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1 Georgia Institute of Technology
tutorial: Parallel & Distributed Simulation Systems: From Chandy/Misra to the High Level Architecture and Beyond Richard M. Fujimoto College of Computing Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA

2 References R. Fujimoto, Parallel and Distributed Simulation Systems, Wiley Interscience, 2000. (see also HLA: F. Kuhl, R. Weatherly, J. Dahmann, Creating Computer Simulation Systems: An Introduction to the High Level Architecture for Simulation, Prentice Hall, 1999. (http://hla.dmso.mil)

3 Outline Part I: Introduction Part II: Time Management Part III: Distributed Virtual Environments

4 Parallel and Distributed Simulation
Parallel simulation involves the execution of a single simulation program on a collection of tightly coupled processors (e.g., a shared memory multiprocessor). M P simulation model parallel processor Distributed simulation involves the execution of a single simulation program on a collection of loosely coupled processors (e.g., PCs interconnected by a LAN or WAN). Replicated trials involves the execution of several, independent simulations concurrently on different processors

5 Reasons to Use Parallel / Distributed Simulation
Enable the execution of time consuming simulations that could not otherwise be performed (e.g., simulation of the Internet) Reduce model execution time (proportional to # processors) Ability to run larger models (more memory) Enable simulation to be used as a forecasting tool in time critical decision making processes (e.g., air traffic control) Initialize simulation to current system state Faster than real time execution for what-if experimentation Simulation results may be needed in seconds Create distributed virtual environments, possibly including users at distant geographical locations (e.g., training, entertainment) Real-time execution capability Scalable performance for many users & simulated entities

6 Geographically Distributed Users/Resources
Geographically distributed users and/or resources are sometime needed Interactive games over the Internet Specialized hardware or databases WAN interconnect LAN interconnect Server architecture Cluster of workstations on LAN Distributed architecture Distributed computers

7 Stand-Alone vs. Federated Simulation Systems
Homogeneous programming environment simulation language Parallel simulation environment Process 1 Process 2 Process 3 Process 4 Federated Simulation Systems Run Time Infrastructure-RTI (simulation backplane) federation set up & tear down synchronization, message ordering data distribution Simulator 1 Simulator 2 Simulator 3 Interconnect autonomous, heterogeneous simulators interface to RTI software

8 Principal Application Domains
Parallel Discrete Event Simulation (PDES) Discrete event simulation to analyze systems Fast model execution (as-fast-as-possible) Produce same results as a sequential execution Typical applications Telecommunication networks Computer systems Transportation systems Military strategy and tactics Distributed Virtual Environments (DVEs) Networked interactive, immersive environments Scalable, real-time performance Create virtual worlds that appear realistic Typical applications Training Entertainment Social interaction

9 Historical Perspective
High Performance Computing Community Chandy/Misra/Bryant algorithm second generation algorithms Time Warp algorithm making it fast and easy to use early experimental data 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 SIMulator NETworking (SIMNET) ( ) High Level Architecture ( today) Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) Aggregate Level Simulation Protocol (ALSP) ( ish) Defense Community Dungeons and Dragons Board Games Multi-User Dungeon (MUD) Games Adventure (Xerox PARC) Multi-User Video Games Internet & Gaming Community

10 Part II: Time Management
Parallel discrete event simulation Conservative synchronization Optimistic synchronization Time Management in the High Level Architecture

11 Time physical system physical system: the actual or imagined system being modeled simulation: a system that emulates the behavior of a physical system simulation main() { ... double clock; ... } physical time: time in the physical system Noon, December 31, 1999 to noon January 1, 2000 simulation time: representation of physical time within the simulation floating point values in interval [0.0, 24.0] wallclock time: time during the execution of the simulation, usually output from a hardware clock (e.g., GPS) 9:00 to 9:15 AM on September 10, 1999

12 Paced vs. Unpaced Execution
Modes of execution As-fast-as-possible execution (unpaced): no fixed relationship necessarily exists between advances in simulation time and advances in wallclock time Real-time execution (paced): each advance in simulation time is paced to occur in synchrony with an equivalent advance in wallclock time Scaled real-time execution (paced): each advance in simulation time is paced to occur in synchrony with S * an equivalent advance in wallclock time (e.g., 2x wallclock time) Here, focus on as-fast-as-possible; execution can be paced to run in real-time (or scaled real-time) by inserting delays

13 Discrete Event Simulation Fundamentals
Discrete event simulation: computer model for a system where changes in the state of the system occur at discrete points in simulation time. Fundamental concepts: system state (state variables) state transitions (events) simulation time: totally ordered set of values representing time in the system being modeled (physical system) simulator maintains a simulation time clock A discrete event simulation computation can be viewed as a sequence of event computations Each event computation contains a (simulation time) time stamp indicating when that event occurs in the physical system. Each event computation may: (1) modify state variables, and/or (2) schedule new events into the simulated future.

14 A Simple DES Example H1 H0 Simulator maintains event list
Time Event 0 H0 Send Pkt 100 Done Time Event 100 Done 6 H0 Retrans 1 H1 Recv Pkt Time Event 100 Done 2 H0 Send Pkt Time Event 100 Done 6 H0 Retrans 2 H0 Recv Ack Time Event 100 Done 6 H0 Retrans 1 H1 Send Ack Simulator maintains event list Events processed in simulation time order Processing events may generate new events Complete when event list is empty (or some other termination condition)

15 Parallel Discrete Event Simulation
A parallel discrete event simulation program can be viewed as a collection of sequential discrete event simulation programs executing on different processors that communicate by sending time stamped messages to each other “Sending a message” is synonymous with “scheduling an event”

16 Parallel Discrete Event Simulation Example
physical process interactions among physical processes Physical system logical process LP (Subnet 1) LP (Subnet 3) (Subnet 2) time stamped event (message) all interactions between LPs must be via messages (no shared state) Recv Pkt @15 Simulation

17 The “Rub” Golden rule for each logical process:
“Thou shalt process incoming messages in time stamp order!!!” (local causality constraint)

18 A Simple PDES Example H1 H0 Processor 1 Processor 2 Simulator A
Simulator B Time Event 100 Done 0 H0 Send Pkt Time Event 1 H1 Recv Pkt 100 Done 6 H0 Retrans Time Event 6 H0 Send Pkt 100 Done

19 Parallel Discrete Event Simulation Example
physical process interactions among physical processes Physical system logical process LP (Subnet 1) LP (Subnet 3) (Subnet 2) time stamped event (message) all interactions between LPs must be via messages (no shared state) Recv Pkt @15 Simulation Safe to process???

