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Teachers Talk, Students Talk Produced by: Maisara Mohd Mahadi Maisara Mohd Mahadi Lim Pei Gen Nithya Manbir Kaur Educational Psychology.

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Presentation on theme: "Teachers Talk, Students Talk Produced by: Maisara Mohd Mahadi Maisara Mohd Mahadi Lim Pei Gen Nithya Manbir Kaur Educational Psychology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Teachers Talk, Students Talk Produced by: Maisara Mohd Mahadi Maisara Mohd Mahadi Lim Pei Gen Nithya Manbir Kaur Educational Psychology

2 Too much learning from textbook Sees no relevance in learning a certain subject Sees teachers as the only source of motivation Difficulty storing information in memory Struggling to understand Math concepts Teachers assessment only at the end of lesson

3 I’m 12 years old and am going to take PSLE this year My teacher is boring My teacher asks to memorize facts from textbooks I want Science experiments and watch videos My classmates have better teachers and I am not happy! I’m having a hard time remembering Science concepts I love looking at charts and graphs

4 Fleming and Mills’ (1992) VARK Model of Learning V: Visual – Prefer maps, flow charts, graphs, etc A: Auditory/ Aural – Prefer information that is “heard/ spoken” R: Read/ Write – Prefer information in words K: Kinesthetic – Prefer hands-on experience (connected to reality) Learners construct knowledge in the process of developing an understanding of their experiences, rather than recording information in their memories in the exact form in which it is presented. Thus it is important to identify students’ learning style. Different Styles of Learning

5 Beng Kwee’s Learning Profile Beng Kwee is a visual and kinesthetic learner. He learns best at finding practical uses for Science concepts and theories. He prefers practical applications and “hands-on” activities as opposed to simply listen, observe and learn. He prefers practical applications and “hands-on” activities as opposed to simply listen, observe and learn.

6 Issue #1 Mr Lim gives too much information from the textbook through verbal explanations and the lessons lack hands-on interaction

7 Solution #1 Cognitive Learning Theories Use Science 3-D models, science experiments, interactive websites, flow charts and illustrative powerpoints Will impact visual and kinesthetic learners like Beng Kwee Attention is where learning begins Mr. Lim should find ways to attract and retain his attention by using flow-charts, attractive illustrations and 3-D models as effective attention-getters

8 Social Constructivist Theories Emphasizes the importance of connecting topics to real- world context Authentic activities Learning is more meaningful Beng Kwee will better understand how elements, compounds and mixtures work in real-life context

9 Social Cognitive Theories Albert Bandura People learn by observing others (McLeod, 2011) Mr. Lim should model genuine interest in teaching Science

10 Issue #2 Beng Kwee does not see the utility value in learning Science concepts

11 Solution #2 Piaget’s Theory Piaget: Design learning experiences as developmental bridges to more advance stages of development. Engaging prior knowledge Get his students to write down what they know about a topic (K), what they would like to find out (W) and at the end of lesson what they have learned (L).

12 Piaget’s Theory Piaget: Provide concrete experiences and help students link the concrete representation to abstract idea Mr Lim should have let the students do active exploration with materials – Science experiments, hands-on activities, visual aids Help Beng Kwee relate to real world context and see and relevance of learning “Mixtures & Compounds”

13 Issue #3 Beng Kwee sees his teachers as the only extrinsic source of motivation. "If only they were my teachers, then maybe I will do better for my PSLE".

14 Solution #3 Cognitive Evaluation Theory Mr Lim needs to sustain Beng Kwee’s motivation to learn Make students realise that teachers are not the only extrinsic source of motivation Reward system: Using rewards to communicate increased competence can increase Beng Kwee’s motivation to learn and beliefs about his capabilities. Reward system: Using rewards to communicate increased competence can increase Beng Kwee’s motivation to learn and beliefs about his capabilities.

15 Issue #4 Beng Kwee has difficulty storing information. He "can’t answer his questions most of the time" and he "can’t remember what he said in the first place".

