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Unit 7: Beef Cattle.  Unit 7 Objectives: Outline & discuss life-cycle feeding programs for beef cattle Outline & discuss life-cycle feeding programs.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 7: Beef Cattle.  Unit 7 Objectives: Outline & discuss life-cycle feeding programs for beef cattle Outline & discuss life-cycle feeding programs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 7: Beef Cattle

2  Unit 7 Objectives: Outline & discuss life-cycle feeding programs for beef cattle Outline & discuss life-cycle feeding programs for beef cattle Identify specific nutrient and additive needs Identify specific nutrient and additive needs Understand feeding systems for beef cattle Understand feeding systems for beef cattle

3 Unit 7: Beef Cattle  The Cow Herd Profitable cow/calf operations should have a high percentage calf crop each year Profitable cow/calf operations should have a high percentage calf crop each year Gestation 280dGestation 280d Recovery & rebreeding should occur within 80-85d postpartumRecovery & rebreeding should occur within 80-85d postpartum Nutritional influence on reproduction Nutritional influence on reproduction Cows gaining wt slightly before breeding will have higher conception rates & shorter time to 1 st heatCows gaining wt slightly before breeding will have higher conception rates & shorter time to 1 st heat Most critical time – 30d prepartum – 70d postpartumMost critical time – 30d prepartum – 70d postpartum

4 Unit 7: Beef Cattle Most cow/calf producers will choose 1 of 2 calving programs Most cow/calf producers will choose 1 of 2 calving programs March – AprilMarch – April September – OctoberSeptember – October Avoid severe cold or heat stressAvoid severe cold or heat stress See table 8-4 for nutritional requirements See table 8-4 for nutritional requirements Ration nutrient content should depend on: Ration nutrient content should depend on: Frame size & conditionFrame size & condition Stage of production & environmentStage of production & environment

5 Unit 7: Beef Cattle Ration Comp. Preg. Cow Lact. Cow Protein TDN ME (mcal/lb) Ca & P

6 Unit 7: Beef Cattle Summer Summer Pasture will supply most needed nutrientsPasture will supply most needed nutrients Supplement mineralsSupplement minerals What might we need? What might we need? How would we supplement it? How would we supplement it? Supplemental energy may be needed if pasture is inadequateSupplemental energy may be needed if pasture is inadequate Milk production – 10-25lb/d for d Milk production – 10-25lb/d for d May feed silage May feed silage 15lb c.s./h/d will substitute for 1/3 of pasture acreage normally needed15lb c.s./h/d will substitute for 1/3 of pasture acreage normally needed May feed hay to help control bloat (on lush pasture) May feed hay to help control bloat (on lush pasture)

7 Unit 7: Beef Cattle Creep feed calves Creep feed calves Manage the pasture Manage the pasture Winter Winter Supplement feed when pasture is not availableSupplement feed when pasture is not available Manage wt. loss of fall calving cowsManage wt. loss of fall calving cows No more than 15% less than wt before calving No more than 15% less than wt before calving May need supplemental energy and protein May need supplemental energy and protein Cows in good body condition will manage stress more effectivelyCows in good body condition will manage stress more effectively Lower critical temp is ~20ºFLower critical temp is ~20ºF Increase feed 1%/degree below 20 Increase feed 1%/degree below 20 Urea may be used as a supplemental protein sourceUrea may be used as a supplemental protein source

8 Unit 7: Beef Cattle Additional forage supplementation may be necessaryAdditional forage supplementation may be necessary Don’t have to feed the highest quality feeds Don’t have to feed the highest quality feeds Don’t feed the most expensive feeds Don’t feed the most expensive feeds Cattle are adept at converting low quality feeds to useful nutrition sources Cattle are adept at converting low quality feeds to useful nutrition sources  Calf Crop Basic ration: Basic ration: MilkMilk Pasture or foragePasture or forage

9 Unit 7: Beef Cattle Creep feeding Creep feeding Only the calves should get itOnly the calves should get it Advantages:Advantages: Heavier calves at weaning Heavier calves at weaning Improves condition and uniformity Improves condition and uniformity Less wt loss by cows Less wt loss by cows DisadvantagesDisadvantages Extra Extra LaborLabor EquipmentEquipment FeedFeed MgmtMgmt Higher feed cost Higher feed cost

