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Beef Cattle Nutrition. diagram of ruminant-handout diagram of ruminant-handout –Esophageal groove – immature ruminants –Rumen, omasum, abomasum and reticulum.

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Presentation on theme: "Beef Cattle Nutrition. diagram of ruminant-handout diagram of ruminant-handout –Esophageal groove – immature ruminants –Rumen, omasum, abomasum and reticulum."— Presentation transcript:

1 Beef Cattle Nutrition

2 diagram of ruminant-handout diagram of ruminant-handout –Esophageal groove – immature ruminants –Rumen, omasum, abomasum and reticulum –Small Intestine-duodenum, illeum, jejunem –Large Intestine-colon, cecum, rectum

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5 Digestive System stomach in ruminants comprises 25 % of body stomach in ruminants comprises 25 % of body rumen comprises 75 % of stomach rumen comprises 75 % of stomach fermentation: digest cellulose, plant tissue, urea, NPN, B & K vitamins fermentation: digest cellulose, plant tissue, urea, NPN, B & K vitamins consist of bacteria and protozoa (200 billion/teaspoon) consist of bacteria and protozoa (200 billion/teaspoon)

6 Characteristics of Ruminants Mouth Mouth –no upper incisor or wolf teeth –use lips and tongue to grab food four compartments to the ruminant four compartments to the ruminant –Consist of microorganisms –Produce Volatile Fatty Acids/ acetic, propionic, butyric

7 Volatile fatty acids (VFA) Produced in large amounts through ruminal fermentation and are of paramount importance in that they provide greater than 70% of the ruminant's energy supply. Virtually all of the acetic, proprionic and butyric acids formed in the rumen are absorbed across the ruminal Produced in large amounts through ruminal fermentation and are of paramount importance in that they provide greater than 70% of the ruminant's energy supply. Virtually all of the acetic, proprionic and butyric acids formed in the rumen are absorbed across the ruminal

8 VFA’s cont. epithelium, from which they are carried by ruminal veins to the portal vein and hence through the liver. Continuous removal of VFA from the rumen is important not only for distribution, but to prevent excessive and damaging drops in pH of rumen fluid. epithelium, from which they are carried by ruminal veins to the portal vein and hence through the liver. Continuous removal of VFA from the rumen is important not only for distribution, but to prevent excessive and damaging drops in pH of rumen fluid.

9 Ruminants Prehension- the process of gathering food to the mouth Prehension- the process of gathering food to the mouth Mastication - the process of chewing Mastication - the process of chewing Eructation (belching of gas) Eructation (belching of gas) –Carbon DiOxide and Methane Enzymes- organic catalyst which speed up a biochemical reaction without being used up Enzymes- organic catalyst which speed up a biochemical reaction without being used up

10 Rumination Rumination-fermentation Rumination-fermentation –rechewing usually > 8 hours/day dependent on diet (increase fiber, increase rumination time) –CO2 and Methane are the primary gases given off during rumen fermentation

11 Digestion and Utilization of Prot, CHO and Fats

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15 FUNCTION OF FEEDS Maintenance- a ration which is adequate to prevent any loss or gain of tissue in the body when there is no production Maintenance- a ration which is adequate to prevent any loss or gain of tissue in the body when there is no production –the difference in energy needs are related to the amount of activity Growth- increase in size of muscles, bones, internal and external parts of the body (the foundation of animal production) Growth- increase in size of muscles, bones, internal and external parts of the body (the foundation of animal production) Finishing- the laying on or deposition of fat Finishing- the laying on or deposition of fat Production – lactation, conception, etc. Production – lactation, conception, etc.

