortchanged due to pressures to reassigning team members Best accomplished by adding the close-out activities to the WBS
Typical Closeout Steps Conduct FINAL WBS Review Document closing date and who authorized the closeout, alternatively: ◦ document the reason for NOT closing the project Measure outcomes and compare to scope document to verify the deliverables and final product is acceptable
DELIVERABLES the “quantifiable” goods or services that will be provided upon the completion of a project may be an object, used in the greater scheme of the project. ◦ For example, in a project meant to upgrade a firm's technology, a deliverable may be a dozen new computers. may be a function or aspect of the “overall project”. ◦ For example, a software project may have a deliverable specifying that the computer program must be able to compute a company's accounts receivable.
MILESTONE vs. DELIVERABLES A deliverable differs from a milestone in that a milestone is a measurement of PROGRESS toward an outputmilestone whereas the deliverable is the RESULT of the PROCESS. For a typical project, a milestone might be the: “completion of a product DESIGN” While the deliverable might be the: “technical diagram of the product.”
Create and deliver final invoice for PM activities Obtain approval from client ◦ Use “DELIVERABLE Template” documents Typical Closeout Steps
“DELIVERABLE TEMPLATE” DOCUMENT 2 example IDDeliverableOwnerCompleteMilestone [Enter a description of the deliverable][Enter owner][Yes/No]
Typical Closeout Step cont. Provide a “physical deliverable” – even for a NONtangible product such as a “Process” ◦ Examples are: CD copy of documentation, letter of certification, a plaque
Project Management FINAL EXAM in Week 8 Project Management REVIEW TEST for M/C, T/F, “Fill in the Blank” questions: BLACKBOARD > WEEKLY LESSONS > WEEK 07 YOU WILL ALSO BE TESTED ON: 1.Precedence Table 2.AON CHART 3.Critical Path 4.Milestones 5.Risks SEARCH for which Week’s class notes contain the items listed at left: Windows key + “F” ◦ SEARCH for specific topic (at left) withIN FILE: CTRL + “F”
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