20 The Synchronization Problem
Local causality constraint: Events within each logical process must be processed in time stamp order Observation: Adherence to the local causality constraint is sufficient to ensure that the parallel simulation will produce exactly the same results as the corresponding sequential simulation* Synchronization (Time Management) Algorithms Conservative synchronization: avoid violating the local causality constraint (wait until it’s safe) 1st generation: null messages (Chandy/Misra/Bryant) 2nd generation: time stamp of next event Optimistic synchronization: allow violations of local causality to occur, but detect them at runtime and recover using a rollback mechanism Time Warp (Jefferson) approaches limiting amount of optimistic execution * provided events with the same time stamp are processed in the same order as in the sequential execution

21 Part II: Time Management
Parallel discrete event simulation Conservative synchronization Optimistic synchronization Time Management in the High Level Architecture

22 Chandy/Misra/Bryant “Null Message” Algorithm
Assumptions logical processes (LPs) exchanging time stamped events (messages) static network topology, no dynamic creation of LPs messages sent on each link are sent in time stamp order network provides reliable delivery, preserves order Observation: The above assumptions imply the time stamp of the last message received on a link is a lower bound on the time stamp (LBTS) of subsequent messages received on that link 9 8 2 4 5 H3 logical process one FIFO queue per incoming link H2 H1 Goal: Ensure LP processes events in time stamp order

23 A Simple Conservative Algorithm
Algorithm A (executed by each LP): Goal: Ensure events are processed in time stamp order: WHILE (simulation is not over) wait until each FIFO contains at least one message remove smallest time stamped event from its FIFO process that event END-LOOP 9 8 2 4 5 H3 logical process H1 H2 process time stamp 2 event process time stamp 4 event process time stamp 5 event wait until a message is received from H2 Observation: Algorithm A is prone to deadlock!

24 Deadlock Example H1 (waiting on H2) H3 (waiting on H1) H2 (waiting
7 15 H3 (waiting on H1) 10 H2 (waiting on H3) 9 8 A cycle of LPs forms where each is waiting on the next LP in the cycle. No LP can advance; the simulation is deadlocked.

25 Deadlock Avoidance Using Null Messages
Break deadlock by having each LP send “null” messages indicating a lower bound on the time stamp of future messages it could send. 9 8 H3 (waiting on H1) 7 H1 on H2) H2 on H3) 15 10 Assume minimum delay between hosts is 3 units of simulation time H3 initially at time 5 11 H2 sends null message to H1 with time stamp 11 8 H3 sends null message to H2 with time stamp 8 H1 may now process message with time stamp 7

26 Deadlock Avoidance Using Null Messages
Null Message Algorithm (executed by each LP): Goal: Ensure events are processed in time stamp order and avoid deadlock WHILE (simulation is not over) wait until each FIFO contains at least one message remove smallest time stamped event from its FIFO process that event send null messages to neighboring LPs with time stamp indicating a lower bound on future messages sent to that LP (current time plus lookahead) END-LOOP The null message algorithm relies on a “lookahead” (minimum delay).

27 Five null messages to process a single event
Lookahead Creep 9 8 H3 (waiting on H1) 7 H1 on H2) H2 on H3) 15 10 6.0 H2 sends null message, time stamp 6.0 7.5 H2 sends null message, time stamp 7.5; 6.5 H1 sends null message, time stamp 6.5; 5.5 H3 sends null message, time stamp 5.5; 7.0 H3 send null message, time stamp 7.0 Assume minimum delay between hosts is 3 units of time H3 initially at time 5 0.5 H1 can process time stamp 7 message Five null messages to process a single event If lookahead is small, there may be many null messages!

28 Preventing Lookahead Creep: Next Event Time Information
(waiting on H2) 7 15 H3 (waiting on H1) 10 H2 (waiting on H3) 9 8 Observation: If all LPs are blocked, they can immediately advance to the time of the minimum time stamp event in the system

29 Lower Bound on Time Stamp
No null messages, assume any LP can send messages to any other LP When a LP blocks, compute lower bound on time stamp (LBTS) of messages it may later receive; those with time stamp < LBTS safe to process 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 H1 H2 H3 (not blocked) (blocked) transient Simulation time LBTS = ? LBTS = min (6, 10, 7) (assume zero lookahead) Given a snapshot of the computation, LBTS is the minimum among Time stamp of any transient messages (sent, but not yet received) Unblocked LPs: Current simulation time + lookahead Blocked LPs: Time of next event + lookahead

30 Lower Bound on Time Stamp (LBTS)
LBTS can be computed asynchonously using a distributed snapshot algorithm (Mattern) cut message LP4 wallclock time Past Future LP3 LP2 LP1 cut point: an instant dividing process’s computation into past and future cut: set of cut points, one per process cut message: a message that was sent in the past, and received in the future consistent cut: cut + all cut messages cut value: minimum among (1) local minimum at each cut point and (2) time stamp of cut messages; non-cut messages can be ignored It can be shown LBTS = cut value

31 A Simple LBTS Algorithm
cut message LP4 wallclock time Past Future LP3 LP2 LP1 Initiator broadcasts start LBTS computation message to all LPs Each LP sets cut point, reports local minimum back to initiator Account for transient (cut) messages Identify transient messages, include time stamp in minimum computation Color each LP (color changes with each cut point); message color = color of sender An incoming message is transient if message color equals previous color of receiver Report time stamp of transient to initiator when one is received Detecting when all transients have been received For each color, LPi keeps counter of messages sent (Sendi) and received (Receivei) At cut point, send counters to initiator: # transients =  (Sendi – Receivei) Initiator detects termination (all transients received), broadcasts global minimum

32 Another LBTS Algorithm
cut message LP4 wallclock time Past Future LP3 LP2 LP1 An LP initiates an LBTS computation when it blocks Initiator: broadcasts start LBTS message to all LPs LPi places cut point, report local minimum and (Sendi – Receivei) back to initiator Initiator: After all reports received if ( (Sendi – Receivei) = 0) LBTS = global minimum, broadcast LBTS value Else Repeat broadcast/reply, but do not establish a new cut

33 Synchronous Algorithms
Barrier Synchronization: when a process reaches a barrier synchronization, it must block until all other processors have also reached the barrier. - barrier - wait process 1 process 2 process 3 process 4 wallclock time Synchronous algorithm DO WHILE (unprocessed events remain) barrier synchronization; flush all messages from the network LBTS = min (Ni + LAi); Ni = time of next event in LPi; LAi = lookahead of LPi S = set of events with time stamp ≤ LBTS process events in S endDO Variations proposed by Lubachevsky, Ayani, Chandy/Sherman, Nicol all i

34 Topology Information 6:00 2:00 4:00 0:30 10:00 10:45 ORD JFK LAX SAN Global LBTS algorithm is overly conservative: does not exploit topology information Lookahead = minimum flight time to another airport Can the two events be processed concurrently? Yes because the 10:00 cannot affect the 10:45 Simple global LBTS algorithm: LBTS = 10:30 (10:00 + 0:30) Cannot process 10:45 until next LBTS computation

35 Distance Between LPs Associate a lookahead with each link: LAB is the lookahead on the link from LPA to LPB Any message sent on the link from LPA to LPB must have a time stamp of TA + LAB where TA is the current simulation time of LPA A path from LPA to LPZ is defined as a sequence of LPs: LPA, LPB, …, LPY, LPZ The lookahead of a path is the sum of the lookaheads of the links along the path DAB, the minimum distance from LPA to LPB is the minimum lookahead over all paths from LPA to LPB The distance from LPA to LPB is the minimum amount of simulated time that must elapse for an event in LPA to affect LPB

36 Distance Between Processes
The distance from LPA to LPB is the minimum amount of simulated time that must elapse for an event in LPA to affect LPB LPA LPB LPC LPD 4 3 5 6 1 2 min (1+2, 3+1) Distance Matrix: D [i,j] = minimum distance from LPi to LPj LPA LPB LPC LPD 1 3 4 2 11 13 15 An event in LPY with time stamp TY depends on an event in LPX with time stamp TX if TX + D[X,Y] < TY Above, the time stamp 15 event depends on the time stamp 11 event, the time stamp 13 event does not.