16 FEEDS Definition- any ingredients or material fed to animals for purposes of sustaining them Definition- any ingredients or material fed to animals for purposes of sustaining them Classes of Feeds Classes of Feeds –roughages –concentrates –by-products –protein supplements –minerals, vitamins, and additives

17 Classes of Feeds- Roughages Definition: >18% fiber and lower in energy & low digestibility compared to concentrates Definition: >18% fiber and lower in energy & low digestibility compared to concentrates Generally; TDN=40-60% and is high in Ca & K Generally; TDN=40-60% and is high in Ca & K –Forage/Pasture, hay, crop-residue (corn, milo), silage (fermented, high-moisture forage), haylage (low-moisture type silage), green chop

18 Classes of Feeds cont. Concentrates- high in energy, low in fiber and < 20% protein – Corn, milo, oats, etc. Concentrates- high in energy, low in fiber and < 20% protein – Corn, milo, oats, etc. By-product feeds (from plant and animal processing) carrots, turnip tops, fodder beets By-product feeds (from plant and animal processing) carrots, turnip tops, fodder beets Protein supplements- high in nitrogen Protein supplements- high in nitrogen –Oilseed Plant by-products (SBM, CSM)

19 Classes of Feeds cont. NPN= non-protein nitrogen NPN= non-protein nitrogen –urea, ammoniated molasses or chloride, biruet, etc –Urea=45% Nitrogen X 6.25 = 281% protein equivalent Minerals - NaCl, limestone, dical, etc. Minerals - NaCl, limestone, dical, etc. –major -Ca, P, Mg, S –trace - Cu, Fe, I, Mn, Zn, Se, etc.

20 Classes of Feeds Vitamins Vitamins –Natural versus synthetics –water vs fat soluble classification –A,D,& E are most common in ruminants Special Feeds Special Feeds –Fats and oils (increase calories without bulk) –molasses (increase energy and palatability)

21 Classes of Feeds Feed additives and implants Feed additives and implants –increase efficiency of gain, prevent diseases, preserve the feed antibiotics, hormones, growth promotants, repartitioning agents, etc. antibiotics, hormones, growth promotants, repartitioning agents, etc.

22 n Evaluation of Feedstuffs Measuring Energy Measuring Energy –TDN= sum total of the digestible protein, fiber, and nitrogen free extract, and fat X 2.25 –40% is low for forages while 60% is high –Most concentrates are 80-90%

23 Calorie or California Net Energy System Net Energy= gross energy-fecal energy-gaseous energy-urinary energy-heat increment Net Energy= gross energy-fecal energy-gaseous energy-urinary energy-heat increment gross energy = combustion heat gross energy = combustion heat digestible energy = portion of gross energy that is not excreted in feces digestible energy = portion of gross energy that is not excreted in feces Metabolic energy = portion of gross energy that is not lost in feces, urine and gas Metabolic energy = portion of gross energy that is not lost in feces, urine and gas heat increment = difference between ME & NE heat increment = difference between ME & NE – heat unavoidably produced by an animal in digestion and metabolism

24 Evaluation of Feedstuffs –Analyzing Feedstuffs Proximate analysis Proximate analysis – 1) H2O (DM vs As Fed), – 2)CP3) Ash4) Fat Fiber (ADF, NDF) Fiber (ADF, NDF) Energy (Net or TDN) – bomb calorimeter Energy (Net or TDN) – bomb calorimeter Minerals & Vitamins Minerals & Vitamins

25 Ration Formulation Consideration points Consideration points –availability and cost of feedstuffs –moisture content –composition of feedstuffs –soil analysis –nutrient allowances and requirements –composition of ration and ingredients

26 Beef Cow Nutrition Objective feed little as possible as long as we don’t damage reproduction, milk, or longevity feed little as possible as long as we don’t damage reproduction, milk, or longevity overfeeding causes decreased longevity, dystocia, reprod. rate, and milk prod. overfeeding causes decreased longevity, dystocia, reprod. rate, and milk prod. underfeeding causes delayed estrus, puberty, lowers conception rate and milk prod. underfeeding causes delayed estrus, puberty, lowers conception rate and milk prod.

