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WEATHERING & EROSION Chapter 4 Test 3 material Begin.

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Presentation on theme: "WEATHERING & EROSION Chapter 4 Test 3 material Begin."— Presentation transcript:

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2 WEATHERING & EROSION Chapter 4 Test 3 material Begin

3 ASSIGNMENT l WRITE A 1-2 PAGE REPORT ON HOW KARST TOPOGRAPHY HAS INFLUENCED LANDFORMS IN THE MIDWEST l 10 POINTS – DUE IN 1 WEEK

4 WEATHERING l PROCESSES BY WHICH ROCKS ARE CHEMICALLY ALTERED OR PHYSICALLY BROKEN INTO FRAGMENTS AS A RESULT OF EXPOSURE TO THE ELEMENTS

5 MECHANICAL WEATHERING l ROCK IS BROKEN INTO SMALLER AND SMALLER PIECES EACH RETAINING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ORIGINAL MATERIAL l FROST WEDGING-FREEZE/THAW l UNLOADING - SHEETING l BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY

6 spheroidal

7 CHEMICAL WEATHERING l COMPLEX PROCESSES THAT ALTER THE INTERNAL STRUCTURES OF MINERALS BY REMOVING AND/OR ADDING ELEMENTS l WATER AND CARBONIC ACID - OXIDATION

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9 EROSION l THE PROCESSES THAT LOOSEN SEDIMENT AND MOVE IT FROM ONE PLACE TO ANOTHER

10 CYCLE OF EROSION WILLIAM MORRIS DAVIS l YOUTH l MATURITY l OLD AGE l REJUVENATION

11 FACTORS OF WEATHERING AND EROSION l CLIMATE l THE TYPE OF ROCK l THE AMOUNT OF VEGETATION

12 DIFFERENTIAL WEATHERING/EROSION l DIFFERENT ROCKS WEATHER & ERODE AT DIFFERENT RATES ERODE

13 LANDFORM FEATURES l PLATEAUS ERODE TO MESAS l MESAS ERODE TO BUTTES

14 buttes

15 DIFFERENTIAL WEATHERING/EROSION l LIMESTONE BEST ILLUSTRATES THIS l IN DRY CLIMATES LIMESTONE PRODUCES MOUNTAINS l IN WET CLIMATES WITH ACIDIC WATER QUALITY IT PRODUCES FEATURES OF KARST TOPOGRAPHY

16 KARST TOPOGRAPHY FEATURES l SINKHOLES/DOLINES l STALACTITES l STALAGMITES l COLUMNS l FOUND IN ILLINOIS, MISSOURI, KENTUCKY, FLORIDA, INDIANA, YUGOSLAVIA

17 KARST

18 SINKHOLE

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20 VIRTUAL CAVE l om/virtcave/virtmap.html om/virtcave/virtmap.html

21 GRADATION l WEARS DOWN AREAS OF GREAT RELIEF AND BUILDS UP AREAS OF LOW RELIEF l CHIEF PHYSICAL AGENT OF GRADATION IS WATER l TIME ALLOWS GRADATIONAL PROCESSES TO WORK

22 EQUILIBRIUM l PERFECT BALANCE IN NATURE l THRESHOLD l RESPONSE TIME l RELAXATION TIME

23 ANGLE OF REPOSE l MAXIMUM ANGLE MATERIAL STAYS STABLE BEFORE MOVING DOWNSLOPE l FOR UNCONSOLIDATED MATERIAL THIS IS BETWEEN 25 TO 40 DEGREES

24 Angle of repose

25 MASS WASTING l DOWNSLOPE MOVEMENT OF ROCK AND SOIL UNDER THE DIRECT INFLUENCE OF GRAVITY l GRAVITY IS THE CONTROLLING FORCE OF MASS WASTING

26 CLASSES OF MASS MOVEMENTS l FALL l SLIDE l FLOW l CREEP - MATERIAL MOVED BY CREEP ACTION IS REFERRED TO AS COLLUVIUM

27 FALL

28 Rock fall

29 slide

30 flow

31 creep

32 SLUMP l DOWNWARD SLIPPING OF A MASS OF ROCK OR MATERIAL MOVING AS A UNIT ALONG A CURVED SURFACE

33 slump

34 WHY SLUMP OCCURS l OVERSTEEPENED - MATERIAL REMOVED FROM BOTTOM OF SLOPE l OVERLOADING - LESS RESISTANT MATERIAL IN UNDERLYING LAYERS


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