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Effective Project Management: Traditional, Agile, Extreme Presented by (facilitator name) Managing Complexity in the Face of Uncertainty Ch01: What is.

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Presentation on theme: "Effective Project Management: Traditional, Agile, Extreme Presented by (facilitator name) Managing Complexity in the Face of Uncertainty Ch01: What is."— Presentation transcript:

1 Effective Project Management: Traditional, Agile, Extreme Presented by (facilitator name) Managing Complexity in the Face of Uncertainty Ch01: What is a Project?

2 Defining a project Defining a program Project parameters Understanding the scope triangle Applying the scope triangle Watch out for the “Creeps” Establishing the rules for classifying projects Summary of Chapter 1 Ch01: What is a Project?

3 A project is a sequence of unique, complex, and connected activities having one goal or purpose and that must be completed by a specific time, within budget, and according to specification. Defining a Project Activity A Activity C Activity B Activity D Activity E What’s missing from this definition? Ch01: What is a Project?

4 Sequence of Activities It is based on technical requirements, not on management prerogatives. Inputs and outputs: What is needed as input in order to begin working on the activity? What activities produce those deliverables as output? The output of one activity or set of activities become the input to another activity or set of activities Specifying a sequence based on resource constrains or statements such should be avoided because this established an artificial relationship between activities.

5 Unique activities A project has never happened exactly in the same way before, and it will never happen again under the same conditions. Usually the variation are random in nature: A part is delayed Someone is sick A power failure occurs These random variations are the challenge for the project manager.

6 Complex activity Example: designing an intuitive user interface to an application system

7 Connected activities There is a logical or technical relationship between pairs of activities. The output from one activity is the input to another. Example: You must design a computer program before you can program it. You could have a list of unconnected activities that must all be complete in order to complete the project. Example: painting the interior rooms of a house: the room can be painted in any order.

8 One goal Projects must have a single goal. Subprojects: Very large or complex projects can be divided into several subprojects, each of which is a project in its own right. This makes for better management control It simplifies the scheduling of resources and reduces the need for interdepartmental communications while a specific activity is worked on. The downside is that the projects are now interdependent.

9 Specified time Projects have a specified completion date. This date can be self-imposed by management or externally specified by a client or government agency. The deadline is beyond the control of anyone working on the project.

10 Within Budget Projects also have resource limits, such as a limited amount of people, money, or machines that are dedicated to the project. They are considered fixed resources by the project manager. Senior management can change the number of resources, but that luxury is not available to the project manager.

11 According to Specification The client, or the recipient of the project’s deliverables, expects a certain level of functionality and quality from the project. Any number of factors can cause the specification to change. For example, the client may not have defined the requirements completely, or the business situation may have changed.

12 A program is a collection of projects that share a common goal or purpose. Defining a Program Project A Project C Project B Project D Project E Program 1Program 2 Ch01: What is a Project?

13 What is a Program A program is a collection of related projects. Because programs comprise multiple projects, they are larger in scope than a single project. For example, the united states government has a space program that includes several projects such as the challenger project. Unlike projects, programs can have many goals.

14 Establishing Temporary Program Offices As the size of the project increases, it becomes unwieldy from a management standpoint. Example: Uses a team size of 30 as the cutoff point. Temporary program office (to manage these large projects) consists of nothing more than the management structure needed for the project (directors and administrators). When the project is completed, the program office disbands.

15 Establishing Permanent Program Offices It is established to manage an ongoing and changing portfolio of projects. The portfolio consists of projects that have something in common- for example, all might be funded from the same budget, might be linked to the same goal statement, or might use the same resource pool.

16 Scope Quality Cost Time Resource Availability Project Parameters Ch01: What is a Project?

17 Understanding the Scope Triangle Scope and Quality Time Cost Resource Availability Ch01: What is a Project? Figure 01-01

18 Understanding the Scope Triangle These constraints form an interdependent set- a change in one constraint can require a change in another constraint in order to restore the equilibrium of the project. The set of five parameters form a system that must remain in balance for the project to be in balance.

19 scope Scope is a statement that defines the boundaries of the project. It tells not only what will be done but also what will not be done. In information systems industry  functional specification. In engineering profession  statement of work. scope is the foundation for all project work to follow. project’s scope can change.

20 Quality Product quality: the quality of the deliverable from the project. The traditional tools of quality control, discussed in chapter 2, are used to ensure product quality. Process quality: the quality of the project management process itself. How well the project management process works and how can it be improved. Continuous quality improvement and process quality management are the tools used to measure process quality.

21 Quality management program A sound quality management program with processes in place that monitor the work in a project is a good investment. It helps organizations use their resources more effectively and efficiently by reducing waste and revisions.

22 Cost The budget that has been established for the project. The project manager prepares a proposal for the projected work. That proposal includes an estimate of the total cost of the project.

23 Time The client specifies a time frame or deadline date within which the project must be completed. To a certain extent, cost and time are inversely related to one another. The time a project takes to be completed can be reduced, but costs increase as a result.

24 Resources Resources are assets such as people, equipment, physical facilities, or inventory. They are central to the scheduling of project activities and the orderly completion of the project. For systems development projects, people are the major resources. Another valuable resource for systems projects is the availability of computer processing time ( mostly for testing purposes ).

