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WEATHERING & MASS WASTING. Weathering Processes Factors Influencing Weathering Processes Physical Weathering Processes –Frost action –Crystallization.

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Presentation on theme: "WEATHERING & MASS WASTING. Weathering Processes Factors Influencing Weathering Processes Physical Weathering Processes –Frost action –Crystallization."— Presentation transcript:

1 WEATHERING & MASS WASTING

2

3 Weathering Processes Factors Influencing Weathering Processes Physical Weathering Processes –Frost action –Crystallization (salt-crystal growth) –Pressure-release jointing Chemical Weathering Processes –Hydration and hydrolysis –Oxidation –Carbonation and solution

4 Regolith, Soil, and Parent Materials Figure 10.4

5 Physical Weathering Figure 10.6

6 Joint-block Separation Figure 10.6

7 Physical Weathering in Sandstone Figure 10.8

8 Exfoliation in Granite Figure 10.9

9 Exfoliation in Granite Figure 10.9

10 Exfoliation in Granite Figure 10.9

11 Chemical Weathering Figure 10.10

12 Chemical Weathering

13 Spheroidal Weathering Figure 10.11

14 Oxidation in Rock and Soil Figure 10.12

15 Slope Mechanics and Form Figure 10.3

16 Slope Mechanics and Form Figure 10.3

17 Mass Movement Processes Mass Movement Mechanics –The role of slopes Classes of Mass Movements –Falls and avalanches –Landslide –Flow –Creep Human-Induced Mass Movements

18 Mass Movement Classes Figure 10.19

19 Soil Creep

20 Figure 10.23

21 Rockfall Figure 10.7

22 Soil Creep, California

23 Madison River Landslide Figure 10.18

24 Talus Slopes Figure 10.20

25 Debris Avalanche, Peru Figure 10.21

26 Yungay, Peru, May 31, 1970

27 Colluvium, San Bernardino Mountains, California

28 Avalanche Chute, Colorado

29 Gros Ventre Slide, Wyoming Figure 10.22

30 Figure Scarification

31 Karst and Limestone Regions Figure 10.13

32 Karst Topography Figure 10.14

33 Sinkholes Figure 10.15

34 Cavern Features Figure 10.17

35 End of Chapter 10 Elemental Geosystems 5e Robert W. Christopherson Charles E. Thomsen

36 Mystery or Soil Creep?

37 Four Years’ Mass-Wasting, Bosnia

38 100*40/2 cm 2 = 2000 cm 2 (4 years) = 500 cm 2 /year Removed from 1 km slope per year = 500 cm 2 /100,000 cm = 1 cm/200 yr = 5000 cm (50 m)/m.y. = 50m /m.y. A 1-m (100 cm) soil mantle yields 500 cm 2 /year, so movement = 500 cm 2 /year/100 cm = 5 cm/year

39 Mudflows, California

40 Urban Planning, San Diego

41 Avalanche Chute, Colorado

42 Landslide, Mount Saint Helens

43 Sherman Glacier, Alaska, March 27, 1964

44 Viaont, Italy, October 9, people died.

45 Yungay, Peru, May 31, 1970

46

47 Lituya Bay, Alaska, July 9, 1958

48 Lituya Bay, Before and After

49 The Scour Line

50 The Highest Wave Ever Recorded


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