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Beef Cattle Nutrition.

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Presentation on theme: "Beef Cattle Nutrition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Beef Cattle Nutrition

2 Beef Cattle Nutrition diagram of ruminant-handout
Esophageal groove – immature ruminants Rumen, omasum, abomasum and reticulum Small Intestine-duodenum, illeum, jejunem Large Intestine-colon, cecum, rectum



5 Digestive System stomach in ruminants comprises 25 % of body
rumen comprises 75 % of stomach fermentation: digest cellulose, plant tissue, urea, NPN, B & K vitamins consist of bacteria and protozoa (200 billion/teaspoon)

6 Characteristics of Ruminants
Mouth no upper incisor or wolf teeth use lips and tongue to grab food four compartments to the ruminant Consist of microorganisms Produce Volatile Fatty Acids/ acetic, propionic, butyric

7 Volatile fatty acids (VFA)
Produced in large amounts through ruminal fermentation and are of paramount importance in that they provide greater than 70% of the ruminant's energy supply. Virtually all of the acetic, proprionic and butyric acids formed in the rumen are absorbed across the ruminal

8 VFA’s cont. epithelium, from which they are carried by ruminal veins to the portal vein and hence through the liver. Continuous removal of VFA from the rumen is important not only for distribution, but to prevent excessive and damaging drops in pH of rumen fluid.

9 Ruminants Prehension- the process of gathering food to the mouth
Mastication - the process of chewing Eructation (belching of gas) Carbon DiOxide and Methane Enzymes- organic catalyst which speed up a biochemical reaction without being used up

10 Rumination Rumination-fermentation
rechewing usually > 8 hours/day dependent on diet (increase fiber, increase rumination time) CO2 and Methane are the primary gases given off during rumen fermentation

11 Digestion and Utilization of Prot, CHO and Fats




15 FUNCTION OF FEEDS Maintenance- a ration which is adequate to prevent any loss or gain of tissue in the body when there is no production the difference in energy needs are related to the amount of activity Growth- increase in size of muscles, bones, internal and external parts of the body (the foundation of animal production) Finishing- the laying on or deposition of fat Production – lactation, conception, etc.

16 FEEDS Definition- any ingredients or material fed to animals for purposes of sustaining them Classes of Feeds roughages concentrates by-products protein supplements minerals, vitamins, and additives

17 Classes of Feeds-Roughages
Definition: >18% fiber and lower in energy & low digestibility compared to concentrates Generally; TDN=40-60% and is high in Ca & K Forage/Pasture, hay, crop-residue (corn, milo), silage (fermented, high-moisture forage), haylage (low-moisture type silage), green chop

18 Classes of Feeds cont. Concentrates- high in energy, low in fiber and < 20% protein – Corn, milo, oats, etc. By-product feeds (from plant and animal processing) carrots, turnip tops, fodder beets Protein supplements- high in nitrogen Oilseed Plant by-products (SBM, CSM)

19 Classes of Feeds cont. NPN= non-protein nitrogen
urea, ammoniated molasses or chloride, biruet, etc Urea=45% Nitrogen X 6.25 = 281% protein equivalent Minerals - NaCl, limestone, dical, etc. major -Ca, P, Mg, S trace - Cu, Fe, I, Mn, Zn, Se, etc.

20 Classes of Feeds Vitamins Special Feeds Natural versus synthetics
water vs fat soluble classification A,D,& E are most common in ruminants Special Feeds Fats and oils (increase calories without bulk) molasses (increase energy and palatability)

21 Classes of Feeds Feed additives and implants
increase efficiency of gain, prevent diseases, preserve the feed antibiotics, hormones, growth promotants, repartitioning agents, etc.

