Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 – Selection of Plastic Materials Read up to section 10.5 What factors are important for proper plastic selection? Start with Curbell Plastic."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 10 – Selection of Plastic Materials Read up to section 10.5 What factors are important for proper plastic selection? Start with Curbell Plastic Catalog!
What factors are important for proper plastic selection? Operating temperature –Stay away from Tm (s/c) –Tg all over the map Mechanical Stress –Ultimate strength and stress rupture Creep Stress Relaxation Stiffness (modulus) Fracture toughness Impact Environmental exposure Dimensional stability Fatigue –Repeated loading Flammability
What factors are important for proper plastic selection? Wear Chemical exposure Cosmetics (color) Aging Product Design!! Secondary: –Thermal conductivity –Electrical conductivity –Transparency –Surface finish –Manufacturing process
Why is designing with plastic more complicated than metal? Highly non-linear materials! –Stress-strain curves –Sensitivity to temperature, frequency, strain, aging, etc. –Anisotropic! So many players (trade names) Lack of published data Too many materials to choose from! Too many properties to worry about! Impact of design and manufacturing method!
Plastic vs. Metals: 1.Higher thermal expansion – nearly 10X that of steel. 2.Unfilled polymers = 30 times less stiff 3.Filled polymers (i.e. 40% gf Nylon) = 4 to 5 times less stiff 4.More flammable 5.Deteriorate (degrade) more readily with aging (can improve with antioxidants) 6.Electrical/thermal insulators 7.Much softer 8.Can not be shaped by cold forming processes
Plastic vs. Metals: 10.Required tolerances greater than metals 11.Warping issues (heat, aging and moisture) 12.Lower mechanical properties (strength, impact strength, etc.) 13.Absorb moisture unlike steels 14.Creep (or stress relax) more than steel 15.Aging issues to deal with!
Potential Benefits over Metal: Lower cost! –Material cheap (most), can inject complicated parts! Case study: 1950 Ford Don’t need to be painted Better corrosion resistance Easily made cosmetically pleasant! Aluminum toothbrush??? Lighter
Amorphous vs Crystalline Impact resistance – both ways but as a general rule S/C are more brittle than amorphous. Weather Resistance – amorphous polymers slightly better.
Material Types Amorphous Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) General Purpose Polystyrene (GPPS) Polycarbonate (PC) Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA or Acrylic) Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS – a terpolymer)
polymers – stay below Tm!! Allowable operating Temp? Depends on Tm and Tg:
Polymer Creep and Temperature Effects Creep (viscoelastic flow) = change in strain as a function of time usually under constant load and temperature:
Polymer Creep and Temperature Effects Stress Relaxation = change in stress as a function of time usually under constant deformation (strain) and temperature: What other components might see stress relaxation?
Factors that effect creep/stress relaxation (see T 10-5): Polymer structure: amorphous or crystalline (amorphous usually better) Fillers or reinforcements (better with glass filler up to a point) Temperature – stay below Tg by at least 50C for amorphous polymers Stress level Environment (moisture, humidity, chemicals) – avoid swell due to moisture!
How to measure Creep: ASTM D2990: Creep Modulus = Ec = i/ i
Stress Rupture and Environmental Cracking Can happen even at low stress levels (<
Stress Rupture and Environmental Cracking Very unique to polymers – all polymers susceptable to failure via stress rupture. Accounts for 30 – 40% of all plastic part failures. Can be greatly influenced by temperature, environment (chemical exposure) and of course stress!
Design for Stress Rupture and Environmental Cracking Reduce stress to value below Rupture Stress (Table 7.7) or design to 1/10 to 1/6 of Su. Anneal parts to relieve residual stresses (Table 7.9) Use fiber reinforcement or select alternate polymer Use metallic component instead! Knit lines should be parallel to tensile stress field. Avoid Kt Run tests on material or your part!
Impact Strength Issue for parts that see impact loading. Examples?? Impact Toughness measured with Izod test (energy per thickness) or Gardner test (burst strength).
How to design for Impact?? – see Table 10-8 Design –Minimize Kt –Watch part thickness –Design parts that flex Usage –Rate of Loading –Environment Processing –Residual stress, molding lines –Consider annealing Material –Use PVC, PC, UHMWPE, ABS, etc. –Impact modifiers –Fillers
Fatigue Failure Can be an issue with repeated dynamic loading – plastics may or may not have an endurance limit). Frequency can be an issue due to excessive heat build up. Design to below the fatigue strength (or endurance limit) if possible.
Figure 10-10: Fatigue Curves for Various Plastics
Dimensional Stability Check your design! –Consider high temperature and calculate dimensional changes using coef of thermal exp. –Look at moisture absorption rate (Table 7-6) and calculate dimensional change. –Redesign if above present problems!
Flammability Related to composition of polymer higher hydrogen to carbon ratio higher the combustion! Consider self extinguishing polymers. Look at limiting oxygen index – want polymer greater than 21% (air). Example PTFE = 90% (Table 10-10). Run tests Consider anti-flammability additivies
Approximate stiffness of most materials
10.3 Wear and Friction in Plastics Remember wear/friction is a “system effect”!! Consider adding lubricant: PTFE, silicone oil, graphite Consider reinforcement: carbon or glass fiber (Figure 10.16) Consider material (Figure 10.15)
Figure – abrasion wear of various plastics
Figure – Effect of filler on wear
Figure – Wear Test
4 Main Types of Wear: 1.Adhesive Wear – Due to adhesion between surfaces: sesimic sliding system W = k x (sliding distance) x (load) Specific wear rate Archard Equation
4 Main Types of Wear: 2.Abrasive Wear – hard surface imposed on softer surface (i.e. think file) – hand tool sliding across a concrete floor W = k x (sliding distance) x (load) 3 (tan a) Specific wear rate Inclined angle of imposed tip of abrasive particle Note: Many system can be combination of Adhesive and Abrasive Wear!!
4 Main Types of Wear: 3.Erosion – wear produced by interaction of fluid. An issue for PVC pipes, etc.
4 Main Types of Wear: 4.Surface Fatigue – Wear due to repeated compressive stress (i.e. gear teeth). W (constant)/ (max stress) 9
10.4 Corrosion (Environment) Control Plastics in seawater? Better than steels, But…. –Permeation – liquids can move through –Dissolution – chemicals dissolve polymer chain – be careful! –Absorption – can absorb water or chemicals which weaken or soften polymer AND cause dimensional changes due to swell.
10.4 Corrosion (Environment) Control –Environmental Stress Cracking. Chemical attack + mechanical stress = premature cracking –Physical aging – certain polymers susectable to certain degradation modes – See Table ! –Chemical attack – See table 10-14! Difficulty – predict long term behavior with short term testing in chemicals – reference InSinkErator coupler.