16 Solution #4 Vygotsky’s Theory Language through questioning Social interaction: Collaborative work

17 Information Processing Theory

18 Model of STM Central Executive: controls the flow of information to and from the other components Phonological loop: short-term storage system for words and sounds and it retains information through maintenance rehearsal - the process of repeating information over and over, either out loud or silently, without altering its form (R. Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). Visual-sketchpad: short-term storage system for visual and spatial information

19 Reduce limitations to STM Chunking: grouping information – Mr. Lim should group information Distributed Processing: 1) using the phonological loop: repetition and emphasis on key concepts 2) visual-sketchpad to reduce cognitive load - use interesting visuals like concept maps, organizational charts and illustrative powerpoints

20 Long-Term Memory Declarative knowledge: Knowledge of facts, definitions, procedures and rules 1) Semantic memory: Memory for concepts, principles and the relationships among them 2) Episodic memory: Memory for personal experiences Procedural knowledge: Knowledge of how to perform tasks. Knowledge is about knowing “how”. Conditional knowledge: Knowledge of “where” and “when” to use declarative and procedural knowledge

21 Phone call from Desmond

22 Issue #5 Desmond is struggling to grasp Mathematical concepts as his Math teacher gives formulae and expects the students to solve Math problems.

23 Solution #5 Vygotsky’s Theories Culture: illustrated by concrete examples, e.g. brochures and advertisements on electronic gadgets to teach percentage Peer interaction: group work – where less competent students get help from better ones Scaffolding: step-by-step guidance More Knowledgeable Other & Zone of Proximal Development

24 Issue #6 The teacher only assesses Desmond and his classmates at the end of the lesson.

25 Solution #6 Constructivist Learning Theory John Dewey Importance of questioning and feedback – two-way interaction Ask appropriate questions at different parts of the lesson: When the teacher asks Desmond at whichever point he thinks important, he will be able to check whether his understanding is incomplete or inaccurate. Then, he can provide feedback on Desmond's understand thus making his learning a more meaningful one.

26 References Brophy, J. (2004). Motivating students to learn (2 nd ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill Byrnes, J.P. (2001a). Cognitive development and learning in instructional contexts (2 nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Covington.M. (2000). Intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation in schools: A reconciliation, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9, Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self- determination in human behaviour. New York: Plenum. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11,

27 References Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, Deci, E. L., Koestner, R. & Richard M. R. (2001). Extrinsic Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation in Education: Reconsidered Once Again. Review of Educational Research, 71. Retrieved from df Eggen, P., Kauchak, D. (2010). Eighth Edition Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms. New Jersey, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Gehlbach, H., & Roseser, R. (2002). The middle way to motivating middle school students: Avoiding false dichotomies. Middle School Journal, 33, Glassman, M. (2001). Dewey and Vygotsky: Society, experience, and inquiry in educational practice. Educational Researcher, 30(4), 3-14.

28 References Glassman, M. & Wany, Y. (2004). On the interconnected nature of interpreting Vygotsky: Rejoinder to Gredler and Shields Does no one read Vygotsky’s words. Educational Researcher, 33(6), Gredler, M. & Shields, C. (2004). Does no one read Vygotsky’s words? Commentary on Glassman. Educational Researcher, 33(2), Huitt, W. (2003). The information processing approach to cognition. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved on October, 13, 2011 from ml Herrick, M. J. (1996). Assessment of Student Achievement And Learning, What Would Dewey Say? A ’Recent’ Interview With John Dewey. Journal of Vocational and Technical Education, 13 (1). Retrieved from

29 References Lepper, M., & Henderlong, J. (2000). Turning “play” into work and “work” into play. In C. Sansone & J. Harackiewicz (Eds.), Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: The search for optimal motivation and performance (pp ). San Diego: Academic Press. McLeod, S. (2011). Bandura – Social Learning Theory. Retrieved October, 18, 2011 from Puntambekar, S., & Hubscher, R. (2005). Tools for scaffolding students in a complex learning environment: What have we gained and what have we missed? Educational Psychologist, 40(1), Rogoff, B. (2003). The cultural context of human development. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

30 References Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes (M.Cole, V. John Stener,S.Scribner, & E. Souberman, Eds. & Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Havard University Press. Vygotsky, L. (1986). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Winsler, A. & Naglieri, J. (2003). Overt and covert verbal problem- solving strategies: Developmental trends in use, awareness, and relations with task performance in children aged 5 to 17. Child Development, 74, Wood, D., Bruner, J., & Ross, S. (1976). The role tutoring in problem solving. British Journal of Psychology, 66,

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