10 Unit 7: Beef Cattle May put on too much wt May put on too much wt May mask the mothering ability of the cow May mask the mothering ability of the cow Basic creep rationBasic creep ration 80-90% grain 80-90% grain 3-5% molasses 3-5% molasses 10% oil meal or commercial supplement 10% oil meal or commercial supplement See table 8-8 See table 8-8 Adds 30-50lbs at weaningAdds 30-50lbs at weaning 8-10lbs creep/lb extra gain 8-10lbs creep/lb extra gain Greatest response when pasture is poor or unavailableGreatest response when pasture is poor or unavailable Feed an additiveFeed an additive

11 Unit 7: Beef Cattle Implants at 60-90d Implants at 60-90d Boosts weaning wts 20-40lbBoosts weaning wts 20-40lb Don’t implant heifers if you plan to breed themDon’t implant heifers if you plan to breed them Weaning Weaning 6-8 mos old6-8 mos old Three cases for early weaningThree cases for early weaning Calves from 1 st calf heifers Calves from 1 st calf heifers Less stress on the cowLess stress on the cow Cow recycles soonerCow recycles sooner Fall calves Fall calves Reduced feeding expense through the winterReduced feeding expense through the winter Bull calves Bull calves Get them heavy enough and separate from the herdGet them heavy enough and separate from the herd

12 Unit 7: Beef Cattle Remove calves from cowsRemove calves from cows No further contact will help the cow dry off quickly No further contact will help the cow dry off quickly Offer creep feed to the calves to reduce stress Offer creep feed to the calves to reduce stress Preconditioned Calves Preconditioned Calves Preparing a feeder calf for the feedlotPreparing a feeder calf for the feedlot MandatoryMandatory Wean and start on feed no less than 30d from shipment Wean and start on feed no less than 30d from shipment Similar ration to the feedlotSimilar ration to the feedlot Castrate, dehorn, treat for grubs no less than 3wks from shipment Castrate, dehorn, treat for grubs no less than 3wks from shipment Vaccinate Vaccinate IBR, PI3, Pasteurella, ClostridialIBR, PI3, Pasteurella, Clostridial Not less than 3wks from saleNot less than 3wks from sale

13 Unit 7: Beef Cattle OptionalOptional Deworm Deworm Vaccinate for leptospirosis Vaccinate for leptospirosis Vaccinate for BVD, Haemophilus, no less than 3wks before sale Vaccinate for BVD, Haemophilus, no less than 3wks before sale Owned by seller at least 60d prior to sale Owned by seller at least 60d prior to sale Calves should be in better healthCalves should be in better health More efficientMore efficient $3-5 premium for these calves$3-5 premium for these calves Stocker Cattle Stocker Cattle Weaned calves that are forage fed prior to saleWeaned calves that are forage fed prior to sale

14 Unit 7: Beef Cattle Carrying little finishCarrying little finish May be wintered on high-roughage diets before sold for feedlotMay be wintered on high-roughage diets before sold for feedlot May be wintered on small grain/grass pastureMay be wintered on small grain/grass pasture Enter feedlot at lbs Enter feedlot at lbs May graze cornstalks in fall, drylot fed during winterMay graze cornstalks in fall, drylot fed during winter Backgrounded Cattle Backgrounded Cattle Weaned calves on drylot/pastureWeaned calves on drylot/pasture More emphasis on growth than stocker calvesMore emphasis on growth than stocker calves Feed grain to increase to 800lb BW before sale to finisherFeed grain to increase to 800lb BW before sale to finisher

15 Unit 7: Beef Cattle  Replacement Heifers Creep feeding is debatable Creep feeding is debatable More genetic expressionMore genetic expression Higher costHigher cost Replacement development Replacement development Attain 55-65% of mature wt at 15mos for calving at 2 yrs oldAttain 55-65% of mature wt at 15mos for calving at 2 yrs old Postweaning gains from 7-15mos lb/dPostweaning gains from 7-15mos lb/d Low gains may delay puberty & reduce reproduction efficiencyLow gains may delay puberty & reduce reproduction efficiency High gains may add fat to the mammary system reducing milk potentialHigh gains may add fat to the mammary system reducing milk potential

16 Unit 7: Beef Cattle Postweaning Mgmt Postweaning Mgmt Weaning rationWeaning ration FC hay & minerals FC hay & minerals 3-4lb grain 3-4lb grain lbs BW lbs BW Winter rationWinter ration lb gain to reach lbs. by May lb gain to reach lbs. by May 1 Adjustments may need to be made Adjustments may need to be made What might we adjust and why?What might we adjust and why? PasturePasture Adequate for yrlng heifers to gain 1-1.5lb/d from May – mid-July Adequate for yrlng heifers to gain 1-1.5lb/d from May – mid-July Breeding wt lbs at 15 mos Breeding wt lbs at 15 mos

