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Project Management and Leadership. Why care about management? 10% of projects were “successful” between 1998 and 2004.

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Presentation on theme: "Project Management and Leadership. Why care about management? 10% of projects were “successful” between 1998 and 2004."— Presentation transcript:

1 Project Management and Leadership

2 Why care about management? 10% of projects were “successful” between 1998 and 2004

3 Management vs Leadership Management is using tools and techniques Leadership is inspiring people to the right thing Can these succeed? – Poor management with good leadership? – Poor leadership with good management?

4 Leadership: motivating people Use monetary rewards cautiously Intrinsic rewards – Recognition – Achievement – The work itself – Responsibility – Advancement – Novelty

5 Define success and failure

6 Management Empirical project planning and scheduling Risk management Metrics-based management against targets Defect tracking

7 Scheduling Must begin immediately, even with limited information A list of tasks – Start dates – Duration – Assigned resources (people) – Predecessors and successors Getting buy-in from the team – Use historical data and increments

8 Example schedule in OpenProj

9 Scheduling terms Critical path (in red) – Any delay along these tasks result in a delayed project – Can be found manually, but tools often do this for you Slack – The amount of time a task can be delayed without affecting the schedule – No slack along the critical path

10 More scheduling terms Resource leveling – Making sure that no person is working above 100% capacity at any point in time – Happens when multiple tasks are scheduled for the same person – Break up a task into smaller, sequential tasks with a dependency between them (i.e. take more time); tools can automatically do this for you – Or, manually add additional resources to the task so no one is working over 100%

11 Scheduling for Agile projects Do we need to plan, even if we’re only looking a month ahead? Sure! – Sprint burndown charts – Release burndown charts

12 Sprint burndown chart Exercise: Are we ahead of schedule, or behind? Day Story Points Remaining

13 Sprint burndown chart Answer: behind. Exercise: But how would you tell if this is something to worry about or not? Day Story Points Remaining

14 Sprint burndown chart Answer: Look at previous burndown charts – maybe things are slower the first couple of days, but then pick up! Day Story Points Remaining

15 Earned Value Management How much work you planned to have accomplished by now (in dollars or hours) called the Planned Value How much you have actually spent by now (in dollars or hours), called Actual Cost The value, in terms of your baseline budget, of the work accomplished by now (in dollars or hours), called the Earned Value! Budgeted (cost) at completion (BAC) - The sum of all the PVs Idea is to link schedule and cost together to monitor both in the same “units” of value

16 Earned Value Management Example We’ve budgeted $200 to buy, setup, network, and test a new system – Our PVs are $50 to buy, $75 to setup, $50 to network, and $25 to test – Our BAC is therefore $200 Right now, we have spent $60 (AC) and have completed the buying phase (EV of $50) – Are we on schedule? – Are we on budget?

17 EVM Example 2  PLANNED VALUE (Budgeted cost of the work scheduled) = = $50  EARNED VALUE (Budgeted cost of the work performed) = = $40  ACTUAL COST (of the work performed) = $45 (Data from Acct. System)  Therefore:  Schedule Variance = = -$10  Schedule Performance Index = 40 / 50 = 0.8 Line is at 16, blue bar ends at 14 Line is at 6

18 Scope Creep The scope of your project is the work you originally planned to do Scope creep is when more tasks are added, without adding more resources – Happens often. Exercise: What are some reasons of needing additional tasks? – Exercise: What is the cause of scope creep (not adding more resources, otherwise we just consider it scope change)?

19 Scope Creep Answer: What are some reasons of needing additional tasks? – competitor has some new feature – customer forgot something – received more money – misunderstood original requirements Answer: What is the cause of scope creep (not adding more resources, otherwise we just consider it scope change)? – adding more requirements without having a manager that will insist on more resources to compensate

20 Avoiding scope creep Joint Application Development – between management and customer Formal change approval – forces compensation for doing more work Defer additional requirements for future versions – “What a great idea! Let’s do it in version 2! By the way, I’ll need $XXXX for version 2…”  job security!

21 Management Empirical project planning and scheduling Risk management – Another lecture Metrics-based management against targets – Another lecture Defect tracking – Another lecture

22 Quiz review What is the difference between management and leadership? What is true of any task on the critical path? How is scope creep different than adding more requirements/features? What is Planned Value? What is Earned Value? What is Actual Cost? How do we know when we are over/under budget/time in Earned Value Management? – create formulas for these four cases using PV, EV, and AC

23 In-class exercises Give an example of a good intrinsic reward at work Create a schedule for students next semester for the following CS321 assignments: – project assignments {use cases, class diagram, swimlane diagram, sequence diagram, coding, testing} – essay outline, essay draft – studying for final – consider duration, dependencies, and opportunity for parallelization Due next class


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