37 D [i,j] = minimum distance from LPi to LPj
Computing LBTS Assuming all LPs are blocked and there are no transient messages: LBTSi=min(Nj+Dji) (all j) where Ni = time of next event in LPi LPA LPB LPC LPD 1 3 4 2 11 13 15 LPA LPB LPC LPD 4 3 5 6 1 2 min (1+2, 3+1) Distance Matrix: D [i,j] = minimum distance from LPi to LPj LBTSA = [min (11+4, 13+5)] LBTSB = [min (11+3, 13+4)] LBTSC = [min (11+1, 13+2)] LBTSD = [min (11+3, 13+4)] Need to know time of next event of every other LP Distance matrix must be recomputed if lookahead changes

38 Example Using distance information: DSAN,JFK = 6:30
6:00 2:00 4:00 0:30 10:00 10:45 ORD JFK LAX SAN Using distance information: DSAN,JFK = 6:30 LBTSJFK = 16:30 (10:00 + 6:30) 10:45 can be processed this iteration Concurrent processing of events at times 10:00 and 10:45

39 Lookahead problem: limited concurrency
LP A LP B LP C LP D Logical Time problem: limited concurrency each LP must process events in time stamp order TA possible message OK to process event not OK to process yet without lookahead TA+LA possible message OK to process with lookahead Each LP A using declares a lookahead value LA; the time stamp of any event generated by the LP must be ≥ TA+ LA Used in virtually all conservative synchronization protocols Relies on model properties (e.g., minimum transmission delay) Lookahead is necessary to allow concurrent processing of events with different time stamps (unless optimistic event processing is used)

40 Speedup of Central Server Queueing Model Simulation
Deadlock Detection and Recovery Algorithm (5 processors) Exploiting lookahead is essential to obtain good performance

41 Summary: Conservative Synchronization
Each LP must process events in time stamp order Must compute lower bound on time stamp (LBTS) of future messages an LP may receive to determine which events are safe to process 1st generation algorithms: LBTS computation based on current simulation time of LPs and lookahead Null messages Prone to lookahead creep 2nd generation algorithms: also consider time of next event to avoid lookahead creep Other information, e.g., LP topology, can be exploited Lookahead is crucial to achieving concurrent processing of events, good performance

42 Conservative Algorithms
Pro: Good performance reported for many applications containing good lookahead (queueing networks, communication networks, wargaming) Relatively easy to implement Well suited for “federating” autonomous simulations, provided there is good lookahead Con: Cannot fully exploit available parallelism in the simulation because they must protect against a “worst case scenario” Lookahead is essential to achieve good performance Writing simulation programs to have good lookahead can be very difficult or impossible, and can lead to code that is difficult to maintain

43 Part II: Time Management
Parallel discrete event simulation Conservative synchronization Optimistic synchronization Time Management in the High Level Architecture

44 Time Warp Algorithm (Jefferson)
Assumptions logical processes (LPs) exchanging time stamped events (messages) dynamic network topology, dynamic creation of LPs OK messages sent on each link need not be sent in time stamp order network provides reliable delivery, but need not preserve order Basic idea: process events w/o worrying about messages that will arrive later detect out of order execution, recover using rollback H1 9 8 2 H3 logical process 5 4 H2 H3 process all available events (2, 4, 5, 8, 9) in time stamp order

45 Optimistic Protocols Offer several advantages over conservative mechanisms fuller exploitation of parallelism less reliant on lookahead information greater transparency of synchronization protocol easier to develop and maintain application code Caveat: Although lookahead is not essential, it generally does improve performance, so should be exploited when available Potential liabilities state saving required to enable rollback can significantly reduce performance may be cumbersome to implement possibility of excessive rollbacks, rollback “thrashing” memory requirements may be large

46 Time Warp (Jefferson) Each LP: process events in time stamp order, like a sequential simulator, except: (1) do NOT discard processed events and (2) add a rollback mechanism 41 Input Queue (event list) 18 straggler message arrives in the past, causing rollback 12 21 35 processed event unprocessed event State Queue solution: checkpoint state or use incremental state saving (state queue) snapshot of LP state 12 Output Queue (anti-messages) 19 42 solution: anti-messages and message annihilation (output queue) anti-message Adding rollback: a message arriving in the LP’s past initiates rollback to roll back an event computation we must undo: changes to state variables performed by the event; message sends

47 Anti-Messages Used to cancel a previously sent message
42 positive message anti-message Used to cancel a previously sent message Each positive message sent by an LP has a corresponding anti-message Anti-message is identical to positive message, except for a sign bit When an anti-message and its matching positive message meet in the same queue, the two annihilate each other (analogous to matter and anti-matter) To undo the effects of a previously sent (positive) message, the LP need only send the corresponding anti-message Message send: in addition to sending the message, leave a copy of the corresponding anti-message in a data structure in the sending LP called the output queue.

48 Rollback: Receiving a Straggler Message
12 41 Input Queue (event list) Output Queue (anti-messages) 19 42 18 1. straggler message arrives in the past, causing rollback BEFORE 21 35 processed event unprocessed event snapshot of LP state anti-message State Queue 2. roll back events at times 21 and 35 2(a) restore state of LP to that prior to processing time stamp 21 event 2(b) send anti-message 12 21 35 41 19 18 Input Queue (event list) Output Queue (anti-messages) AFTER 5. resume execution by processing event at time 18 State Queue

49 Processing Incoming Anti-Messages
Case I: corresponding message has not yet been processed annihilate message/anti-message pair Case II: corresponding message has already been processed roll back to time prior to processing message (secondary rollback) annihilate message/anti-message pair 55 33 57 27 42 45 processed event unprocessed event snapshot of LP state anti-message may cause “cascaded” rollbacks; recursively applying eliminates all effects of error 42 1. anti-message arrives 3. Annihilate message and anti-message 2. roll back events (time stamp 42 and 45) 2(a) restore state 2(b) send anti-message Case III: corresponding message has not yet been received queue anti-message annihilate message/anti-message pair when message is received

50 Global Virtual Time and Fossil Collection
A mechanism is needed to: reclaim memory resources (e.g., old state and events) perform irrevocable operations (e.g., I/O) Observation: A lower bound on the time stamp of any rollback that can occur in the future is needed. Global Virtual Time (GVT) is defined as the minimum time stamp of any unprocessed (or partially processed) message or anti-message in the system. GVT provides a lower bound on the time stamp of any future rollback. storage for events and state vectors older than GVT (except one state vector) can be reclaimed I/O operations with time stamp less than GVT can be performed. GVT algorithms are similar to LBTS algorithms in conservative synchronization Observation: The computation corresponding to GVT will not be rolled back, guaranteeing forward progress.

