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MASS WASTING AND MASS MOVEMENT mass movement - a general term used to describe the downhill movement of material that are known as slides, falls, slumps,

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Presentation on theme: "MASS WASTING AND MASS MOVEMENT mass movement - a general term used to describe the downhill movement of material that are known as slides, falls, slumps,"— Presentation transcript:

1 MASS WASTING AND MASS MOVEMENT mass movement - a general term used to describe the downhill movement of material that are known as slides, falls, slumps, flows, and creep

2 MASS WASTING AND MASS MOVEMENT 1.unconsolidated material - those that are loose or uncemented, such as sand and soil 2.consolidated material - those that are compacted, cemented, or vegetated soils

3 Factors That Influence Mass Movement 1.slope of material - the steepness of a slope influences instability in mass movement i.the steepness of a pile of loose material such as sand has a distinct limit - angle of repose ii.once the angle of repose is reached, addition of more sand will make the pile broader but not taller

4 Factors That Influence Mass Movement 2. internal friction - a material’s total resistance to movement i. consolidated dry materials are held together by cohesion (attraction of like particles) and adhesion (attraction of unlike particles) ii. cementation iii. plant roots

5 Factors That Influence Mass Movement 3.surface tension 4.moisture content i.too little limits vegetation ii.too much can push grains apart, add weight, or provide lubrication

6 Factors That Influence Mass Movement

7 Triggers of mass movement 1.sudden addition of moisture

8 Triggers of mass movement 2.shaking of the ground - liquefaction

9 Classification of mass movement 1.Based upon i.nature of the material (rock or unconsolidated) ii.speed of movement iii.nature of movement (sliding, falling, or flowing)

10 Rock Mass Movement 1.rockfall - free fall of boulders from a cliff

11 Rock Mass Movement 2.rockslides - sliding of rock down an incline i.usually due to rock breaking from its host material along a bedding plane, joint, or other structural weakness

12 Rock Mass Movement 3.talus - debris at the bottom of the slope in a broken mass due to rockfalls and rockslides

13 Rock Mass Movement 4.rock avalanche - rock becomes broken into pieces before it reaches the foot of a slope

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15 Unconsolidated Material Mass Movement 1.creep - extremely slow, almost imperceptible downslope movement of soil and rock debris

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17 Unconsolidated Material Mass Movement 2.solifluction (soil flowage) - special type of creep that is common in polar regions where groundwater in the pore spaces of soil and rock is permanently frozen

18 Unconsolidated Material Mass Movement 3.earthflows and debris flows - consist of mixtures of rock fragments, mud, and water that flow downslope as viscous fluids

19 Unconsolidated Material Mass Movement 3.earthflows and debris flows - consist of mixtures of rock fragments, mud, and water that flow downslope as viscous fluids

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21 Unconsolidated Material Mass Movement 4.mudflows - a variety of debris flow that consist mostly of small silt and clay-sized particles i.usually occur after heavy rain ii.as much as 30% water content

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23 Unconsolidated Material Mass Movement 5.debris avalanche - fastest unconsolidated mass movement i.on steep slopes in humid areas 6.slumps and debris slide - movement of material in which the material is not rearranged

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25 Debris Slide

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27 Plate Tectonics 1.OC - CC boundary i.causes steep slopes ii.volcanic activity and earthquakes

28 Gros Ventre km / hr Buried 30 m thick

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30 Impact of Human Activities on Mass Movement 1.road construction 2.reservoirs

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