27 Phase Feeding for the Beef Female feeding accounts for approx. 2/3 of total costs after real estate acquisition feeding accounts for approx. 2/3 of total costs after real estate acquisition feeding has the greatest influence on growth and performance feeding has the greatest influence on growth and performance Yet, reproduction is the most important economic important trait Yet, reproduction is the most important economic important trait feeding influences growth, reproduction (most critical), lactation, etc. feeding influences growth, reproduction (most critical), lactation, etc.

28 Phases of Feeding Birth to weaning Birth to weaning Weaning to first breeding Weaning to first breeding First breeding to first calving First breeding to first calving First two productive years (1st two calves) First two productive years (1st two calves) Third and subsequent years of production Third and subsequent years of production

29 Phase Feeding Plane of nutrition is dependent upon energy and protein requirements along with forage quality and availability Plane of nutrition is dependent upon energy and protein requirements along with forage quality and availability Can be somewhat breed dependent Can be somewhat breed dependent European cattle are later maturing and will utilize more forage European cattle are later maturing and will utilize more forage

30 Phase Feeding First phase- Birth to Weaning First phase- Birth to Weaning objective is to develop replacement females to weaning with maximum subsequent productivity at minimum costs objective is to develop replacement females to weaning with maximum subsequent productivity at minimum costs

31 Phase Feeding Growthier females at weaning will usually reach puberty earlier, calve on time and return to rebreeding earlier than slower growing heifers Growthier females at weaning will usually reach puberty earlier, calve on time and return to rebreeding earlier than slower growing heifers Weaning is usually around 205 days or 7 months of age Weaning is usually around 205 days or 7 months of age

32 Phase Feeding Second phase - Weaning to First Breeding Second phase - Weaning to First Breeding objective is to promote adequate growth to insure sexual maturity objective is to promote adequate growth to insure sexual maturity first breeding should be done at % of the estimated mature weight first breeding should be done at % of the estimated mature weight ADG of lbs. per day is recommended ADG of lbs. per day is recommended

33 Phase Feeding Third phase - First Breeding to First Calving Third phase - First Breeding to First Calving objective is to promote sufficient growth and body development to allow heifers to deliver a calf, and to prepare the heifers physiologically to be able to withstand the rigors of first lactation and rebreeding. objective is to promote sufficient growth and body development to allow heifers to deliver a calf, and to prepare the heifers physiologically to be able to withstand the rigors of first lactation and rebreeding.

34 Phase Feeding Females should gain 70-75% of their weaning weight or be 70-75% of their mature weight at their first calving time. Females should gain 70-75% of their weaning weight or be 70-75% of their mature weight at their first calving time.

35 Phase Feeding Fourth phase - First two productive years Fourth phase - First two productive years Objective is to provide a sufficient plane of nutrition to allow the young cows to lactate, rebreed and continue to grow Objective is to provide a sufficient plane of nutrition to allow the young cows to lactate, rebreed and continue to grow cows should not lose more than 15% of their weight during the winter cows should not lose more than 15% of their weight during the winter

36 Phase Feeding Fifth phase - Third and subsequent productive years Fifth phase - Third and subsequent productive years Objective is to maintain efficient productivity Objective is to maintain efficient productivity nutrient requirements actually decrease nutrient requirements actually decrease Should not lose more than 20% during the winter Should not lose more than 20% during the winter

37 Feeding in General Obesity can be a major problem Obesity can be a major problem Body Condition Scores should be utilized Body Condition Scores should be utilized Scores of 1-9, where 1 is very thin and 9 is obese : Handout Scores of 1-9, where 1 is very thin and 9 is obese : Handout This can be breed, feed or frame size dependent This can be breed, feed or frame size dependent

