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7-1 Chapter 7 Monitoring and Controlling the Project.

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Presentation on theme: "7-1 Chapter 7 Monitoring and Controlling the Project."— Presentation transcript:

1 7-1 Chapter 7 Monitoring and Controlling the Project

2 7-2 Introduction 4 Monitoring and Control are opposite sides of selection and planning –bases for selection dictate what to monitor –plans identify elements to control 4 Monitoring is collection, recording, and reporting of information 4 Control uses monitored information to align actual performance with the plan


4 7-4 Plan-Monitor-Control Cycle 4 Closed loop process 4 Planning-monitoring-controlling effort often minimized to spend time on “the real work”

5 7-5 Figure 7-1 Project Authorization and Expenditure Control System Information Flow

6 7-6 Designing the Monitoring System 4 Identify special characteristics of performance, cost, and time that need to be controlled –performance characteristics should be set for each level of detail in the project 4 Real-time data should be collected and compared against plans –mechanisms to collect this data must be designed 4 Avoid tendency to focus on easily collected data


8 7-8 Formats of Data 4 Frequency Counts 4 Raw Numbers 4 Subjective Numeric Ratings 4 Indicators and Surrogates 4 Verbal Characterizations

9 7-9 Data Analysis 4 Aggregation Techniques 4 Fitting Statistical Distributions 4 Curve Fitting 4 Quality Management Techniques

10 7-10 Figure 7-2 Number of Bugs per Unit of Test Time

11 7-11 Figure 7-3 Percent of Specified Performance Met During Successive Repeated Trials

12 7-12 Figure 7-4 Ratio of Actual Material Cost to Estimated Material Cost

13 7-13 Reporting 4 Reports –Project Status Reports –Time/Cost Reports –Variance Reports 4 Not all stakeholders need to receive same information 4 Avoid periodic reports 4 Impact of Electronic Media 4 Relationship between project’s information system and overall organization’s information system

14 7-14 Report Types 4 Routine 4 Exception 4 Special Analysis

15 7-15 Benefits of Proper Reporting 4 Provides mutual understanding between stakeholders 4 Helps communicate need for coordination among those working on tasks/subtasks 4 Helps communicate changes to project goals in a timely & appropriate manner 4 Helps maintain visibility of the project 4 Helps keep project team motivated

16 7-16 Meeting Guidelines 4 Meetings should be help primarily for group decision making –avoid weekly progress report meetings 4 Distribute written agenda in advance of meeting

17 7-17 Meeting Guidelines continued 4 Ensure everyone is properly prepared for meeting 4 Chair of meeting should take minutes –avoid attributing remarks to individuals in the minutes 4 Avoid excessive formality 4 If meeting is held to address specific crisis, restrict meeting to this issue alone

18 7-18 Virtual Reports, Meetings, and Project Management 4 Use of the Internet 4 Use of Software Programs 4 Virtual Project Teams


20 7-20 Earned Value 4 Percent of task’s budget actually spent not good indicator of percent completion

21 7-21 Conventions Used to Estimate Progress on Tasks 4 50-50 –50% complete when task started and other 50% added when task finished 4 100% –100% complete when finished and zero percent before that 4 Ratio of Cost Expended to Cost Budgeted


23 7-23 Background 4 Acts which seek to reduce differences between plan and actuality 4 Difficult Task –human behavior involved –problems rarely clear cut

24 7-24 Purposes of Control 4 Stewardship of Organizational Assets –physical asset control –human resources –financial control 4 Regulation of Results Through the Alteration of Activities


26 7-26 Scope Creep 4 Coping with changes frequently cited by PMs as the single most important problem 4 Common Reasons for Change Requests –Client –Availability of new technologies and materials

27 7-27 Purpose of Change Control System 4 Review all requested changes 4 Identify impact of change 4 Evaluate advantages and disadvantages of requested change 4 Install process so that individual with authority may accept or reject changes

28 7-28 Purpose of Change Control System continued 4 Communicate change to concerned parties 4 Ensure changes implemented properly 4 Prepare reports that summarize changes made to date and their impact

29 7-29 Rules for Controlling Scope Creep 4 Include in contract change control system 4 Require all changes be introduced by a change order 4 Require approval in writing by the client’s agent and senior management 4 Consult with PM prior to preparation of change order 4 Amend master plan to reflect changes

30 7-30 Ten Golden Rules of Project Management 4 Don’t bite off more then you can manage 4 Get your ducks in a row 4 Plan for Murphy 4 Don’t put off until tomorrow 4 Delegate, delegate, delegate 4 CYA (Document) 4 Keep your team in the loop 4 Measure success 4 Have a flexible strategy 4 Learn from your mistakes

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