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**Chapter 2: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS**

Physical and mechanical properties STATIC STRESS Tension, Compression and Shear Stress‑Strain Relationships HARDNESS AND TESTING DYNAMIC STRESS Fatigue, Creep, etc ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Mechanical Properties in Design and Manufacturing**

Physical properties: A general method to differentiate materials e.g: Density, melting point, optical property (transparency or opaque), electrical conductivity Mechanical properties: Determine a material’s behavior when subjected to mechanical stresses/ load or forces Properties include elastic modulus, ductility, hardness, and various measures of strength Dilemma: mechanical properties desirable to the designer, such as high strength, usually make manufacturing more difficult The manufacturing engineer should appreciate the design viewpoint And the designer should be aware of the manufacturing viewpoint ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Stress‑Strain Relationships**

Two types of stress/ load: static and dynamics Static stress is when forces that are applied to material are constant. Static stresses to which materials can be subjected: Tensile - tend to stretch the material Compressive - tend to squeeze material Shear – tend to slide material Stress‑strain curve - basic relationship that describes mechanical properties for materials ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Tensile Test Most common test for studying stress‑strain relationship, especially metals In the test, a force pulls the material, elongating it and reducing its diameter Figure 2.1 Tensile test: (a) tensile force applied in (1) and (2) resulting elongation of material ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Tensile Test Specimen ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) specifies preparation of test specimen Figure 2.2 Tensile test: (b) typical test specimen ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Tensile Test Setup ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Tensile Test Sequence Figure 2.3 Typical progress of a tensile test: (1) beginning of test, no load; (2) uniform elongation and reduction of cross‑sectional area; (3) continued elongation, maximum load reached; (4) necking begins, load begins to decrease; and (5) fracture. If pieces are put back together as in (6), final length can be measured. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Engineering Stress Defined as force divided by original area:**

where e = engineering stress (tegasan kejuruteraan) N/mm2), F = applied force (N), and Ao = original area of test specimen (mm2) ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Engineering Strain Defined at any point in the test as**

where e = engineering strain (terikan kejuruteraan) (dimensionless); L = length at any point during elongation (mm); Lo = original gage length (mm) ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Typical Engineering Stress-Strain Plot**

Figure 2.4 Typical engineering stress‑strain plot in a tensile test of a metal. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Tensile-test Specimen and Machine**

Figure 2.5 (a) A standard tensile-test specimen before and after pulling, showing original and final gage lengths. (b) A tensile-test sequence showing different stages in the elongation of the specimen. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Yield Point in Stress‑Strain Curve**

As stress increases, a point in the linear relationship is finally reached when the material begins to yield Yield point Y can be identified by the change in slope at the upper end of the linear region Y = a strength property Other names for yield point = yield strength, yield stress, and elastic limit ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Two Regions of Stress‑Strain Curve**

The two regions indicate two distinct forms of behavior: Elastic region Plastic region ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Elastic Region in Stress‑Strain Curve**

Relationship between stress and strain is linear Material returns to its original length when stress is removed Hooke's Law: e = E e where E = modulus of elasticity E is a measure of the inherent stiffness of a material Its value differs for different materials ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Plastic Region in Stress‑Strain Curve**

Yield point marks the beginning of plastic deformation The stress-strain relationship is no longer guided by Hooke's Law As load is increased beyond Y, elongation proceeds at a much faster rate than before, causing the slope of the curve to change dramatically ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Tensile Strength in Stress‑Strain Curve**

Elongation is accompanied by a uniform reduction in cross‑sectional area, consistent with maintaining constant volume Finally, the applied load F reaches a maximum value, and engineering stress at this point is called the tensile strength TS (a.k.a. ultimate tensile strength) TS (UTS) = ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Ductility in Tensile Test**

Ability of a material to plastically deform without fracture Ductility measure = elongation EL where EL = elongation; Lf = specimen length at fracture; and Lo = original specimen length Lf is measured as the distance between gage marks after two pieces of specimen are put back together ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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EXAMPLE A tensile test uses a test specimen that has a gauge length of 50 mm and an area = 200mm2. During the test, the specimen yields under a load of 98 kN. The corresponding gage length = mm. This is the 0.2 % yield point. The maximum load = 168,000 N is reached at a gauge length = 64.2 mm. Determine: (a) yield strength Y, (b) percentage elongation (c) modulus of elasticity E, and (d) tensile strength TS. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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True Stress Stress value obtained by dividing the instantaneous area into applied load where = true stress; F = force; and A = actual (instantaneous) area resisting the load ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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True Strain Provides a more realistic assessment of "instantaneous" elongation per unit length ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**True Stress-Strain Curve**

Figure 2.6 ‑ True stress‑strain curve for the previous engineering stress‑strain plot in Figure 3.3. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Compression Test Applies a load that squeezes the ends of a cylindrical specimen between two platens As the specimen is compressed, its height is reduced and its cross-sectional area is increased. Figure 2.7 Compression test: (a) compression force applied to test piece in (1) and (2) resulting change in height. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Compression Test Setup**

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Engineering Stress in Compression**

As the specimen is compressed, its height is reduced and cross‑sectional area is increased e = - where Ao = original area of the specimen ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Engineering Strain in Compression**

Engineering strain is defined Since height is reduced during compression, value of e is negative (the negative sign is usually ignored when expressing compression strain) ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Shear Properties Application of stresses in opposite directions on either side of a thin element Figure 2.8 Shear (a) stress and (b) strain. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Shear Stress and Strain**