38 Feeding in General Heifers - breed more than needed Heifers - breed more than needed breed 30 days before the mature cows breed 30 days before the mature cows palpate 60 days after breeding season palpate 60 days after breeding season Cows > 10 years of age; the physical condition will diminish Cows > 10 years of age; the physical condition will diminish Bulls - during intense breeding season; requirements may increase by 2-3 X Bulls - during intense breeding season; requirements may increase by 2-3 X If forage is limiting, feed bulls separate If forage is limiting, feed bulls separate

39 Feeding Systems Creep feeding- Creep feeding- –the supplemental feeding of young nursing animals in an enclosure which is accessible to them but not to their parent gains for young animals are cheap gains due to less fat content in young animals and less consumption/body wt. gains for young animals are cheap gains due to less fat content in young animals and less consumption/body wt. adv.- increases weaning wt., facilitates fall calving, uniformity, achieve genetic potential, assists first calf heifers, etc. adv.- increases weaning wt., facilitates fall calving, uniformity, achieve genetic potential, assists first calf heifers, etc.

40 Creep feeding- is it feasible? whenever it is most likely profitable whenever it is most likely profitable usually when forage or milk is limited usually when forage or milk is limited conditions we see in drought that results in overgrazing by mother, thus forage is limited conditions we see in drought that results in overgrazing by mother, thus forage is limited young cows or very old cows young cows or very old cows To be feasible, value difference of the calf should be over the cost of the creep feed To be feasible, value difference of the calf should be over the cost of the creep feed Over creep feeding can cause reduced subsequent milk production because of excessive fat in udders Over creep feeding can cause reduced subsequent milk production because of excessive fat in udders

41 Feeding and Management of Brood Cows critical time of nutrition critical time of nutrition – 30 days before calving – 70 days after calving growth of calf growth of calf reproduction efficiency of cow reproduction efficiency of cow Lactation Lactation Rebreeding Rebreeding

42 Feeding and Management of Brood Cows –feed the herd according to cow reproductive pattern dependant upon: dependant upon: – dry pregnancy – lactating – replacement heifers

43 Feeding and Management of Brood Cows –heifers – the last 3-4 months before parturition is important –weight makes a difference –provide for maintenance and growth BCS BCS

44 Feeding and Management of Brood Cows Reproduction and Nutrition Reproduction and Nutrition –energy is more important than protein –P supplementation increases % calf crop –increase Vit A –level of feed before and after calving –pregnant cows should not gain over 100 lbs during gestation

45 Feeding and Management of Brood Cows Winter Feeding Winter Feeding –grass decreases in protein –must either drylot or supplement –energy is important and should be increased by 10% for every 10 degrees below 20 degrees F Range Feeding Deficiencies Range Feeding Deficiencies –energy- lack of feed –protein - mature grasses –minerals - lowered salt and P/ vit. - A & ? D, E

46 Feeds for supplementation Oilseed meals Oilseed meals Grain Grain Breeder/range cubes Breeder/range cubes Protein blocks Protein blocks Liquid feeds (protein or protein/energy) Liquid feeds (protein or protein/energy) Syrup blocks or tubs Syrup blocks or tubs Hays Hays

47 Supplementation when supplementing; need to know 4 things: when supplementing; need to know 4 things: –nutrient composition –availability –Intake –requirements

48 Supplementation questions how much to feed and still make max use how much to feed and still make max use what kind what kind what form what form how often how often additives additives Alternatives Alternatives

49 Factors affecting supplementation Forage quality Forage quality Forage quantity and availability Forage quantity and availability Body condition score Body condition score Body size Body size Milking level Milking level Age Age

50 Feeding of Bulls age and condition / exercise age and condition / exercise increase bulk, decrease grain ( do not want them too fat) increase bulk, decrease grain ( do not want them too fat) feed young bulls more for growth and development- overfeeding results reduced sperm counts, unsoundness, etc. feed young bulls more for growth and development- overfeeding results reduced sperm counts, unsoundness, etc. mature bulls- increase lbs of grain plus roughage as needed to fit BCS mature bulls- increase lbs of grain plus roughage as needed to fit BCS