22 Evaluation of Feedstuffs
Measuring Energy TDN= sum total of the digestible protein, fiber, and nitrogen free extract, and fat X 2.25 40% is low for forages while 60% is high Most concentrates are 80-90%

23 Calorie or California Net Energy System
Net Energy= gross energy-fecal energy-gaseous energy-urinary energy-heat increment gross energy = combustion heat digestible energy = portion of gross energy that is not excreted in feces Metabolic energy = portion of gross energy that is not lost in feces, urine and gas heat increment = difference between ME & NE heat unavoidably produced by an animal in digestion and metabolism

24 Evaluation of Feedstuffs
Analyzing Feedstuffs Proximate analysis 1) H2O (DM vs As Fed), 2)CP 3) Ash 4) Fat Fiber (ADF, NDF) Energy (Net or TDN) – bomb calorimeter Minerals & Vitamins

25 Ration Formulation Consideration points
availability and cost of feedstuffs moisture content composition of feedstuffs soil analysis nutrient allowances and requirements composition of ration and ingredients

26 Beef Cow Nutrition Objective
feed little as possible as long as we don’t damage reproduction, milk, or longevity overfeeding causes decreased longevity, dystocia, reprod. rate, and milk prod. underfeeding causes delayed estrus, puberty, lowers conception rate and milk prod.

27 Phase Feeding for the Beef Female
feeding accounts for approx. 2/3 of total costs after real estate acquisition feeding has the greatest influence on growth and performance Yet, reproduction is the most important economic important trait feeding influences growth, reproduction (most critical), lactation, etc.

28 Phases of Feeding Birth to weaning Weaning to first breeding
First breeding to first calving First two productive years (1st two calves) Third and subsequent years of production

29 Phase Feeding Plane of nutrition is dependent upon energy and protein requirements along with forage quality and availability Can be somewhat breed dependent European cattle are later maturing and will utilize more forage

30 Phase Feeding First phase- Birth to Weaning
objective is to develop replacement females to weaning with maximum subsequent productivity at minimum costs

31 Phase Feeding Growthier females at weaning will usually reach puberty earlier, calve on time and return to rebreeding earlier than slower growing heifers Weaning is usually around 205 days or 7 months of age

32 Phase Feeding Second phase - Weaning to First Breeding
objective is to promote adequate growth to insure sexual maturity first breeding should be done at % of the estimated mature weight ADG of lbs. per day is recommended

33 Phase Feeding Third phase - First Breeding to First Calving
objective is to promote sufficient growth and body development to allow heifers to deliver a calf, and to prepare the heifers physiologically to be able to withstand the rigors of first lactation and rebreeding.

34 Phase Feeding Females should gain 70-75% of their weaning weight or be 70-75% of their mature weight at their first calving time.

35 Phase Feeding Fourth phase - First two productive years
Objective is to provide a sufficient plane of nutrition to allow the young cows to lactate, rebreed and continue to grow cows should not lose more than 15% of their weight during the winter

36 Phase Feeding Fifth phase - Third and subsequent productive years
Objective is to maintain efficient productivity nutrient requirements actually decrease Should not lose more than 20% during the winter

37 Feeding in General Obesity can be a major problem
Body Condition Scores should be utilized Scores of 1-9, where 1 is very thin and 9 is obese : Handout This can be breed, feed or frame size dependent

38 Feeding in General Heifers - breed more than needed
breed 30 days before the mature cows palpate 60 days after breeding season Cows > 10 years of age; the physical condition will diminish Bulls - during intense breeding season; requirements may increase by 2-3 X If forage is limiting, feed bulls separate

39 Feeding Systems Creep feeding-
the supplemental feeding of young nursing animals in an enclosure which is accessible to them but not to their parent gains for young animals are cheap gains due to less fat content in young animals and less consumption/body wt. adv.- increases weaning wt., facilitates fall calving, uniformity, achieve genetic potential, assists first calf heifers, etc.