51 Time Warp and Chandy/Misra Performance
eight processors closed queueing network, hypercube topology high priority jobs preempt service from low priority jobs (1% high priority) exponential service time (poor lookahead)

52 Other Optimistic Algorithms
Principal goal: avoid excessive optimistic execution A variety of protocols have been proposed, among them: window-based approaches only execute events in a moving window (simulated time, memory) risk-free execution only send messages when they are guaranteed to be correct add optimism to conservative protocols specify “optimistic” values for lookahead introduce additional rollbacks triggered stochastically or by running out of memory hybrid approaches mix conservative and optimistic LPs scheduling-based discriminate against LPs rolling back too much adaptive protocols dynamically adjust protocol during execution as workload changes

53 Summary of Optimistic Algorithms
Pro: Good performance reported for a variety of applications (queueing communication networks, combat models, transportation systems) Good transparency: offers the best hope for “general purpose” parallel simulation software (more resilient to poor lookahead than conservative methods) Con: Memory requirements may be large Implementation is generally more complex and difficult to debug than conservative mechanisms System calls, memory allocation ... Must be able to recover from exceptions Use in federated simulations requires adding rollback capability to existing simulations

54 Part II: Time Management
Parallel discrete event simulation Conservative synchronization Optimistic synchronization Time Management in the High Level Architecture

55 High Level Architecture (HLA)
based on a composable “system of systems” approach no single simulation can satisfy all user needs support interoperability and reuse among DoD simulations federations of simulations (federates) pure software simulations human-in-the-loop simulations (virtual simulators) live components (e.g., instrumented weapon systems) mandated as the standard reference architecture for all M&S in the U.S. Department of Defense (September 1996) The HLA consists of rules that simulations (federates) must follow to achieve proper interaction during a federation execution Object Model Template (OMT) defines the format for specifying the set of common objects used by a federation (federation object model), their attributes, and relationships among them Interface Specification (IFSpec) provides interface to the Run-Time Infrastructure (RTI), that ties together federates during model execution

56 Runtime Infrastructure(RTI)
HLA Federation Interconnecting autonomous simulators Federation Simulation (federate) Simulation (federate) Simulation (federate) Interface Specification Interface Specification Runtime Infrastructure(RTI) Services to create and manage the execution of the federation Federation setup / tear down Transmitting data among federates Synchronization (time management)

57 Interface Specification
Category Functionality Federation Management Create and delete federation executions join and resign federation executions control checkpoint, pause, resume, restart Declaration Management Establish intent to publish and subscribe to object attributes and interactions Object Management Create and delete object instances Control attribute and interaction publication Create and delete object reflections Ownership Management Transfer ownership of object attributes Time Management Coordinate the advance of logical time and its relationship to real time Data Distribution Management Supports efficient routing of data

58 A Typical Federation Execution
initialize federation Create Federation Execution (Federation Mgt) Join Federation Execution (Federation Mgt) declare objects of common interest among federates Publish Object Class (Declaration Mgt) Subscribe Object Class Attribute (Declaration Mgt) exchange information Update/Reflect Attribute Values (Object Mgt) Send/Receive Interaction (Object Mgt) Time Advance Request, Time Advance Grant (Time Mgt) Request Attribute Ownership Assumption (Ownership Mgt) Modify Region (Data Distribution Mgt) terminate execution Resign Federation Execution (Federation Mgt) Destroy Federation Execution (Federation Mgt)

59 HLA Message Ordering Services
The HLA provides two types of message ordering: receive order (unordered): messages passed to federate in an arbitrary order time stamp order (TSO): sender assigns a time stamp to message; successive messages passed to each federate have non-decreasing time stamps typical applications training, T&E analysis Latency reproduce before and after relationships? all federates see same ordering of events? execution repeatable? Property low no Receive Order (RO) higher yes Time Stamp Order (TSO) The HLA provides for two types of message ordering services, called receive order, and time stamp order. In receive order, messages are delivered to the federate in whatever order they come in from the network. On the other hand, the RTI delivers time stamp ordered messages to the federate so that successive messages have non-decreasing time stamps. Time stamp order provides increased functionality, but it has a cost. In particular, message latency will generally be larger when using time stamp order compared to receive order. This is because the RTI may need to hold a message in one of its internal queues until it can guarantee time stamp ordering. This, and the extra computation and communication overhead within the RTI to implement the time stamp order service may degrade performance. The table shown in this slide contrasts receive order and time stamp order. As just mentioned, time stamp order service incurs higher latency. It does eliminate temporal anomalies such as that described in the previous slide. The “fire event” would be assigned a smaller time stamp than the “target destroyed event”, so the RTI would deliver them to the observer federate in the correct order if time stamp order were used. Further, time stamp order ensures all federates see a set of events in the same order. In the example on the previous slide, if there were a second observer federate, it is possible one observer receives the events in the correct order while the second does not if receive order is used. In some situations, different federates seeing the same set of events in a different order could lead to divergence in the virtual environment perceived by the two federates. Further, time stamp order enables one to achieve repeatable federation executions because the events will be delivered in the same order from one execution to the next, assuming of course the federates assign the same time stamp to each event. To summarize, if latency is the most important characteristic for the federation and causality errors can be tolerated, receive order should be used. If correctly reproducing before and after relationships is more important, time stamp order should be used. Platform-level training and T&E applications typically use receive order, while federations intended for analytic analyses typically use time stamp order. receive order minimizes latency, does not prevent temporal anomalies TSO prevents temporal anomalies, but has somewhat higher latency

60 Related Object Management Services
Sending and Receiving Messages Update Attribute Values … Reflect Attribute Values † Send Interaction … Receive Interaction † Message Order (Receive Order or Time Stamp Order) Preferred Order Type: default order type specified in “fed file” for each attribute and interaction Sent Message Order Type: TSO if preferred order type is TSO and the federate is time regulating and a time stamp was used in the Update Attribute Values or Send Interaction call RO otherwise Received Message Order Type TSO if sent message order type is TSO and receiver is time constrained † indicates callback to federate