Shear stress defined as where F = applied force; and A = area over which deflection occurs. Shear strain defined as where = deflection element; and b = distance over which deflection occurs ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Torsion Stress-Strain Curve**

Figure 2.9 Typical shear stress‑strain curve from a torsion test. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Shear Elastic Stress‑Strain Relationship**

In the elastic region, the relationship is defined as where G = shear modulus, or shear modulus of elasticity For most materials, G 0.4E, where E = elastic modulus ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Testing of Brittle Materials**

Hard brittle materials (e.g., ceramics) possess elasticity but little or no plasticity Often tested by a bending test (also called flexure test) Specimen of rectangular cross‑section is positioned between two supports, and a load is applied at its center ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Bending Test Figure Bending of a rectangular cross‑section results in both tensile and compressive stresses in the material: (1) initial loading; (2) highly stressed and strained specimen; and (3) bent part. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Bend-test Methods Figure Two bend-test methods for brittle materials: (a) three-point bending; (b) four-point bending. The areas on the beams represent the bending-movement diagrams, described in texts on mechanics of solids. Note the region of constant maximum bending movement in (b); by contrast, the maximum bending moment occurs only at the center of the specimen in (a). ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Hardness It is defined as resistance to permanent indentation**

Good hardness generally means material is resistant to scratching and wear Most tooling used in manufacturing must be hard for scratch and wear resistance ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Hardness Tests Commonly used for assessing material properties because they are quick and convenient Variety of testing methods are appropriate due to differences in hardness among different materials Most well‑known hardness tests are Brinell and Rockwell Other test methods are also available, such as Vickers, Knoop, Scleroscope, and durometer ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Brinell Hardness Test Widely used for testing metals and nonmetals of low to medium hardness A hard ball is pressed into specimen surface with a load of 500, 1500, or 3000 kg Figure Hardness testing methods: (a) Brinell ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Brinell Hardness Number**

Brinell Hardness Number (BHN) = Load divided into indentation surface area where HB = Brinell Hardness Number (BHN), F = indentation load, kg; Db = diameter of ball, mm, and Di = diameter of indentation, mm ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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EXAMPLE In a Brinell hardness test, a 1500 kg load is pressed into a specimen using a 10 mm diameter hardened steel ball. The resulting indentation has a diameter of 3.2 mm. Determine the Brinell hardness number for the metal ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Rockwell Hardness Test**

Another widely used test A cone shaped indenter is pressed into specimen using a minor load of 10 kg, thus seating indenter in material Then, a major load of 150 kg is applied, causing indenter to penetrate beyond its initial position Additional penetration distance d is converted into a Rockwell hardness reading by the testing machine ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Rockwell Hardness Test**

Figure Hardness testing methods: (b) Rockwell: (1) initial minor load and (2) major load. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Table 2.1: Common Rockwell Hardness Scales**

Rockwell Scale Hardness Symbol Indenter Load (kg) Typical Material Tested A HRA Cone 60 Carbides, ceramic B HRB 1.6 mm ball 100 Nonferrous metals C HRC 150 Ferrous metals, tool steels ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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2.53 VICKERS HARDNESS TEST This test, also developed in the early 1920s, uses a pyramid-shaped indenter made of diamond. It is based on the principle that impressions made by this indenter are geometrically similar regardless of load. where F = applied load (kg) D = diagonal of the impression made by the indenter (mm) ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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2.54 KNOOP HARDNESS TEST Developed by F. Knoop in 1939 uses a diamond indenter in the shape of an elongated pyramid, with applied loads ranging generally from 25 g to 5 kg. Because of the light loads that are applied, it is a microhardness test. Therefore, it is suitable for very small or very thin specimens and for brittle materials such as carbides, ceramics, and glass. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Knoop Hardness Test where F = load (kg)**

D = long diagonal of the indenter (mm) ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Hardness-testing Methods and Formulas**

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Dynamic Properties Dynamic loadings: Sudden impact or loads**

Repeated cycles of loading and unloading Changes in the mode of loading, such as tension to compression ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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FATIGUE In many engineering applications, products or components are subjected to various dynamic stress/ load. Cyclic stresses may be caused by fluctuating mechanical load, such as on gear teeth, or by thermal stresses, such as on a cool die coming into repeated contact with hot workpiece. Under these conditions, the part fails at a stress level below than at which failure would occur under static loading. This phenomenon is known as fatigue failure. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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CREEP Creep is the permanent elongation of a component under a static load maintained for a period of time. It is a phenomenon of metals and of certain nonmetallic materials, such as thermoplastics and rubber, and it can occur at any temperature. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Creep Tests The creep test typically consists of subjecting a specimen to a constant tensile load at a certain temperature and of measuring the changes in length at various time increments. A typical creep curve usually consists of primary, secondary, and tertiary stages. The specimen eventually fails by necking and fracture, called rupture or creep rupture. The creep rate increases with temperature and the applied load. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**Figure 2.14: Typical creep curve**

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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IMPACT A typical impact test consists of placing a notched specimen in an impact tester and breaking it with a swinging pendulum. In the Charpy test, the specimen is supported at both ends. In the Izod test, it is supported at one end like a cantilever beam. Materials that have high impact resistance are generally those that have high strength and high ductility, and hence high toughness. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Impact Test Specimens Figure Impact test specimens: (a) Charpy; (b) Izod. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Material Failures Figure Schematic illustrations of types of failures in materials: (a) necking and fracture of ductile materials; (b) buckling of ductile materials under a compressive load; (c) fracture of brittle materials in compression; (d) cracking on the barreled surface of ductile materials in compression ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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**©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e**

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