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High Temperature Alloys for Power Plant Applications ARIPPA Meeting April 26 th, 2005 Jason Wilson Rolled Alloys.

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Presentation on theme: "High Temperature Alloys for Power Plant Applications ARIPPA Meeting April 26 th, 2005 Jason Wilson Rolled Alloys."— Presentation transcript:

1 High Temperature Alloys for Power Plant Applications ARIPPA Meeting April 26 th, 2005 Jason Wilson Rolled Alloys

2 Nominal Chemistries AlloyUNSNiCrFeSiOther 304 SSS RA253MAS Ce, N 309 SSS SSS RA330®N RA353MAS Ce, N Alloy 601N Al

3 High Temperature Concerns Distortion Creep Deformation Thermal Expansion Corrosion Oxidation Temperature Limitations Erosion Sulfidation Molten Salts

4 Stress Do not subject alloys to undue stress Uneven Heating Thermal Expansion Thermal Shock

5 Uneven Heating Uneven Thermal Expansion Buckling/Warping Cracking Typical Causes Flame Impingement Large variation in cross section Sharp temperature gradients RA 253 MA Burner Can HOT COOL

6 Thermal Expansion At 1800F, a 20 foot RA330 pipe expands over 4 inches Keys Major Allow for expansion in the design Minor Higher strength alloy Lower coefficient of thermal expansion Alloy 600 (3.75 in) Railroad on a hot day

7 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (in/in°F x ) Alloy% Nickel1600 o F 304 SS SS RA253MA SS HT RA RA353MA Alloy

8 Strength Ensure adequate alloy strength at temperature Review Creep- Rupture data Short Term Data is not representative of how the alloy will act in long term service.

9 Strength Raising Creep Strength Carbon Use H grades Min 0.4% Carbon & Coarse Grains Nitrogen RA 253 MA and RA 353 MA Nickel Others Co, Mo, W

10 Creep Demonstration RA 253 MA, 601, 310, ” thick rings Temperature: 1832F Time: 35 hours Strength

11 Creep occurs above roughly 1000 o F Permanent Deformation or Flow Time Dependent Lower Stress than Y.S. Strength

12 10,000 Hr Average Stress to Rupture AlloyUNS Number 1600 o F1800 o F1900 o F2000 o F 304 SSS304001, SSS309081, RA253MAS308152,5001, SSS310081, HTN088113,5001, RA330N083301, RA353MAS353152,6001, Alloy 601N066012,6001,200620

13 Incinerator bed 1920 o F (Average) Replaced RA330 6 months life RA 353 MA lasting 8-9 months Strength

14 Horizontal Radiant U-tubes. 6 inch OD and 11ga wall. Condition after 10 months. Batch Annealing at 1800°F. Exothermic Atmosphere. Operation 5 days/week 3 shifts Strength

15 253MA Circulating Fluidized Bed - 8-1/2 foot diameter x 23 foot long dip tubes. - Two per boiler, eight boilers on site °F Temperatures - Fuel – 70% Illinois Coal, 30% Powder River Basin, Tire Chips - Dip tubes installed in 1999, Others in since 1998, Stainless lasted 2 years prior to removal due to distortion

16 - RA253MA pans for the production of foam glass insulation - Previous alloy used type 309 stainless - Process temperature 1600°F Strength

17 RA 353 MA pack coating retort. 36 in. diameter 48 in. high 3/8 inch thick °F – Argon on inside Photo after 24 months in service RA330 typically distorted 8 months Strength

18 Tube Supports Fired Boilers RA353MA heavy plate used as a header support. Replaced RA330

19 High Temperature Corrosion

20 Temperature Limitations All alloys have their limits. Limiting Factors Oxidation Not melting point Strength 310SS at 2100F

21 Oxidation Spallation of the protective oxide scale Thinning Internal oxide penetration Enhancers Chromium Silicon Aluminum Cerium Type 310 stainless thermocouple tube oxidized from operation at 2100 deg F

22 Suggested Temperature Limits (Air) SS 309SS 310SS RA 253 MA® RA330 Alloy 600 RA 353 MA® Alloy 601 RA333® RA 602 CA™

23 Oxidation Resistance Cyclical Testing 1600 Hrs

24 Oxidation Resistance Cyclic Testing 3000 Hrs

25 Tube Spacers RA353MA hand cuff bars on a packaged boiler firing with natural gas.

26 Cyclones Western U.S. Coke Plant RA353MA shown after 1 year service during inspection. 2000°F typical

27 Sulfidation Attack by sulfur compounds SO 2, H 2 S At 1200°F and above Molten Ni-Ni-S eutectic Higher nickel alloys most susceptible Sulfidation of cast heat resistant alloy used for a tire drop chute (Cement)

28 Sulfur/Chlorine Attack o F Slab Reheat Furnace Recuperator 11 Months Exposure RA353MA replaced 309 with high silicon Increased life from 7 months to over 24 months 19Cr-11Ni-2Si

29 Sulfidation

30 Chloride Attack Thick Porous Scale Rapid Thinning Intergranular Attack 310 stainless tubeshield from refuse fired boiler.

31 Tube Supports – Escatron (Spain) Replaced RA253MA Pressurized Fluid Bed Boiler 6.8% Sulfur Lignite Earlier Units <3.6% Sulfur TIDD, Vartan RA253MA successful Coupon Testing 11 months °F RA353MA – 0.1 mm RA253MA – 1.1 mm

32 Flap Gates Cement Kilns Feeding of Scrap Tires RA353MA in use in 3 cement plants to date in North & South America

33 o F (700 o C)

34 Coal Tips 253MA used extensively for coal nozzles 309 or 310 SS commonly used for the air nozzles 353MA used at some plants for upper elevations of the boiler 353MA used at a Midwestern utility Specified since 2000 Replaced 253MA

35 Tube Shields RA353MA used in supercritical boilers Specified at one US Utility for hottest area of superheater Replaced type 309 stainless Service life of 6 years

36 Tube Shields – Paper Mill Fuel Propane – Start up Waste Oils Hog Fuel Bunker C S35315 used since year life expectancy

37 Tube Shields S35315 used in CFB boiler Protect primary superheater tubes 1616 deg F High S, High Cl coal Extensive Soot Blowing due to fouling Replaced 309 SS Still in service after 28 months.

38 Erosion 63 inch diameter 353MA cyclone Temperatures 1750 to 2192°F Refuse fired Initial unit in service for 1 year Redesigned cyclone made of 353MA

39 Erosion Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor Cyclone AEP TIDD Project

40 Erosion RA253MA Witch’s Hat Fluid Bed Boiler System

41 Municipal Utility - Wisconsin Foster Wheeler CFB Fuel Petcoke/Paper Pellets Replaced RA253MA Transfer Line Fuel feed chute Ash Drains Installed Early 2004 Selected for Abrasion/Distortion Areas

42 Relative Costs AlloyRelative CostAlloyRelative Cost RA RA 353 MA2.70 RA 253 MA1.30RA RA RA Ratios based on plate pricing during Spring 2005

43 Summary Distortion Allow for Thermal Expansion Minimize uneven heating Investigate Higher Strength Alloys H grades MA grades Nickel alloys Corrosion Oxidation/Erosion High Chromium Ce, Si, Al Additions Sulfidation Lower Nickel Chlorides Higher Nickel Moderate Chromium

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