40 Creep feeding- is it feasible?
whenever it is most likely profitable usually when forage or milk is limited conditions we see in drought that results in overgrazing by mother, thus forage is limited young cows or very old cows To be feasible, value difference of the calf should be over the cost of the creep feed Over creep feeding can cause reduced subsequent milk production because of excessive fat in udders

41 Feeding and Management of Brood Cows
critical time of nutrition 30 days before calving 70 days after calving growth of calf reproduction efficiency of cow Lactation Rebreeding

42 Feeding and Management of Brood Cows
feed the herd according to cow reproductive pattern dependant upon: dry pregnancy lactating replacement heifers

43 Feeding and Management of Brood Cows
heifers – the last 3-4 months before parturition is important weight makes a difference provide for maintenance and growth BCS

44 Feeding and Management of Brood Cows
Reproduction and Nutrition energy is more important than protein P supplementation increases % calf crop increase Vit A level of feed before and after calving pregnant cows should not gain over 100 lbs during gestation

45 Feeding and Management of Brood Cows
Winter Feeding grass decreases in protein must either drylot or supplement energy is important and should be increased by 10% for every 10 degrees below 20 degrees F Range Feeding Deficiencies energy- lack of feed protein - mature grasses minerals - lowered salt and P/ vit. - A & ? D, E

46 Feeds for supplementation
Oilseed meals Grain Breeder/range cubes Protein blocks Liquid feeds (protein or protein/energy) Syrup blocks or tubs Hays

47 Supplementation when supplementing; need to know 4 things:
nutrient composition availability Intake requirements

48 Supplementation questions
how much to feed and still make max use what kind what form how often additives Alternatives

49 Factors affecting supplementation
Forage quality Forage quantity and availability Body condition score Body size Milking level Age

50 Feeding of Bulls age and condition / exercise
increase bulk, decrease grain ( do not want them too fat) feed young bulls more for growth and development- overfeeding results reduced sperm counts, unsoundness, etc. mature bulls- increase lbs of grain plus roughage as needed to fit BCS

51 Bulls cont. Young bulls Feed a 12-14% CP ration at 1.5-2% of CWT
Make sure they have plenty of free choice forage Thumb rule is to feed a 14% CP ration until 14 months of age

52 Pastures two kinds- native and improved
range covers > 40% of the world land area grasses, browse (woody stem perennial), forbs (hollow stem annual)-weeds cattle prefer grasses, deer prefer browse thumb rule- graze 1/2 in summer and save 1/2 for the winter

53 Forages Forage intake vs digestibility Factors that influence intake
body size forage availability- biggest problem we face forage palatability gut fill rate of passage

54 Forage intake higher the Quality forage, higher intake early maturity
lower proportion of cell walls higher protein increased rate of passage digestibility increases lowers gut fill

55 Forages Rate of passage or digestion depends on: plant species
plant maturity- more mature, less digestible cell walls=cellulose vs cell contents=sugars

56 Forages maturity increases, cell content decreases
protein content> 6% for optimum digestion preparation method - pelleting, grinding, etc

57 Characteristics of grasses on native range
slower growth rate- reduces quality longer period to reach maturity slower re-growth

58 Proper utilization of range
maintain grazing distribution through: fencing water shade burning mowing or spraying fertilizer supplemental feeding

59 Improved pastures Don’t graze in early fall or late summer
bermuda grass- adaptable hybrids- *coastal, Tifton 85, common good response to N and water problems- requires cross fencing & N

60 Proper Management graze when 6-8”, fertilize NPK early spring and N in summer and late summer can overseed with fescue, wheat, rye in the fall for winter pasture an increase in N does not necessarily increase performance yet, it increases quantity, thus stocking rate

61 Thumb Rules when a cow consumes enough energy, she usually consumes enough protein Winter- cow should consume 1.5% of body wt with poor forage 2.0% with good quality hay 2.5% with excellent forage such as alfalfa or wheat

62 NPN- non-protein nitrogen
Urea is most popular; other ammonium chloride, biuret, etc. most effective with high CHO source diet and low protein requirement, twice daily feeding, bacteria in the rumen require energy not as well utilized at > 12 % protein or in young growing calves or creep

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