61 Federated vs. RTI Initiated Services
Some services are initiated by the federate, others by the RTI Federate invoked services Publish, subscribe, register, update Not unlike calls to a library Procedures defined in the RTI ambassador RTI invoked services Discover, reflect Federate defined procedures, in Federate Ambassador Federate Federate ambassador Update Reflect RTI ambassador RTI

62 Example: Receiving a Message
Tick(): transfer execution to RTI to perform RTI functions, perform callbacks Federate RTI Tick /* code sketch, receiving messages */ Boolean: Waiting4Message; { … Waiting4Message := TRUE; while (Waiting4Message) Tick(); } /* Federate ambassador */ Proc ReflectAttributeValues (…) { save incoming message in buffer Waiting4Message := FALSE; ReflectAttributeValues return (RAV) return (Tick)

63 Advancing Logical Time
HLA TM services define a protocol for federates to advance logical time; logical time only advances when that federate explicitly requests an advance Time Advance Request: time stepped federates Next Event Request: event stepped federates Time Advance Grant: RTI invokes to acknowledge logical time advances federate RTI Time Advance Request or Next Event Request Time Advance Grant It is important that a coordinated time advance federate not receive messages in its past, i.e., messages with time stamp less than the federate’s current logical time. To address this constraint, federates must explicitly request advances in logical time. The RTI will only grant an advance to logical time T when it can guarantee the federate has received all time stamp ordered messages with time stamp ≤ T. To see how this works, consider an event driven federate. It must process all events, both local events and those received from other federates, in time stamp order. Suppose this federate has a local event with time stamp T. The question it must answer is can this local event be processed now, or is it possible an event with a smaller time stamp will later arrive from another federate? To solve this problem the federate can request to advance its logical time to T, and when this request is granted, it can then process the local event with time stamp T because the RTI guarantees no other events with time stamp less than or equal to T are forthcoming. Specifically, event driven federates will typically use the Next Event Request service to request time advances. The parameter of this call is usually the time stamp of the federate’s next local event. After calling Next Event Request with parameter T the RTI will either (1) advance the logical time of the federate to T if no events from other federates with time stamp less than or equal to T are forthcoming, or (2) advance the logical time of the federate to T’, the time stamp of its next event from another federate if the time stamp of that event is less than or equal to T, and deliver all events containing time stamp T’. In either case, a Time Advance Grant is issued to notify the federate of its new logical time. Time stepped federates will typically use the Time Advance Request to advance logical time. A federate calls the Time Advance Request service with parameter T to request logical time to advance to T. When the RTI has delivered all messages with time stamp less than or equal to T, it calls the federate’s Time Advance Grant procedure with parameter T to indicate logical time has been advanced to T. Finally, any pacing of the federate’s execution to wallclock time must be done within the federate. The RTI does not automatically pace the execution. If the logical time of a federate is T, the RTI guarantees no more TSO messages will be passed to the federate with time stamp < T Federates responsible for pacing logical time advances with wallclock time in real-time executions

64 HLA Time Management Services
event ordering federate local time and event management mechanism to pace execution with wallclock time (if necessary) federate specific techniques (e.g., compensation for message latencies) wallclock time (synchronized with other processors) logical time FIFO queue time stamp ordered Runtime Infrastructure (RTI) state updates and interactions logical time advances receive order messages time stamp time synchronized delivery This graphic attempts to capture the full functionality of the time management services. There are basically two parts implemented by the RTI. The first, shown on the left within the RTI box, is the event ordering mechanism. Incoming receive ordered messages are placed into a FIFO queue, and passed to the federate in the order that they were received. Time stamp ordered messages are stored in a priority queue, and are delivered to the federate when the federate requests an advance in logical time. The second part of the RTI is the mechanism for advancing logical time. This part communicates with the federate by the federate making calls to request advances in logical time, and the RTI calling the federate via Time Advance Grant calls when the advance has been made. The federate is responsible for managing local events and making requests to advance logical time. Pacing of the execution with wallclock time must also be implemented within the federate, as is the generation of properly synchronized clocks to provide wallclock time values. Finally, application specific techniques for time management must also be implemented within the federate. An example of this are time compensation techniques used in DIS where federates compensate for message latencies by using dead reckoning algorithms to extrapolate position data forward.

65 Time Regulating and Time Constrained Federates
Federates must declare their intent to utilize time management services by setting their time regulating and/or time constrained flags Time regulating federates: can send TSO messages Can prevent other federates from advancing their logical time Enable Time Regulation … Time Regulation Enabled † Disable Time Regulation Time constrained federates: can receive TSO messages Time advances are constrained by other federates Enable Time Constrained … Time Constrained Enabled † Disable Time Constrained Each federate in a federation execution can be Time regulating only (e.g., message source) Time constrained only (e.g., Stealth) Both time constrained and regulating (common case for analytic simulations) Neither time constrained nor regulating (e.g., DIS-style training simulations) † indicates callback to federate

66 Synchronizing Message Delivery
Goal: process all events (local and incoming messages) in time stamp order; To support this, RTI will Deliver messages in time stamp order (TSO) Synchronize delivery with simulation time advances next TSO message RTI TSO messages next local event T’ federate local events logical time T current time Federate: next local event has time stamp T If no TSO messages w/ time stamp < T, advance to T, process local event If there is a TSO message w/ time stamp T’ ≤ T, advance to T’ and process TSO message

67 Next Event Request (NER)
Federate invokes Next Event Request (T) to request its logical time be advanced to time stamp of next TSO message, or T, which ever is smaller If next TSO message has time stamp T’ ≤ T RTI delivers next TSO message, and all others with time stamp T’ RTI issues Time Advance Grant (T’) Else RTI advances federate’s time to T, invokes Time Advance Grant (T) Typical execution sequences RTI Wall clock time RTI delivers events Federate NER: Next Event Request TAG: Time Advance Grant RAV: Reflect Attribute Values Federate calls in black RTI callbacks in red Federate RTI no TSO events NER(T) NER(T) RAV (T’) TAG(T) RAV (T’) TAG(T’)

68 Code Example: Event Stepped Federate
sequential simulator T = current simulation time PES = pending event set While (simulation not complete) T = time of next event in PES process next event in PES End-While federated simulator While (simulation not complete) T = time of next event in PES PendingNER = TRUE; NextEventRequest(T) while (PendingNER) Tick(); process next event in PES End-While /* the following federate-ambassador procedures are called by the RTI */ Procedure ReflectAttributeValues (…) place event in PES Procedure TimeAdvanceGrant (…) PendingNER = False;

69 Lookahead in the HLA Each federate must declare a non-negative lookahead value Any TSO sent by a federate must have time stamp at least the federate’s current time plus its lookahead Lookahead can change during the execution (Modify Lookahead) increases take effect immediately decreased do not take effect until the federate advances its logical time Logical time T+L T 1. Current time is T, lookahead L 2. Request lookahead decrease by ∆L to L’ Logical time T+L T+ ∆T L- ∆T ∆T 3. Advance ∆T, lookahead, decreases ∆T Logical time T+L L’ ∆L T+∆L 4. After advancing ∆L, lookahead is L’

