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Reminder and Copyright Warning The course handouts are free only if you have purchased a third edition copy of the course textbook (not first, second or revised editions). McGraw-Hill owns all the rights to the articles that appear in the CD and also on Web-Materials. You need to own a legal copy of the second edition to download, print and use the material, and to bring the handouts to the exam. Warning: Do not xerox or distribute. Copyrighted material. Enter

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Thermal expansion Mechanical phenomena Diffusion and oxidation Crystalline structure. X-rays. Amorphous and glassy materials. Manufacturing of materials. Solid solutions. Atomic structure and bonding Types of solids Thermal conduction and heat transfer The model of Drude Electrical conduction Electrical phenomena Kinetic molecular theory

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Atomic structure and bonding. Types of solids 1.Atomic structure. Electronic shells. Quantum numbers. 2.Atomic bonding. Energy diagram. 3.Covalent, ionic, metallic and Van-der-Vaals bonding. BACK

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Crystalline structure. X-rays. Manufacturing. Amorphous and glassy materials. Solid solutions. 1.The Crystalline State. Types of crystals. Unit cell. Packing factor. 2.Miller indices. 3.Atomic planes and planar concentration. 4.X-ray Diffraction. Electromagnetic waves. Wavelengths of X-rays. 5.Interference. Bragg's law. 6.Scheme of diffractometer. Selection rules. 7.Crystalline Defects. Point defects: vacancies, impurities. 8.Point defects in ionic crystals: Schottky and Frenkel defects. Ionized impurities. 9.Line defects. Edge and screw dislocations. 10.Planar defects. Grain boundaries. 11.Crystal surfaces. Surface reconstruction. Types of surface imperfections. 12.Stoichiometry. 13.Allotropy. Three phases of carbon. 14.Single-Crystal Czochralski Growth 15.Glasses and Amorphous Semiconductors. a-Si and a-Si:H. Structure, manufacturing, applications. 16.Solid Solutions and Two-Phase Solids. Phase diagram of isomorphous alloy. Lever rule. 17.Zone refining and silicon purification. 18.Binary eutectic phase diagrams. Pb-Sn solders. BACK

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Kinetic theory 1.Kinetic Molecular Theory. Ideal gas. Mean velocity. Avogadro's number. Mole. Boltzmann's and gas constants. Absolute temperature. 2.Degrees of freedom Maxwell's principle of equipartition of energy. 3.Distribution of Molecular Velocities. Energy Distribution. Stern experiment. Boltzmann factor and distribution. 4.Heat, Thermal Fluctuations and Noise. RMS voltage. Johnson resistor noise. BACK

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Electrical conduction 1.The Drude Model of Electrical Conduction. Scattering. Drift mobility. 2.Temperature Dependence of Resistivity. Scattering on phonons. 3.Matthiessen's Rule. Scattering on impurities. 4.The electrical conduction in thin films. Scattering on surface. 5.Electrical Conductivity of Non-metals. Electrons and holes in semiconductors. Activation energy of conductivity. 6.Electrical Conductivity of Non-metals. Ionic conductivity. Activation energy of conductivity. 7.The Hall Effect. Lorentz force. Hall effect in metals. 8.Hall effect in semiconductors. Hall Devices. 9.Skin Effect: HF resistance of a Conductor 10.Nordheim’s rule 11.Mixture rules BACK

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Mechanical phenomena 1.Stress and Strain (engineering and true). 2.Elastic Moduli (Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, shear modulus, bulk modulus). Units. Typical values. 3.Tensile expeiment. Samples and tensile test machine. 4.Stress-Strain Characteristics. Elastic and plastic deformations. Necking. Fracture. Stress and strain at fracture. 5.Yield and tensile strengths. Typical values. 6.Brittle and Ductile Materials. Ductility 7.Elastic and Plastic Work. Resilience and Toughness. 8.Plastic Deformation in Metals. Glide of edge and screw dislocations. 9.Crystal slip. Slip line, slip directions and slip plane. Burgers vector. Crytical shear stress. 10.Interaction of dislocations. Pinning of dislocations by impurities and grain boundaries. 11.Structure of polycrystalline material after plastic defomation. 12.Cold Work. Typical operations of metal forming or shaping. 13.Phenomenon of recrystallization. Temperature dependence of recrystallization rate. 14.Mechanical strengthening mechanisms. 15.Hardness. Tests of hardness. Connection with strength. 16.Cracks. Stress concentration. 17.Crytical stress.Crack Propagation. Griffith's Theory of Brittle Fracture. 18.Ductile Fracture. 19.Fatigue. Endurance limit. 20.Creep. Creep regions (primary, secondary and tertiary). Influence of temperature and stress value on creep rate. 21.Impact Energy and Toughness. Test of impact energy. Impact energy and temperature. BACK

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Thermal expansion 1.Thermal expansion and atomic bonding 2.Grüneisen's law 3.Temperature dependence of thermal expansion coefficient. Debye temperature. 4.Thermal stress and strain. 5.Differential thermal expansion 6.Thermal fatigue and failure BACK

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Diffusion and oxidation 1.Diffusion coefficient. Activation energy. 2.Diffusion in bulk, on surface and along grain boundaries. 3.Fick's first law 4.Fick's second law 5.Diffusion from unlimited and limited supplies. Error function. Gaussian distribution. 6.Diffusion doping of semiconductors 7.The growth of silicon dioxide: dry and wet oxidation. Factors changing the growth rate. 8.Initial linear and parabolic growth BACK

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Thermal conduction and heat transfer 1.The heat. Fourier's law of thermal conduction. Thermal conductivity 2.Mechanisms of effective thermal conduction 3.Parabolic heat equation 4.Analogy between thermal and electrical phenomena. Equivalent circuits. 5.Transitional thermal processes 6.Power derating 7.Heat transfer by radiation. Stefan's law. Emissivity. 8.Heat transfer by convection. Newton's law. Thermal boundary layer. BACK

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Lecture 24: Electrical Conductivity

Lecture 24: Electrical Conductivity

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