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Feeding Value of Oats in Livestock Diets

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Presentation on theme: "Feeding Value of Oats in Livestock Diets"— Presentation transcript:

1 Feeding Value of Oats in Livestock Diets
Dr. Greg Lardy

2 Outline Introduction Comparison of oats to other feed grains
Role of oats in livestock rations Opportunities for the future

3 United States Oat Production

4 Top 5 Oat Producing States (2005)
Wisconsin (20.6 million acres) North Dakota (19.8 million acres) South Dakota (19.4 million acres) Minnesota (18.4 million acres) Iowa (16.8 million acres) USDA NASS, 2006

5 Nutrient Content of Selected Feed Grains
Oats Corn Barley Wheat TDN, % 77 90 88 NEg, Mcal/lb 0.55 0.70 0.64 0.68 CP, % 13.6 9.8 13.2 14.2 UIP, % CP 17 55 27 23 NDF, % 29.3 10.8 18.1 11.8 ADF, % 14.0 3.3 5.8 4.2 NRC, 1996

6 Relative Rates of Ruminal Starch Fermentation
Oats Wheat Barley High Moisture Corn Steam-Flaked Corn Rolled Corn, Steam Flaked Milo Whole Shelled Corn Rolled Milo Fast Slow Stock and Britton, 1986 Herrera-Saldana et al., 1990

7 Oats as a Feed Grain Where does oats fit in livestock rations?
What are the nutrients needed? What are the attributes of oats which make it an attractive feed?

8 Oats as a Feed Grain Beef cattle
Can be used in a wide variety of applications Growing and finishing Forage supplement Creep feeding Dairy cattle Can also be used in a wide variety of diets Question: Cost effectiveness relative to other feed grains

9 Oats as a Feed Grain Processing
Little processing is needed in most cases Cattle, especially younger animals, ruminate adequately to break oats into smaller particle sizes

10 Effect of Oat Processing Method on Cattle Performance
Oats Steam Flaked Corn Dry Rolled Steam Rolled- Course Steam Rolled- Thin DMI, kg 7.95 9.20 9.27 8.97 ADG, kg 1.64 1.53 1.59 1.38 F:G 4.85 6.01 5.85 6.50 Diet NEg 1.27 1.31 1.19 Zinn, 1993; J. Anim. Sci

11 Oats as a Feed Grain Anti-nutritional factors None apparent

12 Oats as a Feed Grain Energy content
Lower than other cereal grains due to the presence of the hull 24 to 30% of the kernel weight Decreases with lower test weight due to greater hull proportion Light Wt Oats under 30 lbs -- 66% TDN Medium Wt 30 to 34 lbs -- 69% TDN Heavy Oats 35 lbs and up -- 72% TDN

13 Oats as a Feed Grain Protein content Greater than corn
Greater proportion of degradable protein (protein needed by the ruminal microorganisms) Mineral content Low in calcium, high in phosporus Similar to other feed grains

14 Oats as a Feed Grain Equine market
Oats is very popular among horse owners Bulky Unlikely to cause digestive disturbances Protein content higher relative to corn Can be fed whole, rolled or crimped

15 Oats as a Feed Grain Equine market
Supplemental calcium, vitamin, and trace minerals are required Growing horses Supplemental protein and/or amino acids may also be needed depending on forage quality

16 Oats as a Feed Grain Hull-less or naked oats
Increased nutrient density (energy, protein, fat) relative to hulled oats Successful feeding in ruminant diets requires careful feeding management Specialty markets, esp. monogastrics, may see more widespread adoption Energy density

17 Summary Oats is a useful livestock feed
Major use is in the equine market Lower energy density (safer) and increased protein content Use in cattle feeds is declining Cost per unit of energy Still a popular creep feed

18 Questions??

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