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Island Hopping Less Fun Than It Sounds. Battle of Midway (June 1942) Naval Battle: US lost 1 aircraft carrier, Japan lost 4 aircraft carriers.

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Presentation on theme: "Island Hopping Less Fun Than It Sounds. Battle of Midway (June 1942) Naval Battle: US lost 1 aircraft carrier, Japan lost 4 aircraft carriers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Island Hopping Less Fun Than It Sounds

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3 Battle of Midway (June 1942) Naval Battle: US lost 1 aircraft carrier, Japan lost 4 aircraft carriers

4 Battle of Iwo Jima (Feb. 1945) 70,000 Marines sent to invade the island Vs. 22,000 Japanese soldiers Results: US wins (takes a month) About 7,000 US dead About 20,000 US wounded Only 212 Japanese soldiers taken prisoner Island was 4.5 Miles x 2.5 Miles

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6 Battle for Okinawa (April 1945) 180,000 US troops Vs. 120,000 Japanese troops Results: US wins About 12,000 US dead About 38,000 US wounded 36 US warships destroyed About 110,000 Japanese soldiers dead 50, ,000 Japanese civilians dead 60 Miles x 2-18 Miles

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8 The Firebombing of Japan “[We] were behaving as war criminals.” – Robert McNamara

9 Firebombing 67 Japanese cities were firebombed by the United States during WWII Firebombs utilize napalm – a jellied gasoline – Bombs explode, fired spreads, burns everything indiscriminately As many as 500,000 Japanese killed (mostly civilians), and as many as 5 million left homeless

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14 Name of Japanese City Firebombed Percentage of City Destroyed Equivalent American City Yokohama58Cleveland Tokyo51New York City Toyama99Chattanooga Nagoya40Los Angeles Osaka35.1Chicago Nishinomiya11.9Cambridge Siumonoseki37.6San Diego Kure41.9Toledo Kobe55.7Baltimore Omuta35.8Miami

15 Name of Japanese City Firebombed Percentage of City Destroyed Equivalent American City Wakayama50Salt Lake City Kawasaki36.2Portland Okayama68.9Long Beach Yawata21.2San Antonio Kagoshima63.4Richmond Amagasaki18.9Jacksonville Sasebo41.4Nashville Moh23.3Spokane Miyakonoio26.5Greensboro Nobeoka25.2Augusta

16 Name of Japanese City Firebombed Percentage of City Destroyed Equivalent American City Miyazaki26.1Davenport Hbe20.7Utica Saga44.2Waterloo Imabari63.9Stockton Matsuyama64Duluth Fukui86Evansville Tokushima85.2Ft. Wayne Sakai48.2Forth Worth Hachioji65Galveston Kumamoto31.2Grand Rapids

17 Name of Japanese City Firebombed Percentage of City Destroyed Equivalent American City Isezaki56.7Sioux Falls Takamatsu67.5Knoxville Akashi50.2Lexington Fukuyama80.9Macon Aomori30Montgomery Okazaki32.2Lincoln Oita28.2Saint Joseph Hiratsuka48.4Battle Creek Tokuyama48.3Butte Yokkichi33.6Charlotte

18 Name of Japanese City Firebombed Percentage of City Destroyed Equivalent American City Uhyamada41.3Columbus Ogaki39.5Corpus Christi Gifu63.6Des Moines Shizuoka66.1Oklahoma City Himeji49.4Peoria Fukuoka24.1Rochester Kochi55.2Sacramento Shimizu42San Jose Omura33.1Sante Fe Chiba41Savannah

19 Name of Japanese City Firebombed Percentage of City Destroyed Equivalent American City Ichinomiya56.3Sprinfield Nara69.3Boston Tsu69.3Topeka Kuwana75Tucson Toyohashi61.9Tulsa Numazu42.3Waco Chosi44.2Wheeling Kofu78.6South Bend Utsunomiya43.7Sioux City Mito68.9Pontiac

20 Name of Japanese City Firebombed Percentage of City Destroyed Equivalent American City Sendai21.9Omaha Tsuruga65.1Middleton Nagaoka64.9Madison Hitachi72Little Rock Kumagaya55.1Kenosha Hamamatsu60.3Hartford Maebashi64.2Wheeling

21 The Fog of War Robert McNamara discussing the firebombing of Japan – “[General Curtis LeMay said that] if we'd lost the war, we'd all have been prosecuted as war criminals …. And I think he's right. …He, and I'd say, I, were behaving as war criminals. …LeMay recognized that what he was doing would be thought immoral if his side had lost. But what makes it immoral if you lose and not immoral if you win?”

22 Potsdam Declaration “The alternative for Japan is prompt and utter destruction”

23 Potsdam Declaration Proclamation Defining the Terms for the Japanese Surrender – July 26, 1945 Developed at the Potsdam Conference – U.S., Britain, and U.S.S.R participated in the conference; held in Germany – Decisions were made as to how the Allies would deal with the Axis powers after Allied victory

24 Potsdam Declaration and Japan Elimination of Japanese authorities who led Japan to world conquest Parts of Japanese territory are to be occupied; Allies get to pick which parts Japanese sovereignty is limited to the 4 main islands and a few other tiny ones

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28 Potsdam Declaration and Japan Elimination of Japanese authorities who led Japan to world conquest Parts of Japanese territory are to be occupied; Allies get to pick which parts Japanese sovereignty is limited to the 4 main islands and a few other tiny ones Japanese military will be completely disarmed All (Japanese) war criminals will receive “stern justice”

29 Potsdam Declaration and Japan Japan will not be enslaved or destroyed as a nation Freedom of speech, religion, and thought, along with fundamental human rights, shall be established Japan will have access to—but not control of— resources that they need to rebuild and sustain their economy, and will be free to maintain industries as long as they are not re-arming Allies occupying forces will be withdrawn as soon as all of these objectives are met and Japan has established a peaceful, responsible government

30 Potsdam Declaration and Japan "We call upon the government of Japan to proclaim now the unconditional surrender of all Japanese armed forces, and to provide proper and adequate assurances of their good faith in such action. The alternative for Japan is prompt and utter destruction.”

31 Potsdam Declaration and Japan Despite a growing number of Japanese leaders who wanted to negotiate for peace, Japan’s military leadership was unwilling to accept the terms of the Potsdam Declaration. However, it is known that Japan’s Foreign Minister, Shigenori Togo, sent a message to Russia stating: “Unconditional surrender is the only obstacle to peace….”

32 So then, why this?


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