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NDSU Animal and Range Sciences Feeding Value of Oats in Livestock Diets Dr. Greg Lardy.

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Presentation on theme: "NDSU Animal and Range Sciences Feeding Value of Oats in Livestock Diets Dr. Greg Lardy."— Presentation transcript:

1 NDSU Animal and Range Sciences Feeding Value of Oats in Livestock Diets Dr. Greg Lardy

2 NDSU Animal and Range Sciences Outline Introduction Comparison of oats to other feed grains Role of oats in livestock rations Opportunities for the future

3 NDSU Animal and Range Sciences United States Oat Production USDA NASS, 2006

4 NDSU Animal and Range Sciences Top 5 Oat Producing States (2005) Wisconsin (20.6 million acres) North Dakota (19.8 million acres) South Dakota (19.4 million acres) Minnesota (18.4 million acres) Iowa (16.8 million acres) USDA NASS, 2006

5 NDSU Animal and Range Sciences Nutrient Content of Selected Feed Grains OatsCornBarleyWheat TDN, % NEg, Mcal/lb CP, % UIP, % CP NDF, % ADF, % NRC, 1996

6 NDSU Animal and Range Sciences Relative Rates of Ruminal Starch Fermentation Oats Wheat Barley High Moisture Corn Steam-Flaked Corn Rolled Corn, Steam Flaked Milo Whole Shelled Corn Rolled Milo Fast Slow Stock and Britton, 1986 Herrera-Saldana et al., 1990

7 NDSU Animal and Range Sciences Oats as a Feed Grain Where does oats fit in livestock rations? What are the nutrients needed? What are the attributes of oats which make it an attractive feed?

8 NDSU Animal and Range Sciences Oats as a Feed Grain Beef cattle Can be used in a wide variety of applications Growing and finishing Forage supplement Creep feeding Dairy cattle Can also be used in a wide variety of diets Question:Cost effectiveness relative to other feed grains

9 NDSU Animal and Range Sciences Oats as a Feed Grain Processing Little processing is needed in most cases Cattle, especially younger animals, ruminate adequately to break oats into smaller particle sizes

10 NDSU Animal and Range Sciences Effect of Oat Processing Method on Cattle Performance Oats Steam Flaked Corn Dry Rolled Steam Rolled- Course Steam Rolled- Thin DMI, kg ADG, kg F:G Diet NE g Zinn, 1993; J. Anim. Sci

11 NDSU Animal and Range Sciences Oats as a Feed Grain Anti-nutritional factors None apparent

12 NDSU Animal and Range Sciences Oats as a Feed Grain Energy content Lower than other cereal grains due to the presence of the hull 24 to 30% of the kernel weight Decreases with lower test weight due to greater hull proportion Light Wt Oats under 30 lbs -- 66% TDN Medium Wt 30 to 34 lbs -- 69% TDN Heavy Oats 35 lbs and up -- 72% TDN

13 NDSU Animal and Range Sciences Oats as a Feed Grain Protein content Greater than corn Greater proportion of degradable protein (protein needed by the ruminal microorganisms) Mineral content Low in calcium, high in phosporus Similar to other feed grains

14 NDSU Animal and Range Sciences Oats as a Feed Grain Equine market Oats is very popular among horse owners Bulky Unlikely to cause digestive disturbances Protein content higher relative to corn Can be fed whole, rolled or crimped

15 NDSU Animal and Range Sciences Oats as a Feed Grain Equine market Supplemental calcium, vitamin, and trace minerals are required Growing horses Supplemental protein and/or amino acids may also be needed depending on forage quality

16 NDSU Animal and Range Sciences Oats as a Feed Grain Hull-less or naked oats Increased nutrient density (energy, protein, fat) relative to hulled oats Successful feeding in ruminant diets requires careful feeding management Specialty markets, esp. monogastrics, may see more widespread adoption Energy density

17 NDSU Animal and Range Sciences Summary Oats is a useful livestock feed Major use is in the equine market Lower energy density (safer) and increased protein content Use in cattle feeds is declining Cost per unit of energy Still a popular creep feed

18 NDSU Animal and Range Sciences Questions??


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