4 Top 5 Oat Producing States (2005) Wisconsin (20.6 million acres)North Dakota (19.8 million acres)South Dakota (19.4 million acres)Minnesota (18.4 million acres)Iowa (16.8 million acres)USDA NASS, 2006
6 Relative Rates of Ruminal Starch Fermentation OatsWheatBarleyHigh Moisture CornSteam-Flaked CornRolled Corn, Steam Flaked MiloWhole Shelled CornRolled MiloFastSlowStock and Britton, 1986Herrera-Saldana et al., 1990
7 Oats as a Feed Grain Where does oats fit in livestock rations? What are the nutrients needed?What are the attributes of oats which make it an attractive feed?
8 Oats as a Feed Grain Beef cattle Can be used in a wide variety of applicationsGrowing and finishingForage supplementCreep feedingDairy cattleCan also be used in a wide variety of dietsQuestion: Cost effectiveness relative to other feed grains
9 Oats as a Feed Grain Processing Little processing is needed in most casesCattle, especially younger animals, ruminate adequately to break oats into smaller particle sizes
10 Effect of Oat Processing Method on Cattle Performance OatsSteam Flaked CornDry RolledSteam Rolled- CourseSteam Rolled- ThinDMI, kg7.959.209.278.97ADG, kg1.641.531.591.38F:G4.856.015.856.50Diet NEg1.271.311.19Zinn, 1993; J. Anim. Sci
11 Oats as a Feed GrainAnti-nutritional factorsNone apparent
12 Oats as a Feed Grain Energy content Lower than other cereal grains due to the presence of the hull24 to 30% of the kernel weightDecreases with lower test weight due to greater hull proportionLight Wt Oats under 30 lbs -- 66% TDNMedium Wt 30 to 34 lbs -- 69% TDNHeavy Oats 35 lbs and up -- 72% TDN
13 Oats as a Feed Grain Protein content Greater than corn Greater proportion of degradable protein (protein needed by the ruminal microorganisms)Mineral contentLow in calcium, high in phosporusSimilar to other feed grains
14 Oats as a Feed Grain Equine market Oats is very popular among horse ownersBulkyUnlikely to cause digestive disturbancesProtein content higher relative to cornCan be fed whole, rolled or crimped
15 Oats as a Feed Grain Equine market Supplemental calcium, vitamin, and trace minerals are requiredGrowing horsesSupplemental protein and/or amino acids may also be needed depending on forage quality
16 Oats as a Feed Grain Hull-less or naked oats Increased nutrient density (energy, protein, fat) relative to hulled oatsSuccessful feeding in ruminant diets requires careful feeding managementSpecialty markets, esp. monogastrics, may see more widespread adoptionEnergy density
17 Summary Oats is a useful livestock feed Major use is in the equine marketLower energy density (safer) and increased protein contentUse in cattle feeds is decliningCost per unit of energyStill a popular creep feed
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