70 Federate/RTI Guarantees
Federate at logical time T (with lookahead L) All outgoing TSO messages must have time stamp ≥ T+L (L>0) Time Advance Request (T) Once invoked, federate cannot send messages with time stamp less than T plus lookahead Next Event Request (T) Once invoked, federate cannot send messages with time stamp less than T plus the federate’s lookahead unless a grant is issued to a time less than T Time Advance Grant (T) (after TAR or NER service) All TSO messages with time stamp less than or equal to T have been delivered

71 Minimum Next Event Time and LBTS
Federate0 network TSO queue 13 11 8 Federate1 Current Time =8 Lookahead = 2 Federate2 Current Time =9 Lookahead = 8 LBTS0=10 MNET0=8 LBTSi: Lower Bound on Time Stamp of TSO messages that could later be placed into the TSO queue for federate i TSO messages w/ TS ≤ LBTSi eligible for delivery RTI ensures logical time of federate i never exceeds LBTSi MNETi: Minimum Next Event Time is a lower bound on the time stamp of any message that could later be delivered to federate i. Minimum of LBTSi and minimum time stamp of messages in TSO queue

72 Simultaneous Events Simultaneous events are events containing the same time stamp Ordering of simultaneous events often important RTI does not have sufficient information to intelligently order simultaneous events HLA: ordering simultaneous events left to the federate Grant to time T (after TAR/NER): all events with time stamp T delivered to federate Simultaneous events delivered to federate in an arbitrary order (may vary from one execution to the next) Federate must have a deterministic way to order simultaneous to ensure repeatable executions (e.g., sort events by type or other event properties)

73 Zero Lookahead example
Zero lookahead: a federate at time T can send TSO messages with time stamp T If zero lookahead is allowed, a Time Advance Grant to time T cannot guarantee delivery of all events with time stamp equal to T Federate A RTI example B 2. Federate A sends a zero lookahead message (time stamp T) requesting information from another federate 3. Federate B sends reply message with time stamp T (zero lookahead) to Federate A. 1. RTI issues Time Advance Grant to time T

74 Zero Lookahead in the HLA TAR Available and NER Available
Zero lookahead allowed in HLA federations Next Event Request (NER), Time Advance Request (TAR) grant to time T guarantees delivery of all TSO messages w/ time stamp T (or less) constraint: once a Time Advance Grant to time T is issued for these requests, subsequent messages sent by the federate must have time stamp strictly greater than T. Two new services: Time Advance Request Available (TARA) and Next Event Request Available (NERA) TARA (NERA) advance logical time, similar to TAR (NER) federate can send zero lookahead messages after receiving grant grant to time T does not guarantee all messages with time stamp T have been delivered, only those available at the time of the call order that TSO messages are delivered to the federate is arbitrary

75 Zero Lookahead Example
Two federate types: vehicle, commander Vehicle federate When sensors indicate position of another vehicle has changed, notify commander via a zero lookahead interaction Wallclock time Vehicle 1 Vehicle 2 Commander Sample execution sequence: NERA: Next Event Request Available RAV: Reflect Attribute Values (callback) TAG: Time Advance Grant (callback) 2. RAV (90) 2. TAG (90) 2. Detects vehicle 2 has moved 4. NERA (100) 4. Ready again to advance to 100; additional reflects at time 90 still possible 1. Vehicle 1 ready to advance to logical time 100 to process next local event 1. NERA (100) 3. Send Interaction (90) 3. Sends zero lookahead interaction to commander federate

76 Representation of Logical Time
Time represented as a federation-defined abstract data type Federation must agree upon a common representation of logical time during federation development Time value (e.g., 09:00, 12 May 1973) Time duration (e.g., 30 minutes) Federation specifies Data type of time values and duration (structure types allowed) Comparison (time values) and addition (value and duration) operators Example 1: simple data type Value: Float; Duration: Float; Comparison: <; Addition: + Example 2: simple data type + tie breaking field Value: (Float, Integer); Duration: (Float); Comparison: (X1,X2) < (Y1,Y2): if (X1=Y1) then (X2<Y2) else (X1 < Y1) (1.3,1) < (2.1, 0); (6.1,2) < (6.1, 4) Addition: (X1,X2) + L: if (L=0) then (X1,X2), else (X1+L, 0) (1.3, 1) = (3.5, 0); (1.3, 1) = (1.3, 1)

77 Example: Complex Time Type
Vehicle federate When sensors indicate position of another vehicle has changed, notify commander via interaction and wait for “reply” interaction message Message Types: 0: position update, 1: Notify interaction, 2: reply interaction Time format: (time value, message type) Wallclock time Vehicle 1 Vehicle 2 Commander Sample execution sequence: NERA: Next Event Request Available RAV: Reflect Attribute Values (callback) TAG: Time Advance Grant (callback) 2. RAV (90,0) 2. TAG (90,0) 2. Detects vehicle 2 has moved 1. Vehicle 1 ready to advance to logical time 100 to process next local event 1. NER(100,0) 4. NER (90,2) 4. Receive Interaction (90,2) 4. TAG (90,2) 4. Wait for and receive reply message 3. Send Interaction (90,1) 3. Sends zero lookahead interaction to commander federate

78 Event Retraction Previously sent events can be “unsent” via the Retract service Update Attribute Values and Send Interaction return a “handle” to the scheduled event Handle can be used to Retract (unschedule) the event Can only retract event if its time stamp > current time + lookahead Retracted event never delivered to destination (unless Flush Queue used) Wallclock time Vehicle Observer Sample execution sequence: NER: Next Event Request UAV: Update Attribute Values) TAG: Time Advance Grant (callback) 2. Receive Interaction (90) 2. TAG (90) 2. receives interaction (break down event) invalidating position update at time 100 1. Vehicle schedules position update at time 100, ready to advance to time 100 1. NER (100) 1. Handle=UAV (100) 3. Retract(Handle) 3. Vehicle retracts update scheduled for time 100

79 Optimistic Time Management
Mechanisms to ensure events are processed in time stamp order: conservative: block to avoid out of order event processing optimistic: detect out-of-order event processing, recover (e.g., Time Warp) Primitives for optimistic time management Optimistic event processing Deliver (and process) events without time stamp order delivery guarantee HLA: Flush Queue Request Rollback Deliver message w/ time stamp T, other computations already performed at times > T Must roll back (undo) computations at logical times > T HLA: (local) rollback mechanism must be implemented within the federate Anti-messages & secondary rollbacks Anti-message: message sent to cancel (undo) a previously sent message Causes rollback at destination if cancelled message already processed HLA: Retract service; deliver retract request if cancelled message already delivered Global Virtual Time Lower bound on future rollback to commit I/O operations, reclaim memory HLA: Query Next Event Time service gives current value of GVT