51 Bulls cont. Young bulls Young bulls –Feed a 12-14% CP ration at 1.5-2% of CWT –Make sure they have plenty of free choice forage –Thumb rule is to feed a 14% CP ration until 14 months of age

52 Pastures two kinds- native and improved two kinds- native and improved range covers > 40% of the world land area range covers > 40% of the world land area grasses, browse (woody stem perennial), forbs (hollow stem annual)-weeds grasses, browse (woody stem perennial), forbs (hollow stem annual)-weeds cattle prefer grasses, deer prefer browse cattle prefer grasses, deer prefer browse thumb rule- graze 1/2 in summer and save 1/2 for the winter thumb rule- graze 1/2 in summer and save 1/2 for the winter

53 Forages Forage intake vs digestibility Forage intake vs digestibility Factors that influence intake Factors that influence intake body size body size forage availability- biggest problem we face forage availability- biggest problem we face forage palatability forage palatability gut fill gut fill rate of passage rate of passage

54 Forage intake higher the Quality forage, higher intake higher the Quality forage, higher intake early maturity early maturity lower proportion of cell walls lower proportion of cell walls higher protein higher protein increased rate of passage increased rate of passage digestibility increases digestibility increases lowers gut fill lowers gut fill

55 Forages Rate of passage or digestion depends on: Rate of passage or digestion depends on: plant species plant species plant maturity- more mature, less digestible plant maturity- more mature, less digestible cell walls=cellulose vs cell walls=cellulose vs cell contents=sugars cell contents=sugars

56 Forages maturity increases, cell content decreases maturity increases, cell content decreases protein content> 6% for optimum digestion protein content> 6% for optimum digestion preparation method - pelleting, grinding, etc preparation method - pelleting, grinding, etc

57 Characteristics of grasses on native range slower growth rate- reduces quality slower growth rate- reduces quality longer period to reach maturity longer period to reach maturity slower re-growth slower re-growth

58 Proper utilization of range maintain grazing distribution through: maintain grazing distribution through: fencingwater fencingwater shadeburning shadeburning mowing or spraying mowing or spraying fertilizer fertilizer supplemental feeding supplemental feeding

59 Improved pastures Don’t graze in early fall or late summer Don’t graze in early fall or late summer bermuda grass- adaptable bermuda grass- adaptable hybrids- *coastal, Tifton 85, common hybrids- *coastal, Tifton 85, common good response to N and water good response to N and water problems- requires cross fencing & N problems- requires cross fencing & N

60 Proper Management graze when 6-8”, fertilize NPK early spring and N in summer and late summer graze when 6-8”, fertilize NPK early spring and N in summer and late summer can overseed with fescue, wheat, rye in the fall for winter pasture can overseed with fescue, wheat, rye in the fall for winter pasture an increase in N does not necessarily increase performance an increase in N does not necessarily increase performance yet, it increases quantity, thus stocking rate yet, it increases quantity, thus stocking rate

61 Thumb Rules when a cow consumes enough energy, she usually consumes enough protein when a cow consumes enough energy, she usually consumes enough protein Winter- cow should consume 1.5% of body wt with poor forage Winter- cow should consume 1.5% of body wt with poor forage 2.0% with good quality hay 2.0% with good quality hay 2.5% with excellent forage such as alfalfa or wheat 2.5% with excellent forage such as alfalfa or wheat

62 NPN- non-protein nitrogen Urea is most popular; other ammonium chloride, biuret, etc. Urea is most popular; other ammonium chloride, biuret, etc. most effective with high CHO source diet and low protein requirement, twice daily feeding, bacteria in the rumen require energy most effective with high CHO source diet and low protein requirement, twice daily feeding, bacteria in the rumen require energy not as well utilized at > 12 % protein or in young growing calves or creep not as well utilized at > 12 % protein or in young growing calves or creep


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