25 Envisioning the Scope Triangle as a System in Balance Separate resources as defined here because they are controllable by the project manager. The project plan will have identified the time, cost, and resource availability needed to deliver the scope and quality of a project.

26 Changes throw the system out of balance- Examples The client calls with an additional requirement for a feature that was not envisioned during the planning sessions. Perhaps the market opportunities have changed, and it is necessary to reschedule the deliverables to an earlier date. a key team member leaves the company and is difficult to replace.

27 Envisioning the Scope Triangle as a System in Balance The project manager controls resource utilization and work schedules. Management controls cost and resource level. The client controls scope, quality, and delivery dates.

28 Scope Creep Hope Creep Effort Creep Feature Creep Creeps to Watch Out For Ch01: What is a Project?

29 Managing the Creeps Creeps here refer to minute changes in the project due to the obscure, and for awhile unnoticeable, actions of team members.

30 Scope Creep Scope creep is the term that has come to mean any change in the project that was not in the original plan. Market conditions are dynamic. The competition can introduce or announce an upcoming new version of its product. Scope creep isn’t necessarily anyone’s fault. It is just a reality that has to be dealt with. Your job as project manager is to figure out how these changes can be accommodated

31 Hope Creep Hope creep happens when a project team member falls behind schedule but reports that he or she is on schedule, hoping to get back on schedule by the next report date. The project manager must be able to verify the accuracy of the status reports received from the team members.

32 Effort Creep Effort creep is the result of the team member working but not making progress proportionate to the work expended. Each week the status report records progress, but the amount of work remaining doesn’t seem to decrease proportionately. Other than random checks, the only effective thing that the project manager can do is to increase the frequency of status reporting by those team members who seem to suffer from effort creep.

33 Feature Creep Feature creep results when team members arbitrarily add features and functions to the deliverable that they think the client would want to have. Even when adding a feature or function seems rather insignificant, you need to look at the possible consequences. a formal change request must be filed, and if it is approved, the project plan and all related activities will be appropriately modified.

34 Applying the Scope Triangle Ch01: What is a Project?  The Scope Triangle is a system in balance.  The lengths of the three sides exactly bound scope and quality.  Change in the variables will cause the system to be out of balance  In such cases use the scope triangle to  Build a problem escalation strategy  To structure the Project Impact Statement

35 Problem escalation strategy Problem Resolution The scope triangle enables you to ask the question, ‘‘Who owns what?’’ The answer will give you an escalation pathway from project team to resource manager to client. The client and senior management own time, budget, and resources. The project team owns how time, budget, and resources are used. Within the policies and practices of the enterprise, any of these may be moved within the project to resolve problems that have arisen.

36 Scope Change Impact Analysis This is a statement of the alternative ways of accommodating a particular scope change request of the client.

37 Project Classification To adopt a “one size fits all” approach to every project is just asking for trouble. Your approach to managing any project must adapt to the characteristics of the project. A classification rule can help you choose that approach. Ch01: What is a Project?

38 Establishing a Rule for Classifying Projects Two different rules are defined. The first is based on the characteristics of the project the second is based on the type of project.

39 Risk Business Value Duration Complexity Technology used Number of departments affected Cost Classification by Project Characteristics Ch01: What is a Project? The classification defines the extent to which a particular project management methodology is to be used.

40 Table Example Project Classes and Definitions CLASSDURATIONRISKCOMPLEXITYTECHNOLOGYLIKELIHOOD OF PROBLEMS Type A> 18 monthsHigh BreakthroughCertain Type B9-18 monthsMedium CurrentLikely Type C3-9 monthsLow Best of BreedUnlikely Type D<3 monthsVery Low PracticalNone Ch01: What is a Project?

41 Type A Project high-business-value utilize all the methods and tools available in their project management methodology. An example of a Type A project is the introduction of a new technology into an existing product that has been very profitable for the company.

42 Type B projects significant projects for the organization. All of the methods and tools in the project management process are probably required. have good business value Technologically challenging. Many product development projects fall in this category.

43 Type C projects most frequently in an organization. A typical project team consists of five people Many of the methods and tools are not required for these projects.

44 Type D projects just meet the definition of a project may require only a scope statement and a few scheduling pieces of information. Involves making a minor change in an existing process or procedure or revising a course in the training curriculum.

45 Installing software Recruiting and hiring Setting up a hardware system in a field office Soliciting, evaluating and selecting vendors Updating a corporate procedure Developing application systems Classification by Project Type Ch01: What is a Project?

46 Required and Optional Processes Project Management Process Project Classification IVIIIIII Define Conditions of SatisfactionRROO Project Overview StatementRRRR Approval of RequestRRRR Plan Conduct Planning SessionRROO Prepare Project ProposalRRRR Approval of ProposalRRRR Launch Kick-Off MeetingRROO Task ScheduleRRRR Resource AssignmentsRRRO Statements of WorkROOO Monitor/Control Status ReportingRRRR Project Team MeetingsRROO Approval of DeliverablesRRRR Close Post-implementation AuditRRRR Project NotebookRROO R = RequiredO = Optional Ch01: What is a Project? Figure 01-02

47 The value of classifying projects by type The value of classifying projects by type is that each type of project utilizes a specific subset of the entire project management methodology.


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