Presentation on theme: "AIMS OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT: Ensure the respect of dead-lines Ensure the respect of users’ requirements Ensure the quality of the systems Meet the."— Presentation transcript:
AIMS OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT: Ensure the respect of dead-lines Ensure the respect of users’ requirements Ensure the quality of the systems Meet the target costs
Symptoms of failure Delay: gap between expected time of delivery and actual dates of completion Cost escalation: difference between final cost and original estimate Functionality gap: difference between expected performance and actual performance
Funnier documented symptoms Project leader caught reading the Idiot’s Guide to Project Management Managing Director of company is seen faxing his CV Users believe that their mouse is a foot- pedal
Cost escalation On small projects: typically 10 / 20 % Larger projects (especially with large development content): huge increases possible –50% petrochemical projects –140% North Sea oil projects –210% on Nuclear power plants –545% Concorde project (!)
Causes of cost escalation Inefficiencies Inflation Poor information at start of project Change to contract / requirements
Trade-offs in Project Management Cost Quality Time
The process of Project Management Project Input Constraints Mechanisms Outputs Business requirements System to solve business problem Financial Environmental Legal Time Technical Quality Social Side effects Ethical People Knowledge / expertise Capital Tools and techniques technology
What is Project Management? Combination of systems, techniques and people used to control and monitor activities undertaken within the project. Project management coordinates the resources necessary to complete the project successfully (CIMA)
Duties of a Project Manager Outline Planning Detailed Planning Teambuilding Communication Co-ordinating project activities Monitoring and control Problem resolution Quality control
Applied To Information Systems!!! As applied to information systems, note the following: –While some tasks may overlap, many tasks are dependent on the completion of other tasks. –Although many information system development projects do not have absolute deadlines or specified times (there are exceptions), they are notoriously completed later than originally projected. –Few information systems are completed within budget. –Information system must satisfy the business, user, and management expectations and specifications.
Project Management Causes of Failed Projects Failures and limited successes far outnumber successful information systems. Why? Many systems analysts and information technologists are unfamiliar with or undisciplined in the tools and techniques of systems analysis and design. Many projects suffer from poor leadership and management. –Project mismanagement can sabotage the best application of the systems analysis and design methods.
Project Management Causes of Failed Projects One of the most common causes of project failure is taking shortcuts through or around the methodology. –Project teams often take shortcuts for one or more of the following reasons: The project gets behind schedule and the team wants to ‘catch up.’ The project is over budget and the team wants to make up costs by skipping methodology steps. The team is not trained or skilled in some of the methodologies activities and requirements, so they skip them.
Causes of Project Failure Another common cause of project failures is poor expectations management. –All users and managers have expectations of the project. –Over time, these expectations change and takes the form of scope creep. Scope creep is the unexpected growth of user expectations and business requirements for an information system as the project progresses.
Causes of Project Failure –Unfortunately, the schedule and budget are rarely modified at the same time. The project manager is ultimately held accountable for the inevitable and unavoidable schedule and budget overruns. The users' expectations of schedule and budget did not change as the scope changed.
A similar problem is caused by feature creep. –Feature creep is the uncontrolled addition of technical features to a system under development without regards to schedule and budget. Each unplanned feature, however impressive, adds time and costs to the overall schedule. Cost overrun problems: –Many methodologies or project plans call for an unreasonably precise estimate of costs before the project begins. –Poor estimating techniques. –Schedule delays. Project Management Causes of Failed Projects
Poor people management can also cause projects to fail. Another cause of project failure is that the business is in a constant state of change. –If the project’s importance changes, or if the management and business reorganizes, all projects should be reassessed for compatibility with changes, and importance to the business.