17 Unit 7: Beef Cattle Bred heifersBred heifers Manage like the cow herd Manage like the cow herd Gain lb/d for a target of lb at calving Gain lb/d for a target of lb at calving 1 st calf heifers1 st calf heifers Feed liberally so they will recover and breed back Feed liberally so they will recover and breed back  Bulls Young Young Creep feed, then full feed high energy ration from weaning to mos oldCreep feed, then full feed high energy ration from weaning to mos old Should be ready for service at mos Should be ready for service at mos Feed at 2.5% of BW, 2.5 lbs gainFeed at 2.5% of BW, 2.5 lbs gain

18 Unit 7: Beef Cattle 15 mos – 3 yrs15 mos – 3 yrs ADG, feed % BW ADG, feed % BW Increase amount of roughage Increase amount of roughage Mature Mature Same pasture as cow herdSame pasture as cow herd Winter Winter ½ lb grain/100 lb BW to maintain condition½ lb grain/100 lb BW to maintain condition May adjust if feeding CSMay adjust if feeding CS Summer Summer Same as cow herdSame as cow herd Supplement energy only if needing to maintain conditionSupplement energy only if needing to maintain condition

19 Unit 7: Beef Cattle  General Information Finishing Cattle Finishing Cattle Increase muscle and fat massIncrease muscle and fat mass Produce quality meat productsProduce quality meat products Market between 1-2 yrs old, >1000 lbsMarket between 1-2 yrs old, >1000 lbs CPCP 9-14% (varies w/ age, size, etc.) 9-14% (varies w/ age, size, etc.) EnergyEnergy High concentrate diets High concentrate diets 65-85% TDN65-85% TDN Efficient gain Efficient gain May be prone to metabolic disorders May be prone to metabolic disorders

20 Unit 7: Beef Cattle CaCa.3-.6%.3-.6% Ratio of 2:1 Ca:P Ratio of 2:1 Ca:P P.2-.4%.2-.4% May not need to supplement at all May not need to supplement at all Estimating Feed Intake Estimating Feed Intake 2-3+% BW (400+ lb calves)2-3+% BW (400+ lb calves) Full feed=2 lb grain/100lb BW plus supp & forageFull feed=2 lb grain/100lb BW plus supp & forage May feed CS, intakes must be higher to reach desired gainsMay feed CS, intakes must be higher to reach desired gains

21 Unit 7: Beef Cattle Roughage to concentrate – 15:85Roughage to concentrate – 15:85 Corn is most profitable at $2-$2.50/bu Corn is most profitable at $2-$2.50/bu CS can be profitable CS can be profitable Faster gains w/ higher energy rations Faster gains w/ higher energy rations Finish quickerFinish quicker Intake is regulated by energy content of the ration Intake is regulated by energy content of the ration Nutritional Mgmt of Finishing Cattle Nutritional Mgmt of Finishing Cattle Starting on FeedStarting on Feed Minimize disease and death loss Minimize disease and death loss Monitor closely in a quarantine lot/pen Monitor closely in a quarantine lot/pen May start on high roughage diet w/ higher levels of antibiotic, etc. May start on high roughage diet w/ higher levels of antibiotic, etc. May take 5d-3wks for them to adjust – depends on stress level May take 5d-3wks for them to adjust – depends on stress level

22 Unit 7: Beef Cattle Grow/Finish RationsGrow/Finish Rations Maintain maximum feed intake w/out stomach upsets Maintain maximum feed intake w/out stomach upsets May use a 2 phase program May use a 2 phase program Phase 1 – 50-60% concentrate, lbs BW, CS & supplementPhase 1 – 50-60% concentrate, lbs BW, CS & supplement Phase 2 – 75%+ concentrate, 800 lbs to market, little to no foragePhase 2 – 75%+ concentrate, 800 lbs to market, little to no forage Single phase Single phase After adjusting to feed/environment – 75%+ concentrate until marketAfter adjusting to feed/environment – 75%+ concentrate until market Don’t short on CP Don’t short on CP May be natural or NPNMay be natural or NPN

23 Unit 7: Beef Cattle  Miscellaneous Nonnutritive Feed Additives Nonnutritive Feed Additives AntibioticsAntibiotics What might we feed? What might we feed? What do they do? What do they do? MGAMGA IonophoresIonophores BufferBuffer Bloat prevention Bloat prevention Manage pasture to have no more than 50% legume forageManage pasture to have no more than 50% legume forage

24 Unit 7: Beef Cattle Provide dry roughage if bloat is a riskProvide dry roughage if bloat is a risk Feed poloxalene and ionophoresFeed poloxalene and ionophores


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