80 Optimistic Time Management in the HLA
HLA Support for Optimistic Federates federations may include conservative and/or optimistic federates federates not aware of local time management mechanism of other federates (optimistic or conservative) optimistic events (events that may be later canceled) will not be delivered to conservative federates that cannot roll back optimistic events can be delivered to other optimistic federates individual federates may be sequential or parallel simulations Flush Queue Request: similar to NER except (1) deliver all messages in RTI’s local message queues, (2) need not wait for other federates before issuing a Time Advance Grant So far, we have been focusing on what are referred to as conservative methods where one ensures events are processed in time stamp order. Another approach discussed in the literature concerns optimistic time management techniques where one allows events to be processed out of time stamp order, but provides a mechanism to recover, typically by rolling back the computation. Time Warp is the most well known optimistic synchronization mechanism. The HLA time management services support inclusion of both optimistic and conservative federates within a single federation execution. The HLA does this in a way that each federate need not be aware of the local time management strategy (conservative or optimistic) used by other federates. For example federates that do not provide a rollback capability need not be aware there are optimistic simulators in the federation. One problem with including optimistic simulators is they can generate incorrect messages that will later be canceled. The RTI automatically prevents such “optimistic messages” from reaching federates that do not provide a rollback capability. On the other hand, the RTI will deliver optimistic messages to federates with a rollback capability. This is accomplished by the optimistic federate invoking the Flush Queue services that flush local queues containing all time stamp ordered messages to the federate, even though the RTI cannot guarantee time stamp ordering on these messages. This allows optimistic federates to “optimistically” process events that may be later rolled back. Two other capabilities are required to support optimistic federates. The first is an anti-message mechanism, as defined in Jefferson’s Time Warp protocol. This is realized through the Retract primitive that can be used to “unsend” a previously sent message. The other requirement is for the federate to locally compute a value of Global Virtual Time (GVT). For this purpose, the federate needs to know a lower bound on the time stamp of messages and retraction requests that can occur in the future. This value, called the Lower Bound on Time Stamp (LBTS) is already computed by the RTI to determine which time stamp ordered messages can be delivered, and is provided to the federate.

81 Summary: HLA Time Management
Functionality: allows federates with different time management requirements (and local TM mechanisms) to be combined within a single federation execution DIS-style training simulations simulations with hard real-time constraints event-driven simulations time-stepped simulations optimistic simulations HLA Time Management services: Event order receive order delivery time stamp order delivery Logical time advance mechanisms TAR/TARA: unconditional time advance NER/NERA: advance depending on message time stamps To summarize the HLA time management services are intended to support a wide range of HLA federations with different time management requirements. This range includes real time, scaled real-time, and as fast as possible executions. Federates that can tolerate causality errors are accommodated as are federates that require strict time stamp ordered processing of events. This approach supports mixing federates with different local time management strategies in a single federation execution. Some of the different local time management strategies used by different federates are enumerated on this slide. The core of the HLA time management services are message ordering services, and logical time. Specifically, services to allow a federate to control advances in logical time are provided.

82 Part III: Distributed Virtual Environments
Introduction Dead reckoning Data distribution

83 Example: Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS)
“The primary mission of DIS is to define an infrastructure for linking simulations of various types at multiple locations to create realistic, complex, virtual ‘worlds’ for the simulation of highly interactive activities” [DIS Vision, 1994]. developed in U.S. Department of Defense, initially for training distributed virtual environments widely used in DoD; growing use in other areas (entertainment, emergency planning, air traffic control)

84 A Typical DVE Node Simulator
Image Generator Other Vehicle State Table network interface control/ display own vehicle dynamics sound generator visual display system terrain database controls and panels Execute every 1/30th of a second: receive incoming messages & user inputs, update state of remote vehicles update local display for each local vehicle compute (integrate) new state over current time period send messages (e.g., broadcast) indicating new state Reproduced from Miller, Thorpe (1995), “SIMNET: The Advent of Simulator Networking,” Proceedings of the IEEE, 83(8):

85 Typical Sequence 1. Detect trigger press 2. Audio “fire” sound
Image Generator Other Vehicle State Table network interface control/ display own vehicle dynamics sound generator visual display terrain database Controls/panels 3 3. Display muzzel flash 6 6. Compute trajectory, display tracer 7 7. Display shell impact 4 4. Send fire PDU 8 8. Send detonation PDU 1 1. Detect trigger press 2 2. Audio “fire” sound 5 5. Display muzzel flash 9 9. Display shell impact 11 11. Send Entity state PDU indicating damage 10 10. Compute damage

86 DIS Design Principles Autonomy of simulation nodes
simulations broadcast events of interest to other simulations; need not determine which others need information receivers determine if information is relevant to it, and model local effects of new information simulations may join or leave exercises in progress Transmission of “ground truth” information each simulation transmits absolute truth about state of its objects receiver is responsible for appropriately “degrading” information (e.g., due to environment, sensor characteristics) Transmission of state change information only if behavior “stays the same” (e.g., straight and level flight), state updates drop to a predetermined rate (e.g., every five seconds) “Dead Reckoning” algorithms extrapolate current position of moving objects based on last reported position Simulation time constraints many simulations are human-in-the-loop humans cannot distinguish temporal difference < 100 milliseconds places constraints on communication latency of simulation platform

87 Part III: Distributed Virtual Environments
Introduction Dead reckoning Data distribution

88 Distributed Simulation Example
Virtual environment simulation containing two moving vehicles One vehicle per federate (simulator) Each vehicle simulator must track location of other vehicle and produce local display (as seen from the local vehicle) Approach 1: Every 1/60th of a second: Each vehicle sends a message to other vehicle indicating its current position Each vehicle receives message from other vehicle, updates its local display

89 Limitations Position information corresponds to location when the message was sent; doesn’t take into account delays in sending message over the network Requires generating many messages if there are many vehicles

90 “infrequent” position
Dead Reckoning Send position update messages less frequently local dead reckoning model predicts the position of remote entities between updates 1000 1050 (1050,1000) last reported state: position = (1000,1000) traveling 50 feet/sec predicted position one second later When are updates sent? How does the DRM predict vehicle position? Image Generator Dead reckoning model visual display system terrain database “infrequent” position update messages get position at frame rate

91 Re-synchronizing the DRM
When are position update messages generated? Compare DRM position with exact position, and generate an update message if error is too large Generate updates at some minimum rate, e.g., 5 seconds (heart beats) High Fidelity Model aircraft 1 DRM aircraft 2 over threshold or timeout close enough? timeout? entity state update PDU simulator for DRM aircraft 1 simulator for aircraft 2 sample DRM at frame rate display

92 Dead Reckoning Models P(t) = precise position of entity at time t Position update messages: P(t1), P(t2), P(t3) … v(ti), a(ti) = ith velocity, acceleration update DRM: estimate D(t), position at time t ti = time of last update preceding t ∆t = ti - t Zeroth order DRM: D(t) = P(ti) First order DRM: D(t) = P(ti) + v(ti)*∆t Second order DRM: D(t) = P(ti) + v(ti)*∆t + 0.5*a(ti)*(∆t)2

93 Does not take into account message latency
DRM Example A DRM estimates position D receive message just before screen update B C t1 true position DRM estimate of state update display update message t2 generate state update message E Potential problems: Discontinuity may occur when position update arrives; may produce “jumps” in display Does not take into account message latency

94 Taking into account message latency
Time Compensation Taking into account message latency Add time stamp to message when update is generated (sender time stamp) Dead reckon based on message time stamp A B C t1 true position DRM estimate of state update display update message t2 update with time compensation D E

95 Reduce discontinuities after updates occur “phase in” position updates
Smoothing Reduce discontinuities after updates occur “phase in” position updates After update arrives Use DRM to project next k positions Interpolate position of next update A B C interpolated position D t1 true position DRM estimate of state update display update message t2 extrapolated position used for smoothing E Accuracy is reduced to create a more natural display

96 Part III: Distributed Virtual Environments
Introduction Dead reckoning Data distribution

97 Data Distribution Management
A federate sending a message (e.g., updating its current location) cannot be expected to explicitly indicate which other federates should receive the message Basic Problem: which federates receive messages? broadcast update to all federates (SimNet, early versions of DIS) does not scale to large numbers of federates grid sectors OK for distribution based on spacial proximity routing spaces (STOW-RTI, HLA) generalization of grid sector idea Content-based addressing: in general, federates must specify: Name space: vocabulary used to specify what data is of interest and to describe the data contained in each message (HLA: routing space) Interest expressions: indicate what information a federate wishes to receive (subset of name space; HLA: subscription region) Data description expression: characterizes data contained within each message (subset of name space; HLA: publication region)

98 HLA Routing Spaces 1.0 Federate 1 (sensor): subscribe to S1
0.0 0.5 Federate 1 (sensor): subscribe to S1 Federate 2 (sensor): subscribe to S2 Federate 3 (target): update region U update messages by target are sent to federate 1, but not to federate 2 HLA Data Distribution Management N dimensional normalized routing space interest expressions are regions in routing space (S1=[0.1,0.5], [0.2,0.5]) each update associated with an update region in routing space a federate receives a message if its subscription region overlaps with the update region

99 Implementation: Grid Based
U S2 1.0 0.0 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 multicast group, id=15 partition routing space into grid cells, map each cell to a multicast group U publishes to 12, 13 S1 subscribes to 6,7,8,11,12,13 S2 subscribes to 11,12,16,17 subscription region: Join each group overlapping subscription region attribute update: send Update to each group overlapping update region need additional filtering to avoid unwanted messages, duplicates

100 Changing a Subscription Region
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 existing subscription region new region Leave group Join group no operations issued 2 3 4 10 11 12 13 18 19 20 21 27 28 29 Change subscription region: issue Leave operations for (cells in old region - cells in new region) issue Join operations for (cells in new region - cells in old region) Observation: each processor can autonomously join/leave groups whenever its subscription region changes w/o communication.

101 Another Approach: Region-Based Implementation
U 1.0 0.0 0.5 Multicast group associated with U Membership of U: S1 Modify U to U’: determine subscription regions overlapping with U’ Modify membership accordingly Associate a multicast group with each update region Membership: all subscription regions overlapping with update region Changing subscription (update) region Must match new subscription (update) region against all existing update (subscription) regions to determine new membership No duplicate or extra messages Change subscription: typically requires interprocessor communication Can use grids (in addition to regions) to reduce matching cost

102 Distributed Virtual Environments: Summary
Perhaps the most dominant application of distributed simulation technology to date Human in the loop: training, interactive, multi-player video games Hardware in the loop Managing interprocessor communication is the key Dead reckoning techniques Data distribution management Real-time execution essential Many other issues Terrain databases, consistent, dynamic terrain Real-time modeling and display of physical phenomena Synchronization of hardware clocks Human factors

103 Future Research Directions

104 The good news... Parallel and distributed simulation technology is seeing widespread use in real-world applications and systems HLA, standardization (OMG, IEEE 1516) Other defense systems Interactive games (no time management yet, though!)

105 Interoperability and Reuse
Reuse the principal reason distributed simulation technology is seeing widespread use (scalability still important!) “Sub-objective 1-1: Establish a common high level simulation architecture to facilitate interoperability [and] reuse of M&S components.” - U.S. DoD Modeling and Simulation Master Plan “critical capability that underpin the IMTR vision [is]... total, seamless model interoperability: Future models and simulations will be transparently compatible, able to plug-and-play …” - Integrated Manufacturing Technology Roadmap Enterprise Management Circuit design, embedded systems Transportation Telecommunications

106 Research Challenges Shallow (communication) vs. deep (semantics) interoperability: How should I develop simulations today, knowing they may be used tomorrow for entirely different purposes? Multi-resolution modelling Smart, adaptable interfaces? Time management: A lot of work completed already, but still not a solved problem! Conservative: zero lookahead simulations will continue to be the common case Optimistic: automated optimistic-ization of existing simulations (e.g., state saving) Challenge basic assumptions used in the past: New problems & solutions, not new solutions to the old problems Relationship of interoperability and reuse in simulation to other domains (e.g., e-commerce)?

107 Real-Time Systems Interactive distributed simulations for immersive virtual environments represents fertile new ground for distributed simulation research The distinction between the virtual and real world is disappearing

108 Research Challenges Real-time time management
Time managed, real-time distributed simulations? Predictable performance Performance tunable (e.g., synchronization overheads) Mixed time management (e.g., federations with both analytic and real-time training simulations) Distributed simulation over WANs, e.g., the Internet Server vs. distributed architectures? PDES over unreliable transport and nodes Distributed simulations that work! High quality, robust systems Data Distribution Management Implementation architectures Managing large numbers of multicast groups Join/leave times Integration and exploitation of network QoS

109 Simulation-Based Decision Support
Real-Time Advisor Real World System live data feeds analysts forecasting tool (fast simulation) Information system Automated and/or interactive analysis tools decision makers Here to discuss technology. The technology we are developing is realizing faster than real time interactive simulations. Current TISES simulation runs require a few hours, depending on the scenario. We’d like to see that reduced to minutes. The specific benefits from this capability fall into two categories: doing what you do now, better doing things you cannot do now Battle management Enterprise control Transportation Systems

110 Research Challenges Ultra fast model execution
Much, much faster-than-real-time execution Instantaneous model execution: Spreadsheet-like performance Ultra fast execution of multiple runs Automated simulation analyses: smart, self-managed devices and systems? Ubiquitous simulation?

111 Closing Remarks After years of being largely an academic endeavor, parallel and distributed simulation technology is beginning to thrive. Many major challenges remain to be addressed before the technology can achieve its fullest potential.

112 The End


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